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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1358, 2022 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35079033

RESUMO

Ascaridoids are one of the main parasitic hazards in commercial fish. Candling is the current industrial screening method whereby visible ascaridoid larvae are detected on a light table and manually removed. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity (Se) and negative predictive value (NPV) of this method. To make targeted recommendations to the fish industry, the Se was calculated per fish part, larval genus, and fish species. All fish parts (n = 615) were first candled, and larvae were collected, followed by enzymatic digestion to recover the remaining larvae. A fish part was considered positive if at least one larva was detected using candling and/or enzymatic digestion, with both methods combined as reference standard. The overall Se of candling was 31% (95% CI 23-41%) and NPV was 87% (95% CI 85-90%). The Se increased with higher numbers of larvae/100 g infected muscle. A low NPV was found for the belly flaps, therefore we either advise the removal or proper freezing of this part. Lastly, the Se and larval recovery was the highest for the darker and larger Pseudoterranova spp. larvae. Due to the low overall efficacy of candling, further assessment of its cost-benefit and impact on consumers' health risk should be conducted.


Assuntos
Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/enfermagem , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
2.
Sci China Life Sci ; 65(1): 33-92, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881420

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important crops in the world. Since the completion of rice reference genome sequences, tremendous progress has been achieved in understanding the molecular mechanisms on various rice traits and dissecting the underlying regulatory networks. In this review, we summarize the research progress of rice biology over past decades, including omics, genome-wide association study, phytohormone action, nutrient use, biotic and abiotic responses, photoperiodic flowering, and reproductive development (fertility and sterility). For the roads ahead, cutting-edge technologies such as new genomics methods, high-throughput phenotyping platforms, precise genome-editing tools, environmental microbiome optimization, and synthetic methods will further extend our understanding of unsolved molecular biology questions in rice, and facilitate integrations of the knowledge for agricultural applications.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Epigenômica , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102449, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481946

RESUMO

Trichinellosis is a potentially deadly parasitic zoonosis that is contracted by consuming undercooked infected meat. Reliable detection of infectious Trichinella spp. larvae in meat is therefore pivotal to ensure consumer's safety. The recently authorised PrioCHECK™ Trichinella Alternative Artificial Digestion (AAD) test kit appears promising when used with the standard magnetic stirrer method, but evaluation with other apparatus types is lacking. In this study, the performance of the AAD kit in an adapted Trichomatic-35 (TM35) instrument was evaluated, first, at the Swiss National Reference Laboratory for trichinellosis (NRL); second, in a ring trial involving four Swiss official laboratories. Proficiency pork samples spiked with larvae of Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi, or T. pseudospiralis were tested with the AAD kit and with the reference pepsin-HCl digestion method in TM35 instruments. At the NRL, both methods yielded identical qualitative and similar quantitative results independently of the Trichinella species. In the ring trial, satisfactory results were obtained for 47/50 (94.0%) (AAD) and 62/67 (92.5%) (reference method) of the analysed samples. Technical problems impairing analysis were more frequently observed with the AAD kit (n = 22) than with the reference method (n = 5) and were mainly (16/22) reported by one of the external labs. When no technical issues were recorded, the performance of both methods was comparable, in agreement with the observations at the NRL; however, these results suggest a need for further training with the kit and standardisation of the adapted TM35 instruments.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/instrumentação , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Carne de Porco/parasitologia , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trichinella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichinella spiralis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichinella spiralis/isolamento & purificação
4.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102457, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506948

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and factors associated with infection in goats, and to isolate protozoan strains in tissue samples from seropositive goats that were destined for human consumption in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 229 slaughtered goats were tested using the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), with a cutoff point of 1:64. Epidemiological questionnaires were applied to the producers, to acquire information about the sanitary management used in their herds. Tissue samples from the animals were collected during slaughter, in order to perform bioassays in mice. The seroprevalence found was 21.39% (49/229), with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:32,768. The municipalities of origin, Patos (OR: 3.047; CI: 1.384-6.706) and Sousa (OR: 3.355; CI: 1.536-7.327), were considered to be factors associated with infection by T. gondii. Thirty-eight bioassays were performed in mice, using tissues from seropositive goats, with an isolation rate of 50% (19/38). There was no correlation between isolation rate and antibody titers. Only one mouse died, at 30 days post-infection, which demonstrated that the strains isolated had low virulence towards mice. It was concluded that there is high seroprevalence in goats in northeastern Brazil, as well as a high percentage of viable tissue cysts in slaughtered animals destined for human consumption. These results demonstrate that there is an imminent one health problem relating to toxoplasmosis, especially in the most populous municipalities in the study (Patos and Sousa), which were identified as factors associated with T. gondii infection in goats.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Prevalência , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242614, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350297

RESUMO

Abstract Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.


