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1.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(2): 907-916, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35092189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several viruses belonging to the family Poxviridae can cause infections in humans and animals. In Corsica, livestock farming (sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle) is mainly mixed, leading to important interactions between livestock, wildlife, and human populations. This could facilitate the circulation of zoonotic diseases, and makes Corsica a good example for studies of tick-borne diseases. OBJECTIVES: To gain understanding on the circulation of poxviruses in Corsica, we investigated their presence in tick species collected from cattle, sheep, horses, and wild boar, and characterized them through molecular techniques. METHODS: Ticks were tested using specific primers targeting conserved regions of sequences corresponding to two genera: parapoxvirus and orthopoxvirus. RESULTS: A total of 3555 ticks were collected from 1549 different animals (687 cattle, 538 horses, 106 sheep, and 218 wild boars). They were tested for the presence of parapoxvirus DNA on one hand and orthopoxvirus DNA on the other hand using Pangeneric real-time TaqMan assays. Orthopoxvirus DNA was detected in none of the 3555 ticks. Parapoxvirus DNA was detected in 6.6% (36/544) of ticks collected from 23 cows from 20 farms. The remaining 3011 ticks collected from horses, wild boars, and sheep were negative. The infection rate in cow ticks was 8.0% (12/148) in 2018 and 6.0% (24/396) in 2019 (p = 0.57). Parapoxvirus DNA was detected in 8.5% (5/59) of Hyalomma scupense pools, 8.2% (15/183) of Hyalomma marginatum pools, and 6.7% (16/240) of Rhipicephalus bursa pools (p = 0.73). We successfully amplified and sequenced 19.4% (7/36) of the positive samples which all corresponded to pseudocowpox virus. CONCLUSIONS: Obviously, further studies are needed to investigate the zoonotic potential of pseudocowpox virus and its importance for animals and public health.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Cavalos , Ixodidae , Parapoxvirus , Doenças dos Ovinos , Doenças dos Suínos , Infestações por Carrapato , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Cavalos , Parapoxvirus/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Suínos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
2.
Life Sci ; 291: 120297, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007565

RESUMO

AIMS: Orf virus (ORFV) is a parapoxvirus causing contagious ecthyma in sheep and goats. With inhibitory role of ORFV reported by previous studies, ORFV can be a candidate of oncolytic virus. However, few studies reported the application and mechanism of ORFV in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We aimed to elucidate the anti-tumor mechanism of ORFV against NPC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-tumor effect of ORFV in NPC cells was confirmed by cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry and Western blot. In vitro and in vivo experiments were adopted to evaluate the inhibitory effect of ORFV in NPC cells. Western blot was used to determine the down-regulation of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and autophagy enhancement induced by ORFV. To explore the mechanism of ORFV on NPC cells, mTOR signaling agonist and autophagy inhibitors were used to rescue the effects of ORFV. KEY FINDINGS: The results indicated that ORFV replicates in NPC cells, thus induces the apoptosis of NPC cells. Moreover, ORFV can effectively inhibit NPC cell growth in vivo. ORFV infection in NPC cells leads to the mTOR signaling inhibition and up-regulated autophagy, which might be the specific mechanism of ORFV in killing tumor cells. As to safety confirmation, normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells NP69 are insensitive to ORFV. More importantly, ORFV would not cause organ damage in vivo. SIGNIFICANCES: Our data clarified that ORFV induces autophagy of NPC cells via inhibiting mTOR signaling, thus further inducing apoptosis. The anti-tumor role of ORFV might provide a preclinical strategy for NPC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Vírus do Orf/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/virologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Vírus Oncolíticos/metabolismo , Vírus do Orf/genética , Parapoxvirus/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e07014, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360625

