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1.
Virol J ; 19(1): 141, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test promoted the evaluation of the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) type 4, which has been rarely studied using conventional diagnostic methods. This study aimed to determine the seasonal epidemiological and clinical characteristics of all four HPIV serotypes (HPIV-1, HPIV-2, HPIV-3, and HPIV-4) during the era of PCR testing. METHODS: The medical records of hospitalized pediatric patients diagnosed with HPIV infections by a multiplex PCR test between 2015 and 2021 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the seasonal distributions of each HPIV serotype. For patients with a single HPIV infection, the clinical characteristics of each HPIV serotype were evaluated and compared with one another. RESULTS: Among the 514 cases of HPIV infection, HPIV-1, HPIV-2, HPIV-3, and HPIV-4 were identified in 27.2%, 11.9%, 42.6%, and 18.3% of cases, respectively. HPIV-3 was most prevalent in spring, and the other three serotypes were most prevalent in autumn. For patients with a single HPIV infection, those infected by HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 were younger than those infected by HPIV-2 and HPIV-4 (P < 0.001). Croup and lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) were most frequently diagnosed in patients infected by HPIV-1 (P < 0.001) and HPIV-4 (P = 0.002), respectively. During 2020-2021, HPIV-3 was most prevalent in autumn and caused fewer LRIs (P = 0.009) and more seizures (P < 0.001) than during 2015-2019. CONCLUSIONS: Each HPIV serotype exhibited a distinct seasonal predominance, and some differences in the clinical characteristics of the HPIV serotypes were observed. HPIV-4 acted as an important cause of LRI. Considering the recent changes in the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of HPIV-3, more time-series analyses should be conducted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Paramyxoviridae , Infecções Respiratórias , Criança , Humanos , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana , Vírus da Parainfluenza 2 Humana , Vírus da Parainfluenza 3 Humana , Vírus da Parainfluenza 4 Humana , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Sorogrupo
2.
J Mol Model ; 28(10): 319, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109366

RESUMO

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are ( -)ssRNA viruses belonging to Paramyoviridaie family. They are one of the leading causes of mortality in infants and young children and can cause ailments like croup, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Currently, no antiviral medications or vaccines are available to effectively treat parainfluenza. This necessitates the search for a novel and effective treatment. Computer-aided drug design (CADD) methodology can be utilized to discover target-based inhibitors with high accuracy in less time. A library of 45 phytocompounds with immunomodulatory properties was prepared. Thereafter, molecular docking studies were conducted to characterize the binding behavior of ligand in the binding pocket of HPIV3 HN protein. The physicochemical properties for screened compounds were computed, and the top hits from docking studies were further analyzed and validated using molecular dynamics simulation studies using the Desmond module of Schrodinger Suite 2021-1, followed by MM/GBSA analysis. The compounds CID:72276 (1) and CID:107905 (2) emerged as lead compounds of our in silico investigation. Further in vitro studies will be required to prove the efficacy of lead compounds as inhibitors and to determine the exact mechanism of their inhibition. Computational studies predict three natural flavonoids to inhibit the HN protein of HPIV3.


Assuntos
Catequina , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae , Catequina/farmacologia , Catequina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteína HN/química , Proteína HN/genética , Proteína HN/metabolismo , Hemaglutininas/farmacologia , Hemaglutininas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neuraminidase , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/metabolismo , Vírus da Parainfluenza 3 Humana/genética , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Virais
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(9): 4319-4328, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593042

RESUMO

The viral etiologies responsible for acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) are a major cause of pediatric hospitalization, and some develop severe diseases requiring pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of viruses and risk factors associated with PICU admission among patients hospitalized for ALRI. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected to detect human rhinovirus (HRV), influenza A and B viruses (IAV and IBV), parainfluenza viruses (PIV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and adenovirus (ADV) by PCR. Of the 5590 pediatric inpatients enrolled, respiratory viral infection occurred in 2102 (37.60%) patients, including 1846 (33.02%) single and 256 (4.58%) mixed viral infections. Among the nasopharyngeal swabs from pediatric inpatients, HRV accounted for the highest detection rate (16.48%), followed by PIV (8.35%), RSV (7.41%), ADV (4.63%), IAV (3.51%), and IBV (2.08%). The positive rate of viral tests decreased with increasing age and was higher in males (39.29%) than females (34.67%). The prevalence of viral infection was the highest in winter (41.57%) and lowest in autumn (31.78%). Each virus had a seasonal pattern, with peaks occurring in months of their epidemic seasons. RSV infection and the presence of comorbidities including congenital tracheal stenosis, congenital heart disease, metabolic disorder, immunodeficiency, renal disease, gastrointestinal disease, and neurological disorder might be associated with the need for PICU admission. Therefore, this study provides useful information for the prevention and control of virus-related respiratory diseases and the early identification of and intervention in severe cases.