Resumo Os vegetais crus são a principal fonte de transmissão de formas infecciosas de parasitas internos patogênicos entre os seres humanos. Esta pesquisa foi realizada de abril a outubro de 2017 para avaliar a contaminação parasitária de vegetais vendidos nos principais mercados de vegetais nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, Paquistão. Oitocentos exemplares de diferentes vegetais foram adquiridos e embebidos em solução salina fisiológica, agitados em agitador mecânico por 20 minutos e processados ​​pelo método de concentração por sedimentação. Os resultados revelaram que apenas 19,7% (n = 158/800) das hortaliças estavam contaminadas com uma ou várias espécies de parasitas. Ascaris lumbricoides (o verme redondo grande) 12,3% (n = 99/800) foi o patógeno mais comumente detectado e Taenia saginata (a tênia da carne) 1,62% (n = 13/800) foi o menos freqüentemente detectado. Curiosamente, valor de p significativo (p> 0,05 em IC de 95%) entre o número de examinados e contaminados para todas as variáveis ​​estudadas incluindo escolaridade dos vendedores, localização dos mercados, tipo de vegetais, meios de exposição, lavado antes da exposição, fonte de lavagem de água e tipo de mercado. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciaram que o consumo de vegetais crus possui grande risco de contrair infecções parasitárias nos distritos de Lower Dir e Peshawar, no Paquistão. Instruir os vendedores e o público sobre a transferência de doenças parasitárias e sua higiene pode reduzir a taxa de infecção de parasitas de origem humana.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Parasitos , Verduras/parasitologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nematoides , Paquistão , Saúde Pública , Parasitologia de Alimentos
6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816974

RESUMO

Vegetables eating raw are a leading source of transmission of infective forms of pathogenic internal parasites among human beings. This research was conducted from April to October, 2017 to assess the parasitic contamination of vegetables sold at main vegetable markets in districts Lower Dir and Peshawar, Pakistan. Eight hundred specimens of different vegetables were purchased and soaked in physiological saline solution, shaken with a mechanical shaker for 20 minutes and processed by sedimentation concentration method. Results revealed that only 19.7% (n=158/800) of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with single or multiple parasite species. Ascaris lumbricoides (the large round worm) 12.3% (n=99/800) was the most commonly detected pathogen and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm) 1.62% (n=13/800) was the least frequently detected one. Interestingly, significant p value (p>0.05 at 95%CI) between the number of examined and contaminated for all the variables studied including education status of the vendors, markets location, type of vegetables, means of display, washed before display, washing source of water and market type. The findings of this study evidenced that consumption of raw vegetables possesses great risk of getting parasitic infections in Lower Dir and Peshawar districts, Pakistan. Instructing the sellers and the public about parasitic disease transfer and their hygiene can reduce the infection rate of parasites of human origin.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Nematoides , Parasitos , Verduras/parasitologia , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Paquistão , Saúde Pública
7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 424-429, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505454

RESUMO

Food-borne parasitic diseases include meat-borne, fish-borne, plant-borne, water-borne, mollusk-borne and freshwater crustacean-borne parasitic diseases. The review summarizes the current status and control of 6 major food-borne parasitic diseases in China, including clonorchiasus, paragonimiasis, Taenia solium taeniasis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis and angiostrongyliasis, aiming to increase the understanding of food-borne parasitic diseases and provide insights into the development of the control strategy for food-borne parasitic diseases. The transmission of food-borne parasitic diseases are predominantly associated with diet, and neither eating raw nor semi-cooked food is the most effective measure to prevent the development of food-borne parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Doenças Parasitárias , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1332-1336, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555002