RESUMO

A retrospective study of poxvirus infections diagnosed in cattle from Goiás state (GO), Brazil, from 2010 to 2018, was performed. All cases have been investigated by the GO Official Veterinary Service (Agrodefesa), from which technical forms and protocols of veterinary diagnosis laboratories were reviewed. In most cases, samples of oral or cutaneous tissues and/or swabs were submitted for virological diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or virus isolation. Thirty seven outbreaks/cases of vesicular disease were notified in cattle of 25 counties; in 33 cases the animals presented lesions clinically compatible with poxviruses. The etiology of 25 out of 33 outbreaks/cases was confirmed as poxviruses by PCR and/or viral isolation: 13 as bovine vaccinia virus (VACV), six as pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), five as bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and one coinfection (VACV and an Orf virus-like parapoxvirus). The laboratory confirmed that cases occurred mainly in dairy cattle (19/25) and during the dry season (22/25). In adult cattle, gross changes were observed mainly in the teats and udder and included vesicles, ulcers, crusts, papules and scars and varied of type, severity and affected region, depending on the poxvirus species. In calves, the main lesions were ulcers in the mouth and muzzle. Zoonotic lesions compatible with poxvirus infections were observed for all diagnosed poxviruses, affecting especially the hands of milkers and other farm workers. Our data demonstrate the sanitary and economic relevance of these diseases and the wide circulation of different poxviruses in cattle from GO.(AU)


Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo das infecções por poxvírus diagnosticadas em bovinos do estado de Goiás (GO), entre 2010 e 2018. Todos os casos foram investigados pela Agência Goiana de Defesa Agropecuária (Agrodefesa). Foram revisados formulários técnicos e protocolos de laboratórios de diagnóstico veterinário. Na maioria dos casos, amostras de tecidos orais ou cutâneos e/ou swabs foram encaminhadas para diagnóstico virológico. Foram notificados 37 surtos/casos de doença vesicular em bovinos em 25 municípios; em 33 casos os animais apresentavam lesões clinicamente compatíveis com poxvírus. A etiologia de 25 de 33 surtos/casos foi confirmada como poxvírus por PCR e/ou isolamento viral: 13 como vírus vaccínia (VACV), seis como vírus pseudocowpox (PCPV), cinco como vírus da estomatite papular bovina (BPSV) e um caso de coinfecção (VACV e um parapoxvírus semelhante ao Orf vírus). Os casos confirmados laboratorialmente ocorreram principalmente em bovinos leiteiros (19/25) e durante a estação seca (22/25). Em bovinos adultos, alterações macroscópicas foram observadas principalmente nas tetas e úbere e incluíram vesículas, úlceras, crostas, pápulas e cicatrizes e variaram quanto ao tipo, gravidade e região afetada, dependendo da espécie do poxvírus. Em bezerros, as principais lesões foram úlceras na boca e focinho. Lesões zoonóticas compatíveis com infecção por poxvírus foram observadas em todas as poxviroses diagnosticadas, afetando principalmente as mãos dos ordenhadores e outros trabalhadores rurais. Nossos dados demonstram a relevância sanitária e econômica dessas doenças e a ampla circulação de diferentes poxvírus em bovinos de GO.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Vírus Vaccinia/isolamento & purificação , Parapoxvirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Pseudovaríola das Vacas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Poxviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Poxviridae/patologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Zoonoses Virais
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(10): e1009971, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614034

RESUMO

Viruses have evolved mechanisms to subvert critical cellular signaling pathways that regulate a wide range of cellular functions, including cell differentiation, proliferation and chemotaxis, and innate immune responses. Here, we describe a novel ORFV protein, ORFV113, that interacts with the G protein-coupled receptor Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPA1). Consistent with its interaction with LPA1, ORFV113 enhances p38 kinase phosphorylation in ORFV infected cells in vitro and in vivo, and in cells transiently expressing ORFV113 or treated with soluble ORFV113. Infection of cells with virus lacking ORFV113 (OV-IA82Δ113) significantly decreased p38 phosphorylation and viral plaque size. Infection of cells with ORFV in the presence of a p38 kinase inhibitor markedly diminished ORFV replication, highlighting importance of p38 signaling during ORFV infection. ORFV113 enhancement of p38 activation was prevented in cells in which LPA1 expression was knocked down and in cells treated with LPA1 inhibitor. Infection of sheep with OV-IA82Δ113 led to a strikingly attenuated disease phenotype, indicating that ORFV113 is a major virulence determinant in the natural host. Notably, ORFV113 represents the first viral protein that modulates p38 signaling via interaction with LPA1 receptor.