Assuntos
Enterovirus , Vírus da Influenza A , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Adenoviridae , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza B , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Estações do Ano
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(2): 203-211, 2022 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078303

RESUMO

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) is one of the main causes of acute respiratory tract infections in children. HPIVs have been grouped into four serotypes (HPIV1~HPIV4) according to serological and genetic variation. Different serotypes of HPIVs have diverse clinical disease spectrum, epidemic characteristics and disease burden. Based on the nucleotide variation in structural protein genes, HPIVs can be further divided into distinct genotypes and subtypes with diverse temporal and spatial distribution features. The standard molecular typing methods are helpful to clarify the gene evolution and transmission patterns of HPIVs in the process of population transmission. However, the development of molecular epidemiology of HPIVs has been hindered by the lack of a standardized molecular typing method worldwide. Therefore, this study reviewed the viral characteristics, genome structure, existing genotyping methods and evolution of HPIVs, and screened the reference strains for molecular typing, so as to improve the understanding of gene characteristics and molecular typing of HPIVs, and provide an important scientific basis for the monitoring and research of molecular epidemiology of HPIVs in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Paramyxoviridae , Infecções Respiratórias , Criança , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/genética , Vírus da Parainfluenza 2 Humana/genética , Vírus da Parainfluenza 3 Humana/genética , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(12): 2252-2260, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are increasingly associated with chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) in lung transplant recipients (LTR). This systematic review primarily aimed to assess outcomes of RSV/PIV/hMPV infections in LTR and secondarily to assess evidence regarding the efficacy of ribavirin. METHODS: Relevant databases were queried and study outcomes extracted using a standardized method and summarized. RESULTS: Nineteen retrospective and 12 prospective studies were included (total 1060 cases). Pooled 30-day mortality was low (0-3%), but CLAD progression 180-360 days postinfection was substantial (pooled incidences 19-24%) and probably associated with severe infection. Ribavirin trended toward effectiveness for CLAD prevention in exploratory meta-analysis (odds ratio [OR] 0.61, [0.27-1.18]), although results were highly variable between studies. CONCLUSIONS: RSV/PIV/hMPV infection was followed by a high CLAD incidence. Treatment options, including ribavirin, are limited. There is an urgent need for high-quality studies to provide better treatment options for these infections.


Assuntos
Metapneumovirus , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Pulmão , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana , Vírus da Parainfluenza 2 Humana , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Transplantados
7.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696497

RESUMO

Respiratory viruses are known to be the most frequent causative mediators of lung infections in humans, bearing significant impact on the host cell signaling machinery due to their host-dependency for efficient replication. Certain cellular functions are actively induced by respiratory viruses for their own benefit. This includes metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis (FAS) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, among others, which are modified during viral infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of metabolic pathway modifications mediated by the acute respiratory viruses respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus (RV), influenza virus (IV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), coronavirus (CoV) and adenovirus (AdV), and highlight potential targets and compounds for therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Glicólise/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adenoviridae/metabolismo , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Humanos , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/metabolismo , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/metabolismo , Rhinovirus/metabolismo
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009908, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529742

RESUMO

Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) and 3 (hPIV3) cause seasonal epidemics, but little is known about their interaction with human airway cells. In this study, we determined cytopathology, replication, and progeny virion release from human airway cells during long-term infection in vitro. Both viruses readily established persistent infection without causing significant cytopathic effects. However, assembly and release of hPIV1 rapidly declined in sharp contrast to hPIV3 due to impaired viral ribonucleocapsid (vRNP) trafficking and virus assembly. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that both viruses induced similar levels of type I and III IFNs. However, hPIV1 induced specific ISGs stronger than hPIV3, such as MX2, which bound to hPIV1 vRNPs in infected cells. In addition, hPIV1 but not hPIV3 suppressed genes involved in lipid biogenesis and hPIV1 infection resulted in ubiquitination and degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, a rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Consequently, formation of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts was impaired in hPIV1 infected cells. These results indicate that hPIV1 is capable of regulating cholesterol biogenesis, which likely together with ISGs contributes to establishment of a quiescent infection.