RESUMO

Foodborne illnesses are a substantial and largely preventable public health problem; before 2020 the incidence of most infections transmitted commonly through food had not declined for many years. To evaluate progress toward prevention of foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food reported by 10 U.S. sites.* FoodNet is a collaboration among CDC, 10 state health departments, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS), and the Food and Drug Administration. This report summarizes preliminary 2020 data and describes changes in incidence with those during 2017-2019. During 2020, observed incidences of infections caused by enteric pathogens decreased 26% compared with 2017-2019; infections associated with international travel decreased markedly. The extent to which these reductions reflect actual decreases in illness or decreases in case detection is unknown. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. After the declaration, state and local officials implemented stay-at-home orders, restaurant closures, school and child care center closures, and other public health interventions to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Federal travel restrictions were declared (1). These widespread interventions as well as other changes to daily life and hygiene behaviors, including increased handwashing, have likely changed exposures to foodborne pathogens. Other factors, such as changes in health care delivery, health care-seeking behaviors, and laboratory testing practices, might have decreased the detection of enteric infections. As the pandemic continues, surveillance of illness combined with data from other sources might help to elucidate the factors that led to the large changes in 2020; this understanding could lead to improved strategies to prevent illness. To reduce the incidence of these infections concerted efforts are needed, from farm to processing plant to restaurants and homes. Consumers can reduce their risk of foodborne illness by following safe food-handling and preparation recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 185: 107668, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555364

RESUMO

Weathervane scallop, Patinopecten caurinus, the largest scallop species in the world, is distributed from northern California, U.S.A., to the Bering Sea, and is only commercially harvested in Alaska. The fishery is considered well managed by the State of Alaska (U.S.A) Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) and federal government, with many precautionary measures in place to avoid overharvest. There have been episodic declines in some management areas due to unknown causes. Fishermen also encounter scallops with abnormal adductor muscles, a condition colloquially termed "weak meat", characterized by the retention of muscle when shucked, an obvious darkened discoloration, and/or an abnormal texture making the product unacceptable for marketing. A similar syndrome in Atlantic sea scallops, Placopecten magellanicus, described as "gray meat", occurs in the eastern U.S. and Canada, and proposed causes include senescence, loss of bioenergetics due to chronic infestations, or a synergism of these factors. Recently a severe apicomplexan infection was found to cause a gray meat condition in Iceland scallops, Chlamys islandica, and the collapse of that stock. This parasite was subsequently detected in Atlantic sea scallops with the gray meat condition off the U.S. East Coast. Studies that followed identified the parasite as Merocystis kathae, previously described from the common whelk, Buccinum undatum, more than 100 years ago. In 2015 Bering Sea fishermen reported weak meat in their catch, so samples were submitted to ADF&G for diagnosis. Adductor muscles from all affected scallops had many large foci of an apicomplexan associated with necrosis, fibrosis, and muscular atrophy. Given the reduced quality, marketability, and possibly fitness of affected scallops, we performed a survey to estimate prevalence, intensity, and geographic distribution of this apicomplexan in Alaskan weathervane scallops. We sampled 180 scallops, from individual beds within each of the three major geographically broad scallop areas in Alaska. Overall prevalence was about 82%, ranging from 69 to 100% by district. Overall mean infection intensity, based on the number of parasite foci/section, was about 9 (range of 5-29, by location), with scallops from the Bering Sea and Southwest Kodiak being most severely infected. Molecular analyses confirmed that the Alaskan parasite is M. kathae, i.e., the same apicomplexan that caused the collapse of Icelandic scallops and a suspected cause for gray meat and mass mortality of Atlantic sea scallops in northeast North America.


Assuntos
Coccídios/fisiologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Pectinidae/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Alaska , Animais
10.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(6): 688-698, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486345

