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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150969, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656600

RESUMO

Because of their highly persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have become emerging contaminants and have been included in Annex A (elimination) of the Stockholm Convention since 2017. The contamination of SCCPs has been observed in the environment and biota worldwide but has not been detected in Taiwanese river ecosystems. Thus, this study aimed to determine the occurrence of SCCPs in sediments and fish from 30 major rivers in Taiwan and to evaluate the risk of SCCPs to river ecosystems and human health. The concentrations of SCCPs in sediments and fish ranged from ND (not detected) to 12.6 mg/kg dw and ND to 2.07 mg/kg ww, respectively. The concentrations of SCCPs in sediments were significantly correlated with some indicators of the discharge sources and water quality variables, indicating that SCCPs were released via human activities and various discharges into rivers and accumulated in sediments. The bioaccumulation of SCCPs in fish exhibited species-specific profiles and was related to environmental contamination levels and the living pattern and trophic level of the fish. The SCCP levels in sediments from 20 major rivers in Taiwan might pose a potential ecological risk to river ecosystems according to the criteria of the Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines in Canada, the biota-sediment accumulation factor and the risk quotient. Consumption of SCCP-contaminated river fish by different gender and age groups showed no significant health risk to residents in Taiwan evaluated by the estimated daily intake and hazard quotient. However, there was a health concern for the 0- to 3-year-old group due to the consumption of contaminated river fish at a bioaccessibility of 100% for SCCPs by the margin of exposure. Routine monitoring of SCCPs in river ecosystems is needed to protect aquatic organisms and human health.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , Animais , Pré-Escolar , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Parafina/análise , Medição de Risco , Taiwan
2.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132372, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592207

RESUMO

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures, which consist of thousands of individual compounds with no dominant representative. Consequently, knowledge on structure and environmental relevance of individual CP congeners is poor. Similarly to the synthesis of individual CPs, the generation of less complex CP mixtures that can be thoroughly analyzed may be used to overcome some drawbacks of the highly complex technical CP mixtures. Here, we present a new synthesis approach to generate such simple CP mixtures by decarboxylation of polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by saturation of the double bonds by chlorination. Specifically, α-linolenic acid (18:3Δ9,12,15) was decarboxylated to heptadecatriene. The resulting raw product was chlorinated with SO2Cl2. Purification by column chromatography led to a main fraction consisting of four major peaks originating from hexachloroheptadecane (C17H30Cl6) isomers (∼80% of the total peak area) along with ∼20 low abundant by-products, according to gas chromatography with electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry. In the same way, decarboxylation and subsequent chlorination of other polyunsaturated fatty acids may lead to further simple CP mixtures with other chain lengths. Although these simple CP mixtures cannot fully reflect the various structural features present in technical mixtures they could be beneficial for transformation studies because changes in the CP pattern can easily be noted which is in contrast to technical CP mixtures. Such simple CP mixtures could also be used in toxicity tests which are difficult to perform with technical CP mixtures because of their high complexity.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Parafina/análise
3.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118298, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626702

RESUMO

There are large knowledge gaps concerning environmental levels and fate of many organic pollutants, particularly for chemicals of emerging concern in tropical regions of the Global South. In this study, we investigated the levels of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) and dechloranes in air and soil in rural, suburban, and urban regions in and around Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Samples were also collected near the city's main municipal waste dumpsite and an electronic waste (e-waste) handling facility. In passive air samples, short chain CPs (SCCPs) dominated, with an average estimated concentration of 22 ng/m3, while medium chain CPs (MCCPs) had an average estimated concentration of 9 ng/m3. The average estimated air concentration of ∑dechloranes (Dechlorane Plus (DP) + Dechlorane 602 + Dechlorane 603) was three to four orders of magnitudes lower, 2 pg/m3. In soil samples, MCCPs dominated with an average concentration of 640 ng/g dw, followed by SCCPs with an average concentration of 330 ng/g dw, and ∑dechloranes with an average concentration of 0.9 ng/g dw. In both air and soil, DP was the dominating dechlorane compound. Urban pulses were observed for CPs and dechloranes in air and soil. CPs were in addition found in elevated levels at the municipal waste dumpsite and the e-waste handling facility, while DPs were found in elevated levels at the e-waste handling facility. This suggests that waste handling sites represent important emission sources for these pollutants. Investigations into seasonal trends and environmental fate of CPs and dechloranes showed that monsoonal rain patterns play a major role in governing air concentrations and mobility, particularly for the less volatile MCCPs and dechloranes. This study is the first to report levels of CPs in air from sub-Saharan Africa, and DP, Dechlorane 602, and Dechlorane 603 in soil from sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise , Solo , Tanzânia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150137, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788941