Assuntos
Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/metabolismo , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Parapoxvirus , Ovinos
5.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(9): 1489-1494, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334509

RESUMO

In this study, we performed a molecular phylogenetic analysis of six bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) field strains detected from Japanese beef calves kept on a farm in Saga prefecture, a southwest part of Japan, from 2017 to 2020. The phylogenetic analysis based on a partial B2L gene (554-nt) showed that these field strains were divided into two lineages, a lineage (A-lineage) constructed by a Saga strain and strains obtained from various regions of Japan and the world, and other lineage (B-lineage) constructed by five Saga strains and strains obtained from France, USA and Iwate prefecture (a north part of Japan). Furthermore, a Saga field strain named BPSV_SAGAbv2 and strains obtained from USA and Iwate prefecture belonged to a sub-lineage blanched from B-lineage. This is the first report elucidating molecular epidemiological characters of field BPSVs obtained from Saga prefecture. The existence of the multiple lineages was thought to be related to a history of calf introduction from various regions of Japan into Saga prefecture.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Parapoxvirus , Infecções por Poxviridae , Estomatite , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Estomatite/veterinária
6.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372579

RESUMO

Numerous viruses have evolved sophisticated countermeasures to hijack the early programmed cell death of host cells in response to infection, including the use of proteins homologous in sequence or structure to Bcl-2. Orf virus, a member of the parapoxviridae, encodes for the Bcl-2 homolog ORFV125, a potent inhibitor of Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis in the host. ORFV125 acts by directly engaging host proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins including Bak and Bax as well as the BH3-only proteins Hrk and Puma. Here, we determined the crystal structures of ORFV125 bound to the BH3 motif of proapoptotic proteins Puma and Hrk. The structures reveal that ORFV125 engages proapoptotic BH3 motif peptides using the canonical ligand binding groove. An Arg located in the structurally equivalent BH1 region of ORFV125 forms an ionic interaction with the conserved Asp in the BH3 motif in a manner that mimics the canonical ionic interaction seen in host Bcl-2:BH3 motif complexes. These findings provide a structural basis for Orf virus-mediated inhibition of host cell apoptosis and reveal the flexibility of virus encoded Bcl-2 proteins to mimic key interactions from endogenous host signalling pathways.


Assuntos
Vírus do Orf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/ultraestrutura , Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/química , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/ultraestrutura , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Humanos , Vírus do Orf/metabolismo , Parapoxvirus/genética , Parapoxvirus/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/genética , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
7.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(2): 349-357, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342964

RESUMO

Monitoring the mortality of wildlife provides basic demographic information to support management plan preparation. The utility of mortality records for conservation measures was investigated in the Japanese serow, focusing on temporal trends and spatial distribution. Using the mortality records of Japanese serow from 2006 to 2018 in Gifu prefecture, cause-specific mortality was categorized into five groups (disease, accident, vehicle collision, parapoxvirus infection, and unknown), and the sex ratios were examined. A state space model was used to analyze the time series for the monthly mortalities, and kernel estimation was used for the spatial distribution of the parapoxvirus infection. Land cover type around the detection point was also reported. Disease, accident, and vehicle collision mortality were similar, and 30% of mortality was of anthropogenic origin. The number of mortality records for males was higher, and the larger home range of males could account for this. The state space model showed moderate increases in monthly mortalities over time and a seasonal variation with the highest level in spring and lowest in winter. Land cover analysis demonstrated a temporal increase in the proportion of human settlement areas, suggesting the change of the Japanese serow habitat. The proximity of Japanese serow to human settlements contributed to increase in mortality records. The point pattern analysis indicated spatial clustering for parapoxvirus infection in the area where an epidemic had occurred in the past. Several measures are recommended; however, mortality records can help develop improved conservation plan.


Assuntos
Parapoxvirus , Ruminantes , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Ecossistema , Japão/epidemiologia
8.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(2): 304-308, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310999

RESUMO

Nasal papules and oral ulcers were observed in calves that were group-housed at a dairy farm. The calves were diagnosed with bovine papular stomatitis (BPS) due to parapoxvirus (PPV) infection based on virologic examinations using polymerase chain reaction to detect PPV. To prevent the spread of BPS, we isolated the affected calves, made procedural changes so that the affected herd was managed after the healthy herd, disinfected the bedding with slaked lime, disinfected the stalls and fences with invert soap, and changed the animals' feed to soft grass which does not damage the oral cavity. As a result, we succeeded in control the infection quickly.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Parapoxvirus , Infecções por Poxviridae , Estomatite , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Fazendas , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Estomatite/prevenção & controle , Estomatite/veterinária
9.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213058