Assuntos
Colesterol/biossíntese , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Infecções por Respirovirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Respirovirus/virologia , Células A549 , Humanos , Interferons/imunologia , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/imunologia , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/metabolismo , Vírus da Parainfluenza 3 Humana/imunologia , Vírus da Parainfluenza 3 Humana/metabolismo , Infecções por Respirovirus/imunologia
9.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(5): 801-807, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifests symptoms as common etiologies of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). During the pandemic of COVID-19, identifying the etiologies correctly from patients with RTI symptoms was crucial in not only disease control but preventing healthcare system from collapsing. By applying sensitive PCR-based molecular assays, we detected the etiologic agents and delineated the epidemiologic picture of RTIs in the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: From December 2019 to February 2020, we screened patients presented with RTIs using multiplex PCR-based diagnostic assays. Data from pediatric and adult patients were compared with different months and units in the hospital. RESULTS: Of all 1631 patients including 1445 adult and 186 pediatric patients screened, 8 viruses and 4 bacteria were identified. Positive rates were 25% in December, 37% in January, and 20% in February, with pediatric patients having higher positive rates than adults (Ps < 0.001). In pediatric patients, RhV/EnV was the most commonly detected, followed by parainfluenza viruses. Most Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection occurred in pediatric patients. RhV/EnV was the most commonly detected agent in pediatric patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), while influenza accounted for the majority of adult cases with critical illness. Noticeably, seasonal coronavirus ranked second in both adult and pediatric patients with ICU admission. CONCLUSION: While we focused on the pandemic of COVID-19, common etiologies still accounted for the majority of RTIs and lead to severe diseases, including other seasonal coronaviruses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Criança , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Pandemias , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana , Vírus da Parainfluenza 2 Humana , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Taiwan/epidemiologia
10.
Food Environ Virol ; 13(3): 322-328, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086254

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) prevalence among the other respiratory viruses such as parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and non-enteric adenoviruses in clinical specimens of Egyptian children and raw sewage samples. One hundred clinical specimens were collected from Egyptian children suffering from upper and lower respiratory viral infections in the years 2005-2006 to detect HCoV-NL63 genome using RT-PCR. All the specimens were negative for the virus. Also, a complete absence of HCoV-NL63 genome was observed in the twenty-four raw sewage samples collected from two wastewater treatment plants within Greater Cairo from February 2006 to January 2007. Using nested RT-PCR, parainfluenza virus type 1, respiratory syncytial virus type A, adenovirus type 4, and adenovirus type 7 were detected in 3%, 2%, 5%, and 2% of the clinical specimens, respectively. Of these viruses, only adenovirus type 4 was detected in 1/24 (4.17%) of the raw sewage samples, while a complete absence of the other investigated respiratory viruses was observed in the raw sewage samples. The low percentage of positivity in the clinical specimens, the concentration method of the raw sewage samples, and the indirect routes of transmission may be the reasons for the absence of respiratory viruses in raw sewage samples. On the other hand, enteric adenoviruses were detected in 21/24 (87.5%) of the raw sewage samples with a higher prevalence of adenovirus type 41 than adenovirus type 40. A direct route of transmission of enteric viruses to raw sewage may be the reason for the high positivity percentage of enteric adenoviruses in raw sewage samples.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63 , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Esgotos/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Egito/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Infecções por Respirovirus/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Vírus
12.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072332

RESUMO

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are leading causes of respiratory disease in young children, the elderly, and individuals of all ages with immunosuppression. Vaccination strategies against these pneumoviruses and paramyxoviruses are vast in number, yet no licensed vaccines are available. Here, we review development of Sendai virus (SeV), a versatile pediatric vaccine that can (a) serve as a Jennerian vaccine against HPIV1, (b) serve as a recombinant vaccine against HRSV, HPIV2, HPIV3, and HMPV, (c) accommodate foreign genes for viral glycoproteins in multiple intergenic positions, (d) induce durable, mucosal, B-cell, and T-cell immune responses without enhanced immunopathology, (e) protect cotton rats, African green monkeys, and chimpanzees from infection, and (f) be formulated into a vaccine cocktail. Clinical phase I safety trials of SeV have been completed in adults and 3-6-year-old children. Clinical testing of SeVRSV, an HRSV fusion (F) glycoprotein gene recombinant, has also been completed in adults. Positive results from these studies, and collaborative efforts with the National Institutes of Health and the Serum Institute of India assist advanced development of SeV-based vaccines. Prospects are now good for vaccine successes in infants and consequent protection against serious viral disease.