RESUMO

In this study, eggs of black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), a top trophic level predator of marine ecosystem were, for the first time, monitored to assess the temporal and spatial trends of emerging pollutants in South Korea. Two Island regions, namely, Baekryeong-do (Site A) and Hong-do (Site B) were investigated from 2012 to 2018, and the total levels of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), medium chain CPs (MCCPs), and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) for both Site A and B were 1180-2931 and 694-2023 ng/g lipid weight (lw), 1287-4898 and 1034-3075 ng/g lw, and 203-499 and 233-409 ng/g lw, respectively. The time-trends of the concentration of pollutants showed an increasing tendency from 2012 to 2018, with the levels predicted to be doubled within three years, following the results of regression analysis. A shift in temporal-trends from shorter to longer chain CPs was noted, suggesting the effect of industrial-related contamination. Especially, significantly high levels of CPs and OPFRs were found in the site adjacent to China, which is reasonable as China is the largest producer and consumer of FRs and plasticizers worldwide. This study is valuable to understand the temporal increment of emerging pollutants as the alternatives of phased-out FRs and plasticizers, while raising the need for continuous environmental management.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Organofosfatos , Parafina/análise
5.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111980, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474033

RESUMO

The ubiquitous presence of legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environmental matrices poses a potential hazard to the humans and creating public health concerns. The present study aimed to evaluate dioxins, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and chlorinated paraffins (CPs) concentrations in serum of women (postpartum, pregnant and non-pregnant) from Northern Norway to better understand their exposure and contamination status as well as temporal trends across 2007-2009 (MISA 1) to 2019 (MISA 2). Sixty-two blood samples from the MISA 1 cohort and 38 samples from MISA 2 were randomly selected in this study (n = 100). Ninety samples from postpartum (MISA 1) and pregnant women (MISA 2) were randomly combined into 9 pools, with 9-11 individual samples contributing to each pool keeping the groups of pregnant and postpartum women. Remaining 10 samples from non-pregnant women (MISA 2) were allocated into separate group. Geometric mean, minimum and maximum were used to describe the serum concentrations of pooled POPs in MISA cohort. Mann-Whitney U test and independent sample t-test were applied for trend analysis of blood levels of POPs between MISA 1 and MISA 2. We found the serum concentrations of selected POPs in this study to be at lower range. Serum concentrations of dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) (p = 0.010), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (p = 0.002), dioxins-like PCBs (p = 0.001), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (p < 0.001) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) (p = 0.002) were decreased between the studied time. In contrast, the serum concentrations of medium chain chlorinated paraffins showed an increasing trend between 2007 and 2009 and 2019 (p = 0.019). Our findings report a particular concern of emerging contaminant medium chain chlorinated paraffin exposure to humans. Future observational studies with repeated measurements of chlorinated paraffins in general populations worldwide and large sample size are warranted.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Estudos de Coortes , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Dioxinas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez
6.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132344, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826954

RESUMO

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are chemicals with multipurpose applications. Their global production has increased despite their adverse impacts on the environment and human health. In 2017, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Yet, specific exemptions were granted for their applications despite the recycling prohibition for products containing SCCPs. Therefore, we aimed to produce the first Brazilian inventory of SCCPs following its respective guidance to evaluate the applicability of the SCCP inventory guidance and to provide technical insights regarding SCCPs in the update of the Brazilian National Implementation Plan (NIP). Moreover, we performed a review of SCCP occurrence in Brazil to fulfil data gaps in the inventory development. We identified and consulted nationwide stakeholders and assessed foreign trade data of CPs and products that might contain CPs in relevant amounts. The Brazilian production of CPs was discontinued in 1994. However, CPs are still imported and used in the country. CPs have been mostly applied as plasticizers, flame retardants and lubricants in Brazil. The import of products containing CPs also pose a significant route of CP entrance into Brazil. Thus, the current end-of-life management of CP-containing products is a bottleneck towards the Convention implementation. The guidance application was feasible and useful despite the low engagement of stakeholders. To assess foreign trade of CPs and CP-containing products, we recommend the use of more specific tracking codes. Besides, the review of SCCP occurrence is not a demanded part for an inventory but was a useful complementation.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , Brasil , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise
7.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131878, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416588