RESUMO

Infections that are triggered by the accompanying immunosuppression in patients with burn wounds are very common regardless of age. Among burn patients, the most frequently diagnosed infections include the bacterial ones primarily caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Klebsiella pneumonia, as well as fungal infections with the etiology of Candida spp. or Aspergillus spp. Besides, burn wounds are highly susceptible to viral infections mainly due to the impaired immune responses and defective functions of the immune cells within the wound microenvironment. The most prevalent viruses that invade burn wounds include herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human papilloma virus (HPV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV). Likewise, less prevalent infections such as those caused by the orf virus or Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) might also occur in immunosuppressed burn patients. Viral infections result in increased morbidity and mortality rates in severely burned patients. Additionally, a positive correlation between the hospitalization duration and the severity of the viral infection has been demonstrated. Viral infections trigger the occurrence of various complications, ranging from mild symptoms to even fatal incidents. Accurate detection of viral infection is of great clinical importance because of the possibility for a quicker introduction of proper treatment therapy and shortening of hospitalization time. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the literature and summarize the findings regarding the most common viral infections in immunosuppressed burn patients.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/complicações , Queimaduras/microbiologia , Queimaduras/virologia , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/virologia , Animais , Citomegalovirus , HIV , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Herpesviridae , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/terapia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Papillomaviridae , Parapoxvirus , Infecções por Poxviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/terapia , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Simplexvirus , Vírus/classificação
10.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(11): 996, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219203

RESUMO

Dysbiotic microbiomes are linked to many pathological outcomes including different metabolic disorders like diabetes, atherosclerosis and even cancer. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer associated death in women, and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive type with major challenges for intervention. Previous reports suggested that Parapoxvirus signatures are one of the predominant dysbiotic viral signatures in TNBC. These viruses encode several genes that are homologs of human genes. In this study, we show that the VEGF homolog encoded by Parapoxviruses, can induce cell proliferation, and alter metabolism of breast cancer and normal breast cells, through alteration of MAPK-ERK and PI3K-AKT signaling. In addition, the activity of the transcription factor FoxO1 was altered by viral-encoded VEGF through activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway, leading to reprogramming of cellular metabolic gene expression. Therefore, this study provides new insights into the function of viral-encoded VEGFs, which promoted the growth of the breast cancer cells and imparted proliferative phenotype with altered metabolism in normal breast cells.


Assuntos
Parapoxvirus/patogenicidade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/virologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2659-2664, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880730

RESUMO

Two cases of coinfection with bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) in dairy calves in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan, are reported. Sequences of BPSV and PCPV were simultaneously detected in the same polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons, which were obtained from the DNA of two dairy calves using a pan-parapoxvirus primer set. PCR amplification using BPSV- and PCPV-specific primer sets were able to distinguish between the two viruses in coinfected clinical samples. Based on these data, further studies on the occurrence BPSV/PCPV coinfections in cattle in Japan are warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Parapoxvirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Pseudovaríola das Vacas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Japão , Masculino , Parapoxvirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia , Vírus da Pseudovaríola das Vacas/genética
12.
J Biotechnol ; 323: 62-72, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763261

RESUMO

In recent years, the Orf virus has become a promising tool for protective recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapy. However, suitable methods for an Orf virus production, including up- and downstream, are very limited. The presented study focuses on downstream processing, describing the evaluation of different chromatographic unit operations. In this context, ion exchange-, pseudo-affinity- and steric exclusion chromatography were employed for the purification of the cell culture-derived Orf virus, aiming at a maximum in virus recovery and contaminant depletion. The most promising chromatographic methods for capturing the virus particles were the steric exclusion- or salt-tolerant anion exchange membrane chromatography, recovering 84 % and 86 % of the infectious virus. Combining the steric exclusion chromatography with a subsequent Capto™ Core 700 resin or hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography as a secondary chromatographic step, overall virus recoveries of up to 76 % were achieved. Furthermore, a complete cellular protein removal and a host cell DNA depletion of up to 82 % was possible for the steric exclusion membranes and the Capto™ Core 700 combination. The study reveals a range of possible unit operations suited for the chromatographic purification of the cell culture-derived Orf virus, depending on the intended application, i.e. a human or veterinary use, and the required purity.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Vírus do Orf , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cromatografia em Gel , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ponto Isoelétrico , Parapoxvirus , Vacinas Sintéticas , Células Vero , Vírion
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(4): 1563-1573, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971341