Assuntos
Vetores Genéticos/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Vírus Sendai/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vírus/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Camundongos , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/genética , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/imunologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/imunologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 323, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children. However, few studies have characterized the clinical features and outcomes associated with PIV infections among young children in the Middle East. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based surveillance for ARI among children < 2 years of age in a large referral hospital in Amman, Jordan. We systematically collected clinical data and respiratory specimens for pathogen detection using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We compared clinical features of PIV-associated ARI among individual serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 and among PIV infections compared with other viral ARI and ARI with no virus detected. We also compared the odds of supplemental oxygen use using logistic regression. RESULTS: PIV was detected in 221/3168 (7.0%) children hospitalized with ARI. PIV-3 was the most commonly detected serotype (125/221; 57%). Individual clinical features of PIV infections varied little by individual serotype, although admission diagnosis of 'croup' was only associated with PIV-1 and PIV-2. Children with PIV-associated ARI had lower frequency of cough (71% vs 83%; p < 0.001) and wheezing (53% vs 60% p < 0.001) than children with ARI associated with other viruses. We did not find a significant difference in supplemental oxygen use between children with PIV-associated infections (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.12, 95% CI 0.66-1.89, p = 0.68) and infections in which no virus was detected. CONCLUSIONS: PIV is frequently associated with ARI requiring hospitalization in young Jordanian children. Substantial overlap in clinical features may preclude distinguishing PIV infections from other viral infections at presentation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/fisiopatologia , Infecções Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Jordânia , Masculino , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Infecções por Respirovirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Respirovirus/terapia , Estações do Ano
14.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(6): 672-679, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The frequency and seasonality of viruses in tropical regions are scarcely reported. We estimated the frequency of seven respiratory viruses and assessed seasonality of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza viruses in a tropical city. METHODS: Children (age ≤ 18 years) with acute respiratory infection were investigated in Salvador, Brazil, between July 2014 and June 2017. Respiratory viruses were searched by direct immunofluorescence and real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of RSV, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, adenovirus (ADV) and parainfluenza viruses (PIV) 1, 2 and 3. Seasonal distribution was evaluated by Prais-Winsten regression. Due to similar distribution, influenza A and influenza B viruses were grouped to analyse seasonality. RESULTS: The study group comprised 387 cases whose median (IQR) age was 26.4 (10.5-50.1) months. Respiratory viruses were detected in 106 (27.4%) cases. RSV (n = 76; 19.6%), influenza A virus (n = 11; 2.8%), influenza B virus (n = 7; 1.8%), ADV (n = 5; 1.3%), PIV 1 (n = 5; 1.3%), PIV 3 (n = 3; 0.8%) and PIV 2 (n = 1; 0.3%) were identified. Monthly count of RSV cases demonstrated seasonal distribution (b3 = 0.626; P = 0.003). More than half (42/76 [55.3%]) of all RSV cases were detected from April to June. Monthly count of influenza cases also showed seasonal distribution (b3 = -0.264; P = 0.032). Influenza cases peaked from November to January with 44.4% (8/18) of all influenza cases. CONCLUSIONS: RSV was the most frequently detected virus. RSV and influenza viruses showed seasonal distribution. These data may be useful to plan the best time to carry out prophylaxis and to increase the number of hospital beds.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Parainfluenza 2 Humana/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Parainfluenza 3 Humana/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/isolamento & purificação , Clima Tropical
15.
FASEB J ; 35(2): e21358, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538061