RESUMO

The determination of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) has posed an intractable challenge in analytical chemistry for over three decades. The combination of an as yet unspecifiable number (tens - hundreds of thousands) of individual congeners in mass produced commercial CP mixtures and the steric interactions between them, contrive to defy efforts to characterise their residual occurrences in environmental compartments, food and human tissues. However, recent advances in instrumentation (mass spectrometric detectors and nuclear magnetic resonance), combined with interlaboratory studies, have allowed a better insight into the nature of the conundrums. These include the variability of results, even between experienced laboratories when there is insufficient matching between analytical standards and occurrence profiles, the poor (or no) response of some instrumentation to some CP congener configurations (multiple terminal chlorines or < four chlorines) and the occurrence of chlorinated olefins in commercial mixtures. The findings illustrate some limitations in the existing set of commercially available standards. These include cross-contamination of some standards (complex CP mixtures), an insufficient number of single chain standards (existing ones do not fully reflect food/biota occurrences), lack of homologue group standards and unsuitability of some configurationally defined CP congeners/labelled standards (poor instrument response and a smaller likelihood of occurrence in commercial mixtures). They also indicate an underestimation in reported occurrences arising from those CPs that are unresponsive during measurement. A more extensive set of standards is suggested and while this might not be a panacea for accurate CP determination, it would reduce the layers of complexity inherent in the analysis.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , China , Cloro , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Parafina/análise
8.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132201, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509757

RESUMO

Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under regulation through the European Water Framework Directive and were recently classified as POPs. Consecutively, the increasing use of middle-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) becomes of growing concern. Knowledge on the occurrence of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) is still scarce particularly in water phase. To achieve sufficient method sensitivity, the passive sampling approach, acting as a relevant alternative to usual grab sampling, has been considered only very recently for the monitoring of CPs in water. The present work aimed at determining the diffusion coefficients in silicone (Ds) and the silicone-water partition coefficients (Ksw) of various CP groups, having different chlorine contents and carbon chain lengths, in four commercial CP mixtures. Log Ds (-10.78 to -10.21) was found to vary little and to be high for the groups of CPs studied. Thus, their uptake in silicone is controlled by the water boundary layer, which allows to consider the release of performance and reference compounds for in-field estimation of the sampling rate. Moreover, CPs partitioned strongly towards silicone rubbers. Both the chlorination degree and the carbon chain length of CPs cause large uncertainties in the partitioning between silicone and water (log Ksw between 4.85 and 6.30), indicating that instead of an average value, differentiated Ksw should be used to estimate aqueous CPs more accurately. Even so, the probable influence of chlorine atoms position on polarity and partitioning may be an argument for favoring sampling in the kinetic stage.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise , Silicones , Água
9.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132032, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523451

RESUMO

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high production volume chemicals currently produced and used in higher quantities than any other medium-size polyhalogenated compound (class). In addition, the composition of industrial CP mixtures is highly complex and poorly understood. In this article, we searched in the literature for the beginning of the chlorination of alkanes and how this substance class developed from niche applications to unmatched quantities in various industrial applications. Also, an estimation was made on the theoretical variety of chloroparaffins and the possible complexity of industrial CP mixtures. These data may explain why little is known about CPs although the production volume throughout the industrial generation was virtually always higher than the one of PCBs and has continued to increase after the ban of the latter.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Bifenilos Policlorados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Halogenação , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0252806, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499645

RESUMO

Beeswax is intended for use in the beekeeping sector but also in the agro-food, pharmaceutical or cosmetics sectors. The adulteration of beeswax is an emerging issue that was reported lately at several occasions in the scientific literature. This issue tends to become more frequent and global, but its exact extent is not accurately defined. The present study aims to assess the current situation in Belgium through a nationwide survey. Randomized beeswax samples originating from Belgian beekeepers (N = 98) and commercial suppliers (N = 9) were analysed with a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) accessory (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy) for adulteration. The survey revealed a frequency of 9.2% and 33.3% of adulteration in beekeepers beeswax samples (9 samples out of 98: 2 with paraffin and 7 with stearin/stearic acid) and commercial beeswax samples (3 samples out of 9: all adulterated with stearin/stearic acid), respectively. The analysed samples were adulterated with various percentages of paraffin (12 to 78.8%) and stearin/stearic acid (1.2 to 20.8%). This survey indicates that in the beekeepers samples, beeswax adulteration was more frequent in comb foundation and crude beeswax than in comb wax. With the example of this nationwide survey conducted in Belgium, this study shows the emergence of the issue and the urgent need for action to safeguard the health of both honey bees health and humans, in particular with the setting of a proper regulation legal framework and a specific routine analytical testing of commercial beeswax to ensure beeswax quality.