RESUMO

A retrospective study of officially diagnosed poxvirus infections in cattle in Distrito Federal (DF), Brazil, between 2015 and 2018 was performed. All cases were investigated by the DF Official Veterinary Service. In the most cases, samples of oral, cutaneous (teats, udder) or foot lesions were submitted to molecular diagnosis by PCR. In approximately 70% of the cases, additional samples were also submitted for histopathology. Ninety-three out of 2,467 clinically examined cattle (from 385 farms) presented suggestive and/or compatible lesions with poxviruses. Fifty-two out of these 93 cases were confirmed as poxviruses: 27 vaccinia virus (VACV), 9 pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), 8 bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), 5 coinfection by PCPV and BPSV and 3 unidentified parapoxvirus. The clinical cases were observed in farms with different exploration (beef, dairy or mixed) from 9 out of 30 administrative regions of DF. Gross findings consisted of papules, vesicles, ulcers, scabs and scars and varied of type, severity and affected tissue, according to the detected virus. A single human case was observed associated with a BPSV infection. Histologically, the lesions were very similar, independently of the detected poxvirus, and included mild to moderate, superficial, multifocal inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages and/or neutrophils, with acanthosis and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, usually associated with serous content, cellular debris and spongiosis. In the ulcerated lesions, there were focally extensive areas of necrosis with severe infiltrate of neutrophils in the adjacent connective tissue. Few to moderate amount of 4- to 8-µm eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes in 6 cases (2 of VACV, 2 of PCPV and 2 of PCPV/BPSV coinfection). Data of the current study demonstrate the wide circulation of different poxviruses in cattle from DF.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Parapoxvirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Vírus Vaccinia/isolamento & purificação , Vaccinia/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Humanos , Parapoxvirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vaccinia/epidemiologia , Vaccinia/virologia , Vírus Vaccinia/genética
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(1): 453-459, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359355

RESUMO

Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) is a parapoxvirus associated with papular and erosive lesions on the muzzle, lips, and oral mucosa of cattle. BPSV infection occurs worldwide; however, it has still not been unequivocally diagnosed. The present report describes an outbreak of BPSV infection affecting dairy calves in northwestern Argentina and provides the first molecular characterization of this virus in the country. The disease was detected in a dairy farm, affecting 33 calves between 2 and 20 days of age. The signs included reddish papules, ulcers, and scabby proliferative lesions on muzzle, lips, and oral mucosa. The affected calves resisted to being fed due to severe local pain. Two necropsies were performed; papulas and ulcers were observed in ruminal and omasal mucosa. Histologically, the affected areas of the skin showed acanthosis, spongiosis, and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis with adjacent focally extensive ulcers and multifocal inflammatory infiltrate in the epidermis. Eosinophilic inclusion bodies were detected in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. DNA extracted from scab samples was analyzed by PCR using pan-parapoxvirus primers for the B2L gene. The sequence analysis revealed 99%, 85%, and 84% similarity with BPSV, Pseudocowpox virus, and Orf virus, respectively. A phylogenetic tree constructed using the B2L sequence showed that the virus clustered with BPSV isolates. Although clinical cases compatible with BSPV infection have been frequently described in Argentina, the present report is the first to identify the agent associated with cattle disease in the country.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Parapoxvirus/genética , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Parapoxvirus/metabolismo , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência
16.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0213667, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995215