RESUMO

Treatment of respiratory viral infections remains a global health concern, mainly due to the inefficacy of available drugs. Therefore, the discovery of novel antiviral compounds is needed; in this context, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) like temporins hold great promise. Here, we discovered that the harmless temporin G (TG) significantly inhibited the early life-cycle phases of influenza virus. The in vitro hemagglutinating test revealed the existence of TG interaction with the viral hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Furthermore, the hemolysis inhibition assay and the molecular docking studies confirmed a TG/HA complex formation at the level of the conserved hydrophobic stem groove of HA. Remarkably, these findings highlight the ability of TG to block the conformational rearrangements of HA2 subunit, which are essential for the viral envelope fusion with intracellular endocytic vesicles, thereby neutralizing the virus entry into the host cell. In comparison, in the case of parainfluenza virus, which penetrates host cells upon a membrane-fusion process, addition of TG to infected cells provoked ~1.2 log reduction of viral titer released in the supernatant. Nevertheless, at the same condition, an immunofluorescent assay showed that the expression of viral hemagglutinin/neuraminidase protein was not significantly reduced. This suggested a peptide-mediated block of some late steps of viral replication and therefore the impairment of the extracellular release of viral particles. Overall, our results are the first demonstration of the ability of an AMP to interfere with the replication of respiratory viruses with a different mechanism of cell entry and will open a new avenue for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against a large variety of respiratory viruses, including the recent SARS-CoV2.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Antivirais/química , Sítios de Ligação , Cães , Proteína HN/química , Proteína HN/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/química , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/metabolismo , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/fisiologia , Ligação Proteica , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4433-e4443, 2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections. Although there are several distinct PIV serotypes, few studies have compared the clinical characteristics and severity of infection among the individual PIV serotypes and between PIV and other pathogens in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted active population-based surveillance for radiographically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations among children and adults in 8 US hospitals with systematic collection of clinical data and respiratory, blood, and serological specimens for pathogen detection. We compared clinical features of PIV-associated pneumonia among individual serotypes 1, 2, and 3 and among all PIV infections with other viral, atypical, and bacterial pneumonias. We also compared in-hospital disease severity among groups employing an ordinal scale (mild, moderate, severe) using multivariable proportional odds regression. RESULTS: PIV was more commonly detected in children (155/2354; 6.6%) than in adults (66/2297; 2.9%) (P < .001). Other pathogens were commonly co-detected among PIV cases (110/221; 50%). Clinical features of PIV-1, PIV-2, and PIV-3 infections were similar to one another in both children and adults with pneumonia. In multivariable analysis, children with PIV-associated pneumonia exhibited similar severity to children with other nonbacterial pneumonia, whereas children with bacterial pneumonia exhibited increased severity (odds ratio, 8.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.88-37.80). In adults, PIV-associated pneumonia exhibited similar severity to other pneumonia pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical features did not distinguish among infection with individual PIV serotypes in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. However, in children, PIV pneumonia was less severe than bacterial pneumonia.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções Respiratórias , Adulto , Criança , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(2): 554-559, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750273