Assuntos
Abelhas/metabolismo , Ceras/análise , Animais , Bélgica , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Parafina/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Ácidos Esteáricos/química
11.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118236, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582924

RESUMO

This study reports on concentrations of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs, respectively) in a wide range of food samples (n = 211) purchased in Belgium during 2020. Samples were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified using chlorine content calibration. ∑SCCPs were present above LOQ in 25% of samples with an overall range of

Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , Animais , Bélgica , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise , Verduras
12.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118060, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479159

RESUMO

As replacements for "old" organohalides, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), "new" organohalides have been developed, including decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), and perfluorobutyrate (PFBA). In the past decade, these emerging organohalides (EOHs) have been extensively produced as industrial and consumer products, resulting in their widespread environmental distribution. This review comprehensively summarizes the environmental occurrence and remediation methods for typical EOHs. Based on the data collected from 2015 to 2021, these EOHs are widespread in both abiotic (e.g., dust, air, soil, sediment, and water) and biotic (e.g., bird, fish, and human serum) matrices. A significant positive correlation was found between the estimated annual production amounts of EOHs and their environmental contamination levels, suggesting the prohibition of both production and usage of EOHs as a critical pollution-source control strategy. The strengths and weaknesses, as well as the future prospects of up-to-date remediation techniques, such as photodegradation, chemical oxidation, and biodegradation, are critically discussed. Of these remediation techniques, microbial reductive dehalogenation represents a promising in situ remediation method for removal of EOHs, such as perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs).


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Parafina/análise
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125758, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492777

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated chemical additives present in new and used spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) and assessed the dermal transfer through direct contact. This first study shows that cured do-it-yourself spray one-component SPFs (OCFs) often contain chlorinated paraffins (C14-C37), and tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), ranging 0.2-50%, and 0.9-30% w/w, respectively. Six OCFs contained CP levels ranging 22-50% w/w, whereas nine OCFs used for similar applications only contained CP levels ranging 2-17% w/w. It is unclear if the combination CPs/TCIPP is meant to improve the flame retardancy of products, and could suggest an unnecessary use of high CPs/TCIPP concentrations in OCFs. The two-component SPFs (TCFs) contained only TCIPP with levels ranging from 7.0% to 9.0%. The CPs and TCIPP were easily transferred from cured OCFs to the hands. Levels up to 590 µg per hand for CPs and up to 2.7 µg per hand for TCIPP were found. After end-of-life, it is challenging to recycle used SPFs. They may, therefore, end up at landfills where the TCIPP/CPs may leach into the environment. Therefore, further investigation is needed to assess potential exposure risks associated with general and occupational use, and the impact of landfill leaching on the environment.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Poliuretanos , Parafina , Fosfatos
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126178, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492952

RESUMO

The widespread occurrence of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in environmental matrices has resulted in a high frequency exposure to CPs via dermal contact. To quantitatively estimate percutaneous penetration of CPs, Episkin® human skin equivalents (HSE) was applied as an in vitro model to evaluate the mechanism of percutaneous penetration of CPs. The co-exposure of CPs mixtures to HSE showed that about 11.7% and 10.2% of short-chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium-chain CPs (MCCPs) could penetrate the HSE and enter the receptor fluid, while no long-chain CPs (LCCPs) (C>17) were able to penetrate the HSE during the 36-h assay period. The experimentally obtained permeability coefficient (Kp) values for CPs were significantly (p < 0.01) negatively correlated with their log octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow). Furthermore, 24 participants were recruited to assess direct human dermal exposure to CPs in China with the total CPs collected onto hand wipes and forehead wipes being 96,600 and 30,400 ng/person, respectively. The proportion of total SCCPs and MCCPs intake via dermal penetration (skin area investigated in this study) accounting for 2.0% of the total intake of CPs. Considering the total skin surface of human body is around 20 times of the area studied, the total intake of CPs through dermal penetration could be a significant exposure pathway.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Água
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149775, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467914