RESUMO

The huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) is an endangered cervid endemic to southern Argentina and Chile. Here we report foot lesions in 24 huemul from Bernardo O'Higgins National Park, Chile, between 2005 and 2010. Affected deer displayed variably severe clinical signs, including lameness and soft tissue swelling of the limbs proximal to the hoof or in the interdigital space, ulceration of the swollen tissues, and some developed severe proliferative tissue changes that caused various types of abnormal wear, entrapment, and/or displacement of the hooves and/or dewclaws. Animals showed signs of intense pain and reduced mobility followed by loss of body condition and recumbency, which often preceded death. The disease affected both genders and all age categories. Morbidity and mortality reached 80% and 40%, respectively. Diagnostics were restricted to a limited number of cases from which samples were available. Histology revealed severe papillomatous epidermal hyperplasia and superficial dermatitis. Electron microscopy identified viral particles consistent with viruses in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily. The presence of parapoxvirus DNA was confirmed by a pan-poxvirus PCR assay, showing high identity (98%) with bovine papular stomatitis virus and pseudocowpoxvirus. This is the first report of foot disease in huemul deer in Chile, putatively attributed to poxvirus. Given the high morbidity and mortality observed, this virus might pose a considerable conservation threat to huemul deer in Chilean Patagonia. Moreover, this report highlights a need for improved monitoring of huemul populations and synergistic, rapid response efforts to adequately address disease events that threaten the species.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , DNA Viral/sangue , Cervos/virologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Doenças do Pé , Parapoxvirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Poxviridae , Animais , Chile , Doenças do Pé/sangue , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Doenças do Pé/virologia , Parques Recreativos , Infecções por Poxviridae/sangue , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia
17.
Arch Virol ; 164(5): 1441-1444, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847608

RESUMO

To date, there have been no reports of coinfection with bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and bovine papillomavirus (BPV) in the same lesion. In the present study, one lingual papilloma-like sample was collected at an abattoir from the tongue of a 31-month-old Japanese black cow. Coinfection with BPSV and BPV was confirmed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, PCR and RT-PCR. The evidence for coinfection with BPSV and BPV in the same lesion and an association of BPV with lingual papillomatosis will contribute to future epidemiological studies of these two viruses.


Assuntos
Papillomavirus Bovino 1/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/veterinária , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Parapoxvirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Poxviridae/complicações , Doenças da Língua/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Coinfecção/virologia , Papiloma/veterinária , Papiloma/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia , Língua/virologia , Doenças da Língua/veterinária
19.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(3): 440-443, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674740

RESUMO

We detected parapoxviruses from environmental samples and calves with and without intraoral clinical signs and conducted molecular and serological analyses. Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) was detected from a calf showing anorexia, frothy salivation, and erosion in the mucosa of the lip and tongue. At the time that PCPV was detected, bovine papular stomatitis viruses (BPSVs) were detected in environmental samples as well as in calves without intraoral clinical signs. BPSV, but not PCPV, was detected in the same calf after 22 days. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genetically different PCPV strains exist in Japan. This is the first report on the detection of PCPV and BPSV sequentially in the same calf and coexistence of PCPV and BPSV in the same farm in Japan.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Parapoxvirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Parapoxvirus/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia
20.
Environ Pollut ; 244: 9-18, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317087

RESUMO

This study investigated relationships between organohalogen compound (OHC) exposure, feeding habits, and pathogen exposure in a recovering population of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Various samples were collected from 39 free-living, apparently healthy, adult male walruses immobilised at three sampling locations during the summers of 2014 and 2015. Concentrations of lipophilic compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers) were analysed in blubber samples, and concentrations of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were determined in plasma samples. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured in seven tissue types and surveys for three infectious pathogens were conducted. Despite an overall decline in lipophilic compound concentrations since this population was last studied (2006), the contaminant pattern was similar, including extremely large inter-individual variation. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen showed that the variation in OHC concentrations could not be explained by some walruses consuming higher trophic level diets, since all animals were found to feed at a similar trophic level. Antibodies against the bacteria Brucella spp. and the parasite Toxoplasma gondii were detected in 26% and 15% of the walruses, respectively. Given the absence of seal-predation, T. gondii exposure likely took place via the consumption of contaminated bivalves. The source of exposure to Brucella spp. in walruses is still unknown. Parapoxvirus DNA was detected in a single individual, representing the first documented evidence of parapoxvirus in wild walruses. Antibody prevalence was not related to contaminant exposure. Despite this, dynamic relationships between diet composition, contaminant bioaccumulation and pathogen exposure warrant continuing attention given the likelihood of climate change induced habitat and food web changes, and consequently OHC exposure, for Svalbard walruses in the coming decades.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Mudança Climática , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Morsas , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/parasitologia , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Animais , Bivalves/virologia , Brucella , Carbono/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cadeia Alimentar , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/análise , Masculino , Nitrogênio/análise , Parapoxvirus , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Focas Verdadeiras , Svalbard , Toxoplasma
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