RESUMO

SeVRSV is a replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-based vaccine carrying the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion protein (F) gene. Unmanipulated, non-recombinant SeV is a murine parainfluenza virus type 1 (PIV-1) and serves as a Jennerian vaccine for human PIV-1 (hPIV-1). SeV protects African green monkeys (AGM) from infection after hPIV-1 challenge. The recombinant SeVRSV additionally targets RSV and protects AGM from lower respiratory infections after RSV challenge. The present study is the first to report on the safety, viral genome detection, and immunogenicity following SeVRSV vaccination of healthy adults. Seventeen and four healthy adults received intranasal SeVRSV and PBS, respectively, followed by six months of safety monitoring. Virus genome (in nasal wash) and vaccine-specific antibodies (in sera) were monitored for two and four weeks, respectively, post-vaccination. The vaccine was well-tolerated with only mild to moderate reactions that were also present in the placebo group. No severe reactions occurred. As expected, due to preexisting immunity toward hPIV-1 and RSV in adults, vaccine genome detection was transient. There were minimal antibody responses to SeV and negligible responses to RSV F. Results encourage further studies of SeVRSV with progression toward a clinical trial in seronegative children. Abbreviations: AE-adverse event; SAE-serious adverse event; SeV-Sendai virus; RSV-respiratory syncytial virus; PIV-1-parainfluenza virus-type 1; hPIV-1-human parainfluenza virus-type 1; F-RSV fusion protein; SeVRSV-recombinant SeV carrying the RSV F gene; Ab-antibody; MSW-medically significant wheezing; NOCMC-new onset chronic medical condition, mITT-modified Intent to Treat; ALRI-acute lower respiratory tract infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana/genética , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Vírus Sendai/genética , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/genética
18.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(5): 858-864, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses (RVs) are among the most common pathogens for both upper and lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs). However, the viral epidemiology of RV-associated RTIs in adults has long been under-recognized. Through a sensitive molecular assay, it would be possible to have a better understanding of the epidemiology of RV-associated RTIs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Respiratory tract (RT) specimens from adults hospitalized due to RTIs were tested for RVs, using the multiplex PCR-based Luminex xTAG® Respiratory Viral Panel assay. A total of nineteen RVs, including influenza viruses and non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs) were detected. Positive rates were compared using a chi-square test. RESULTS: A total of 2292 samples from adult patients hospitalized with RTIs were screened for RVs. The overall positive rate was 22%, with 17.8% samples positive for at least one NIRV. NIRVs had a higher positive rate in non-winter seasons. As many as 12.7% (46/363) of the samples collected through broncho-alveolar lavage and 20.5% (176/859) of the samples collected in ICUs were positive for RVs. Distribution of corona virus (CoV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and parainfluenza virus (PIV) demonstrated seasonal variation. Also, temperature was associated with the positive rates of specific viruses, including CoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), hMPV and PIV. CONCLUSION: Respiratory viruses, notably NIRVs, were frequently detected in adults hospitalized with RTIs. Several RVs were detected with distinctive seasonal variations. A substantial number of RVs were identified in lower RT specimens or from patients admitted to ICU, highlighting their important role in causing severe respiratory infection.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Humanos , Metapneumovirus , Orthomyxoviridae , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Estações do Ano , Taiwan
19.
Microbiol Immunol ; 65(1): 1-9, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270253

RESUMO

Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection is associated with every kind of respiratory tract illnesses, including the common cold, laryngotracheobronchitis (i.e. croup), tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, in both children and adults. Although HPIVs are common respiratory pathogens, there are increasing reports about extrapulmonary manifestations of HPIVs infection. Each of the HPIVs could produce infection of other organs (central nervous system, heart, myocardium, etc.) in all age groups who are either immunocompetent or immunocompromised. This review aimed at summarizing the available data on clinical manifestations of HPIV infection outside the respiratory tract from 1961 to 2020. The findings support the possibility of extrapulmonary infections that were thought to be due to rare host genetic or immunologic defects in infected patients. These findings highlight the fact that extrapulmonary dissemination of HPIV can occur, but the association is not clearly demonstrated. Our data support the hypothesis that HPIV infection is one of the possible causes of these alterations and may even be the direct cause in some cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Paramyxoviridae , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Criança , Coração/virologia , Humanos , Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana , Vírus da Parainfluenza 2 Humana , Vírus da Parainfluenza 3 Humana , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/patologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(8): 10018-10026, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164120

RESUMO

Studying relationships between meteorological conditions and respiratory virus infections may help interpret the causality of disease outbreaks and provide a better understanding of the seasonal distribution of viruses. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the correlations between meteorological data and the trends of infection by human parainfluenza virus-1 (HPIV-1; also known as human respirovirus 1), human parainfluenza virus-2 (human orthorubulavirus 2), and human parainfluenza virus-3 (human respirovirus 3) using 9010 viral samples collected at Dankook University Hospital from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2018. Infection frequency data were used to detect the seasonal patterns of HPIV-1, HPIV-2, and HPIV-3 infections, and these patterns were compared with local weather data over the same period. We performed descriptive statistical analysis, frequency analysis, t test, and binomial logistic regression analysis to examine the relationships of weather and particulate matter conditions with the incidence of HPIV-1, HPIV-2, and HPIV-3 infections. The highest average infection rate with one of these three viruses (88.17%) was found in children aged 1-9 years. Specifically, the infection rate of HPIV-1 was 91.9% in children aged 1-9 years, whereas that of HPIV-2 and HPIV-3 was 86.3%. HPIV infection exhibited a meaningful relationship with climatic factors, such as temperature, wind-chill temperature, and atmospheric pressure. Our results suggest that climate changes might affect the rate of infection by HPIV. These findings may help in predicting the effectiveness of preventive strategies of HPIV infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Parainfluenza 1 Humana , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Parainfluenza 2 Humana , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
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