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Control of the stored date insects by an eco-friendly method is essential to maintain the fruit for prolonged periods, especially that dates are eaten fresh. The search for a safe method, as an alternative to commonly used chemical pesticides, is needed. The objective is to investigate CO<sub>2</sub> enriched atmosphere on the Mortality Percentage (MP) of the Saw-toothed grain beetle, <i>O. surinamensis</i>, life stages with special emphasis on reducing damage to stored dates. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The effect of high levels of CO<sub>2</sub> as an alternative control method against the Saw-toothed grain beetle, <i>Oryzaephilus surinamensis</i> L., at different life stages was studied on infested 'Saqie' dates. Four CO<sub>2</sub> pressures (25, 50, 75 and 90 kPa, balance is nitrogen) were tested for 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs intervals. The response of different life stages of <i>O. surinamensis</i> to the different treatments varied according to CO<sub>2</sub> level, developmental stage and exposure period. <b>Results:</b> Mortality (%) was higher during the larval stage, followed by adults, pupae and eggs, in descending order. The larvae and adult stages were more sensitive to CO<sub>2</sub> treatment than the pupal and egg. Exposure time was more effective on eggs, larval and adult MP than the CO<sub>2</sub> atmosphere level. Mortality% at 96 hrs exposure time was almost 100% with CO<sub>2</sub> atmospheres of 50, 75 and 90 kPa. Mathematical equations were developed to model the relationship between mortality% and CO<sub>2</sub> treatments using multiple regression analyses for each life stage. <b>Conclusion:</b> The results confirmed that CO<sub>2</sub> could be applied to final food products during packaging to control the residual occurrence of insect pests after storage and before the packaging process to prevent further infestation in the final packages.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/parasitologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Phoeniceae/parasitologia , Animais , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
11.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103816, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119101

RESUMO

Protozoan contamination in produce is of growing importance due to their capacity to cause illnesses in consumers of fresh leafy greens. Viability assays are essential to accurately estimate health risk caused by viable parasites that contaminate food. We evaluated the efficacy of reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), propidium monoazide coupled with (q)PCR, and viability staining using propidium iodide through systematic laboratory spiking experiments for selective detection of viable Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia enterica, and Toxoplasma gondii. In the presence of only viable protozoa, the RT-qPCR assays could accurately detect two to nine (oo)cysts/g spinach (in 10 g processed). When different proportions of viable and inactivated parasite were spiked, mRNA concentrations correlated with increasing proportions of viable (oo)cysts, although low levels of false-positive mRNA signals were detectable in the presence of high amounts of inactivated protozoa. Our study demonstrated that among the methods tested, RT-qPCR performed more effectively to discriminate viable from inactivated C. parvum, G. enterica and T. gondii on spinach. This application of viability methods on leafy greens can be adopted by the produce industry and regulatory agencies charged with protection of human public health to screen leafy greens for the presence of viable protozoan pathogen contamination.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Parasitologia de Alimentos/métodos , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Spinacia oleracea/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Azidas/química , Cryptosporidium parvum/química , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Cryptosporidium parvum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Giardia/química , Giardia/genética , Giardia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oocistos/química , Oocistos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Propídio/análogos & derivados , Propídio/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Coloração e Rotulagem , Toxoplasma/química , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 353: 109294, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147838

RESUMO

In 2017-18, the Australian red meat (beef, sheep and goat species) industry generated more than $AUD 13 billion in export trade alone and is therefore of substantial importance to the Australian GDP. With both relatively high amounts of domestic red meat consumption and dependence on international markets, food safety risk is constantly reassessed so as to maintain a resilient industry sector. The current study aimed to conduct a food safety risk rating for the Australian red meat industry. In 2002, a food safety risk profile was developed for the Australian red meat industry. It included raw and processed meat products of cattle, sheep and goats and considered microbiological, chemical and physical hazards. The current risk rating was undertaken during 2017 and 2018. The first step was to conduct a hazard characterization, which involved a review of literature and data on foodborne outbreaks, pathogen surveillance and product recalls, and an expert elicitation process with 15 Australian food safety experts. This process identified the Hazard:Product:Process combinations to be considered and the likelihood of contamination at the point of consumption. These likelihood ratings were then combined with hazard severity ratings to qualitatively estimate the relative risk posed by each combination. Combinations with a moderate-to-high risk were included in the semi-quantitative risk rating using Risk Ranger v2, a tool that allows an estimation of the public health risk of hazard: product combinations and a ranking of this risk. The Risk Ranger tool provides a risk ranking (RR), ranging from 0 (no risk) to 100 (every member of the population eats a meal that contains a lethal dose of the hazard every day). STEC E. coli O157 (RR 35-39) and Salmonella spp. (RR 33-37) in undercooked hamburgers and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat products (RR 35-38) were combinations which had the highest (moderate) risk for the general and susceptible populations. In addition, Toxoplasma gondii in undercooked lamb was identified as posing a high risk among pregnant women (RR 49). The study provides an updated food safety risk profile for the Australian red meat industry which, considering the available information, suggests red meat products do not pose a high food safety risk. The methodology developed in this study provides an easy to implement approach to profile and prioritise food safety risk and relies on data that can generated in most situations.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Carne Vermelha , Medição de Risco , Animais , Austrália , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Bovinos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Ovinos , Toxoplasma/fisiologia
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 750-759, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171259