RESUMO

Data on long-chain chlorinated paraffins (LCCPs) is extremely sparse, despite their use and emission are increasing with the phasing out of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). In this study, we analyzed chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in foodstuff samples (551 pooled samples, 93 items) divided into eight categories collected from Jinan, Shandong Province of China, by atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APCI-qToF-MS), to investigate the occurrence, contamination patterns and homologue patterns of LCCPs in foodstuff commonly consumed in traditional Chinese diet. LCCP intake through diet was estimated as well. LCCPs were detected in all pooled samples with geometric mean (GM) concentrations ranging from 1.8 to 21.9 ng/g wet weight (ng/g ww), contributing to 9-28% of the total CP mass in the studied foodstuff categories. The contamination patterns of LCCPs differed from SCCPs and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs), as reflected by the patterns of mass distribution, and by the lack of correlations between LCCP and S/MCCP concentrations in various foodstuff categories. The homologue profiles of LCCPs were extremely complex and diverse, with frequent detection of C30-36Cl2-15 very-long-chain chlorinated paraffin (vLCCP) congeners. The homologue profiles of eggs stood out for their high abundance of C18-22Cl9-13 LCCP congeners. LCCPs contributed 6.0-25.2% (8.9% for median estimation) to the estimated dietary intake (EDI) for total CPs through diet based on estimations using different percentiles of CP concentrations. The median estimate of dietary LCCP intake for adults in Jinan was 287.9 ng/kg_bw/day, reaching ~10- to 100-fold of that in Sweden and Canada. Considering the continuing production, use and emission of LCCPs, as well as the similar toxicity effects induced by LCCPs as SCCPs and MCCPs, attention should be paid to the health risk posed by LCCPs, or all CPs as a class of contaminants.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , China , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(38): 52844-52861, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478051

RESUMO

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) have been applied as additives in a wide range of consumer products, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products, mining conveyor belts, paints, sealants, adhesives and as flame retardants. Consequently, CPs have been found in many matrices. Of all the CP groups, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have raised an alarming concern globally due to their toxicity, persistence and long-range transportation in the environment. As a result, SCCPs were listed in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in May 2017. Additionally, a limit for the presence of SCCPs in other CP mixtures was set at 1% by weight. CPs can be released into the environment throughout their life cycle; therefore, it becomes crucial to assess their effects in different matrices. Although about 199 studies on SCCP concentration in different matrices have been published in other continents; however, there are scarce/or limited studies on SCCP concentration in Africa, particularly on consumer products, landfill leachates and sediment samples. So far, published studies on SCCP concentration in the continent include SCCPs in egg samples, e-waste recycling area and indoor dust in Ghana and South Africa, despite absence of any production of SCCPs in Africa. However, there still remains a huge research gap in the continent of Africa on SCCPs. Consequently, there is a need to develop robust SCCP inventories in Africa since the Stockholm Convention has already developed guidance document in this respect. This review, therefore, examines the state of knowledge pertaining to the levels and trends of these contaminants in Africa and further provides research gaps that need to be considered in order to better understand the global scale of the contaminant.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gana , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise
17.
Water Res ; 204: 117605, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488140

RESUMO

The vertical migrations of toxic and persistent short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in soils as well as the microbial responses have been reported, however, there is a paucity of data on the resulting groundwater contamination. Here, we determined the concentration and congener profile of SCCPs in the groundwater beneath a production plant of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) and characterized the microbial community to explore their responses to SCCPs. Results showed that SCCPs ranged from not detected to 70.3 µg/L, with C13-CPs (11.2-65.8%) and Cl7-CPs (27.2-50.6%), in mass ratio, as the dominant groups. Similar to the distribution pattern in soils, SCCPs in groundwater were distributed in hotspot pattern. CP synthesis was the source of SCCPs in groundwater and the entire contamination plume significantly migrated downgradient, while there was an apparent hysteresis of C13-CP migration. Groundwater microbial community was likely shaped by both hydrogeological condition (pH and depth) and SCCPs. Specifically, the microbial community responded to the contamination by forming a co-occurrence network with "small world" feature, where Desulfobacca, Desulfomonile, Ferritrophicum, Methylomonas, Syntrophobacter, Syntrophorhabdus, Syntrophus, and Thermoanaerobaculum were the keystone taxa. Furthermore, the interrelations between bacterial taxa and SCCPs indicated that the microbial community might cooperate to achieve the dechlorination and mineralization of SCCPs through either anaerobic organohalide respiration mainly functioned by the keystone taxa, or cometabolic degradation processes functioned by Aquabacterium and Hydrogenophaga. Results of this study would provide a better understanding of the environmental behavior and ecological effects of SCCPs in groundwater systems.