RESUMO

Pathogens pose a severe threat to food safety and human health. The traditional methods for pathogen detection can't meet the growing diagnosis and control need. Digital PCR (dPCR) attracts a considerable attention for its ability to absolutely quantify pathogens with features of high selectivity, simplicity, accuracy and rapidity. The dPCR technique that achieves absolute quantification based on end-point measurement without standard curve offers a guideline for further genetic analysis and molecular diagnosis. It could contribute to the quantification of low level of nucleic acid, early detection and timely prevention of pathogenic diseases. In this review, 1442 publications about dPCR were selected and the detections of various pathogens by dPCR were reviewed comprehensively, including viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. A number of examples are cited to illustrate that dPCR is a new powerful tool with desired accuracy, sensitivity, and reproducibility for quantification of different types of pathogens. Moreover, the benefits, challenges and future prospects of the dPCR were also highlighted in this review.


Assuntos
Infecções/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
14.
Parasitol Res ; 120(6): 2103-2108, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963900

RESUMO

Since 2002, Alaria (A.) alata mesocercariae (AM) have been found during routine Trichinella inspection of wild boars in many European countries. To date, human infection with AM through consumption of undercooked or raw AM infested wild boar meat cannot be excluded. In Germany, data on the parasite's prevalence in wild boars are scarce. To better understand temporal and spatial fluctuations of this parasite, this study investigated the prevalence of AM in wild boars in the German federal state of Brandenburg during three hunting seasons from 2017 to 2020. In total, 28.3% (100/354, 95% CI: 23.3-33.3%) of all wild boars sampled in eight counties of Brandenburg were tested positive for AM by Alaria alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT). AM were detected in wild boars from seven different counties. Samples from one county (Havelland) tested completely negative for AM (0/16). Prevalences of the seven AM positive counties of Brandenburg ranged from 11.5 (3/26, 95% CI: 2.5-30.1%) in Märkisch-Oderland to 64.1% (25/39, 95% CI: 47.2-78.8%) in Uckermark. An association between sex and A. alata positivity could not be determined. A statistically significant increase in frequency of older AM positive wild boars was observed (p = 0.001). For a nationwide assessment of the prevalence of A. alata in wild boars and the risk for consumers of ingesting viable AM by consumption of raw or undercooked AM infested wild boar meat, further long-term studies in different regions of Germany are needed.


Assuntos
Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Carne de Porco/parasitologia , Prevalência
17.
Parasitol Int ; 83: 102340, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812025

RESUMO

This report describes 33 confirmed cases of "Taenia asiatica" taeniosis in Tokyo, Japan, and six adjacent prefectures between 2010 and 2019. Of the 33 cases, 28 were domestic infections. Thirty patients had histories of eating raw pork and/or beef liver. It was highly suspected that the sources of infection were foreigners from T. asiatica-endemic countries who had worked on pig farms in these prefectures. We postulated that the rate of domestic infection has decreased as a result of legal regulations that have banned the serving of raw and undercooked pig and cattle viscera in restaurants in Japan. Haplotype analyses of genetic markers revealed that "T. asiatica" in Japan are the descendants of hybrids of T. asiatica and Taenia saginata that originated from the Philippines and/or Taiwan. It is critical that close attention continues to be paid to domestic recurrences and imported cases of T. asiatica taeniosis, with the goal of communicating information on risk factors for this infection to consumers, pig farmers, restaurant owners, physicians, and visitors coming to Japan.


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taenia/classificação , Adulto Jovem
18.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(3): 277-283, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655709

RESUMO

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii exposure in Inuit living in Nunavut (20%) is twice that of the US (11%); however, routes of exposure for Inuit communities in North America are unclear. Exposure to T. gondii in humans has been linked with consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish that can accumulate environmentally resistant oocysts. Bivalve shellfish, such as clams, are an important, nutritious, affordable and accessible source of food in many Northern Communities. To date, presence of T. gondii in clams in Northern Canada has not been reported. In this study, we tested for T. gondii presence in clams (Mya truncata) that were harvested in Iqaluit, Nunavut over a 1-week period in September 2016. Of 390 clams, eight (2.1%) were confirmed to contain T. gondii DNA (≥99.7% identity), as determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence confirmation. Additionally, three clams (0.8%) were confirmed to contain Neospora caninum-like DNA (≥99.2% identity). While N. caninum is not known to be a zoonotic pathogen, its presence in shellfish indicates contamination of the nearshore with canid faeces, and the potential for marine mammal exposure through marine food webs. Notably, the PCR assay employed in this study does not discriminate between viable and non-viable parasites. These findings suggest a possible route for parasite exposure through shellfish in Iqaluit, Nunavut. Future research employing viability testing will further inform public health messaging on the infectious potential of T. gondii in shellfish.


Assuntos
Bivalves/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Humanos , Nunavut/epidemiologia , RNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Toxoplasma/genética , Zoonoses
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 136: 198-199, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684793

RESUMO

Parasites, including helminths and protists, are pathogens responsible for waterborne and foodborne illnesses in both developed and developing countries. Their global incidence is difficult to estimate, but the World Health Organization (WHO) has indicated the global disease burden of 11 waterborne and foodborne parasitic diseases, is responsible for causing over 407 million illnesses resulting in an estimated of 94 K deaths and 11 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Nevertheless, compared with bacteria and viruses, parasites are often overlooked as etiological agents of foodborne or waterborne disease; this is due to a variety of reasons, including the difficulty of their identification in environmental matrices and because many have a prolonged period between infection and symptoms, making it difficult to implicate infection vehicles. This Special Issue comprises 17 articles that include the more significant waterborne and foodborne parasites of zoonotic importance due to their relevance, with all groups of parasites (protist, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) being represented. Each chapter covers relevant aspects regarding -the importance of the parasite in food and water, including an overview of outbreaks where relevant, information on fundamental epidemiological aspects such as transmission, lifecycle and host range, clinical aspects such as pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, a summary of prospects for control in water or the food chain, and, finally, providing the authors' opinions regarding future research or studies required to improve control of transmission to people via food or water.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Água/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Médicos Veterinários , Zoonoses
20.
Bull Entomol Res ; 111(4): 499-510, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766166

RESUMO

The performance of six grain storage technologies for the control of insect pests in maize was evaluated over a 36-week (9-month) storage period. The six technologies used were: two ZeroFly® hermetic bag brands (laminated and non-laminated); Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bag; non-hermetic ZeroFly® bag; woven polypropylene (PP) bag containing maize grain treated with Actellic Gold® Dust (pirimiphos-methyl 1.6% + thiamethoxam 0.3%) and woven PP bag containing untreated grain. Each bag was filled with 50 kg maize grain and four replicates of each were set up. With the exception of the non-hermetic ZeroFly® bag, 50 live adults of the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus and of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais, were introduced into all the bags. Insects were not introduced into the non-hermetic ZeroFly® bag to assess its effectiveness in repelling infestation from outside. Parameters recorded were gas composition (oxygen and carbon dioxide) levels inside the bags; weight of flour generated by insect feeding activities; grain moisture level; live adult insect counts; grain damage and weight loss; grain germination rate and aflatoxin level. At termination, the plastic liners of the hermetic bags were examined for perforations. Results show that oxygen depletion and carbon dioxide evolution were faster in ZeroFly® hermetic compared to PICS bags. Throughout the 36-week storage trial, grain damage remained below 4% and weight loss below 3% in all the treatments except in the untreated PP bags in which it increased to 81.1 and 25.5%, respectively. The hermetic PICS, ZeroFly® and Actellic Gold dust-treated PP bags maintained grain germination at 60%, which was lower than the initial 90%, while in untreated control, it reduced to 4.7%. The mean aflatoxin levels fluctuated between 0.39 and 3.56 parts per billion (ppb) during 24 weeks of storage in all the technologies tested, which is below the acceptable maximum level of 10 ppb in maize. Based on the evaluation results, it can be concluded that hermetic PICS and ZeroFly® bags and woven PP bag with Actellic Gold dust-treated grain effectively protected stored maize grain from insect attack and weight losses. Appropriate strategies and mechanisms for the effective and efficient adoption of hermetic storage bag technology at scale would contribute towards global food security.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Gorgulhos , Zea mays , Animais , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Germinação , Inseticidas , Compostos Organotiofosforados , Tiametoxam , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/fisiologia
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