Assuntos
Deltaproteobacteria , Água Subterrânea , Microbiota , Parafina , Solo
18.
Acta Cytol ; 65(6): 478-482, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515047

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paraffin injections for breast augmentation once a popular form of mammoplasty are now considered obsolete. It had been abandoned by clinicians because of its associated serious complications. The practice is however still available and is being practiced by nonmedically qualified people. Paraffin injection results in the formation of multiple foreign-body granulomas known as breast paraffinoma. The clinical features of breast paraffinoma can mimic and be mistaken for breast carcinoma or inflammatory breast carcinoma. The use of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the evaluation of patients with breast paraffinoma has not been fully evaluated. METHODS: Retrospective review was performed on 30 patients who presented with breast paraffinoma between June 1, 2010, and June 30, 2020, who also had FNAC as part of their breast lump evaluation. RESULTS: FNAC of 73.3% patients showed multinucleated giant cells and macrophages or histiocytes containing engulfed clear, empty intracytoplasmic vacuoles of varying sizes. In 13.3% of the patients, macrophages or histiocytes with engulfed clear intracytoplasmic vacuoles of varying sizes were seen. In 6.7% of patients, multinucleated giant cells containing engulfed vacuoles of varying sizes were seen, and in 6.7% of patients, hypocellular smears with large amount of clear spaces were seen. Oily droplets were seen in the background of all the smears, and there were no malignant cells seen. These features were compatible with breast paraffinoma. CONCLUSION: Most patients with breast paraffinoma can be managed conservatively and they do not require further treatment; FNAC with its characteristic features can provide the reliable diagnosis of breast paraffinoma and therefore sparing these patients from more invasive diagnostic procedures.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias/patologia , Granuloma de Corpo Estranho/patologia , Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Parafina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Doenças Mamárias/etiologia , Doenças Mamárias/terapia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Granuloma de Corpo Estranho/etiologia , Granuloma de Corpo Estranho/terapia , Humanos , Injeções , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parafina/administração & dosagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10329-10337, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449201

RESUMO

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are environmental pollutants of emerging concern. Long-chain CPs (LCCPs) are considered of lesser concern than other CPs in food due to their lower accumulation in most organisms. However, LCCPs have been shown to accumulate preferentially in birds. We used ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS) to analyze CPs (C10-26Cl4-12) in tissues of free-range hens, their feed, and local soils. Feed was found to be the main source of CP intake. The CP carbon chain length had little impact on their absorption. C18-CPs were excreted in preference to C13-CPs by laying. The metabolic elimination rates of CPs (0.2 µg/mL) estimated using chicken liver microsomes were in the order C12Cl6 (91%) > C12Cl8 (57%) > C18Cl6 (12%) > C18Cl8 (6%). CPs with longer carbon chains accumulated preferentially in muscle and adipose tissues, and the accumulation of specific carbon chain lengths was related to the content and composition of different CPs in the intake source.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Animais , Galinhas , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Parafina/análise
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(17): 11693-11702, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431673

RESUMO

This study provides guidance on using polyurethane foam-based passive air samplers (PUF-PASs) for atmospheric nonane chlorinated paraffins (C9-CPs) and short-chain CPs (SCCPs) and reports SCCP concentrations in air in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. We estimated the partition coefficients between PUF and air (KPUF-A) and between octanol and air (KOA) for C9-CP and SCCP congeners using the COSMO-RS method, so that PUF disk uptake profiles for each formula group could be calculated. We then measured SCCP concentrations in PUF disk samples collected from distinct source sectors in urban air across the GTA. Concentrations in samplers were used to calculate C9-CP and SCCP concentrations in air and the PUF disk uptake profiles revealed that time-weighted linear phase sampling was possible for congeners having log KOA values greater than 8.5. The highest SCCP concentrations, with an annual average concentration of 35.3 ng/m3, were measured at the industrial site, whereas lower but comparable SCCP concentrations were found in residential and background sites, with annual averages of 7.73 and 10.5 ng/m3, respectively. No consistent seasonal variation in SCCP concentrations was found in the six distinct source sectors. Direct measurements of KPUF-A and KOA values as a function of temperature could be used to increase accuracy in future studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Alcanos , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise , Poliuretanos/análise
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