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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(2): 187-190, 2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537842

RESUMO

To set the cultivation goal with adaptation to rural order-oriented medical students, the teaching mode of Human Parasitology was reformed in the context of curriculum ideological and political education. The new teaching mode not only enables students to harvest medical knowledge during the school education stage, but also plays a guiding role in cultivation of humanistic qualities and professional spirit, which provides a basis for cultivating general practitioners serving for grassroots healthcare.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Humanos , Parasitologia/educação , Política , Ensino
2.
Vet Parasitol ; 304: 109698, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35305843

RESUMO

The general WAAVP (World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology) guideline on anthelmintic efficacy were prepared to assist researchers with the planning, conduct and interpretation of studies to assess the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in food-producing and companion animals. General principles are outlined herein to assist in the preparation and execution of dosage determination, dosage confirmation and field studies, which are applicable to all animal host species. These general guidelines are complemented by revised species-specific guidelines, which provide more specific, updated and detailed guidance for each animal host species.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Parasitologia
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 302: 109613, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35094879

RESUMO

This second edition guideline was prepared to assist in the planning, conduct and interpretation of studies to assess the efficacy of parasiticides against ectoparasites of ruminants. It provides updated information on the selection of animals, dosage determination, dosage confirmation and field studies, record keeping and result interpretation. This guideline is intended to assist investigators on how to conduct specific studies, to provide specific information for registration authorities involved in the decision-making process, to assist in the approval and registration of new ectoparasiticides, and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of standard procedures.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários , Inseticidas , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Parasitologia , Ruminantes
5.
J Vet Med Educ ; 49(2): 210-222, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929940

RESUMO

The School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Ireland, restructured the teaching of general pathology, parasitology, and microbiology in third year in 2018 as part of the development of an outcome-based curriculum. A new integrated teaching module was created, called Veterinary Pathobiology, which encompassed the three paraclinical subjects, worth 20 ECTS credits. Subject integration was driven and supported by case-based learning (CBL) activities, and practical classes, which were aimed at facilitating the understanding of basic disease processes, infectious agents, and the application of diagnostic tests. The disciplines maintained their identities within lectures which were aligned by content. The restructuring led to a reduction of contact hours by 20% and of assessment time by 40%. The examinations included integrated questions with an emphasis on the material students had covered in their CBL. Despite positive outcomes, which included equivalent examination scores and positive written feedback by students on teaching and learning, understanding, assessment, relevance, CBL, group work, and generic skills, the average scores for overall student satisfaction dropped dramatically in the second academic year of implementation. This followed the introduction of new regulations by the University relating to student progression, which was capped at "carrying" 10 ECTS credits, thus preventing students that failed the new module from progressing. Other criticisms of the new module by students included too little communication on the changes implemented in its first iteration and a workload perceived to be too heavy. Further restructuring is therefore necessary. This study highlights the process/pitfalls of integration/curricular innovation.


Assuntos
Educação em Veterinária , Animais , Comunicação , Currículo , Humanos , Irlanda , Aprendizagem , Parasitologia/educação , Ensino
6.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(4): 304-310, 2021 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889199

RESUMO

Some parasite vaccines, developed for use in the veterinary field, are available in the market. Such vaccines usually contain live or attenuated parasites. Aside from these, a few parasite vaccines have also been prepared using recombinant technology. The objective of this review is to provide information about the antiparasitic vaccines available for use in the veterinary field globally.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Vacinas , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Parasitologia
9.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(4): 808-823, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343982

RESUMO

O presente estudo objetivou analisar a produção científica brasileira sobre a doença de Chagas a partir de publicações indexadas na base de dados Web of Science. Foram coletados e analisados os dados de 1.008 publicações no período entre 2006 e 2020. A interpretação dos dados permitiu identificar um expressivo crescimento da produção científica brasileira sobre a doença de Chagas e a abrangência da temática em periódicos internacionais. Contudo, há um enfoque nas áreas biomédicas do conhecimento com destaque para a Parasitologia e um diminuto número de investigações direcionadas às áreas da Saúde Pública, Ciências Sociais e Farmacêuticas. A bibliometria desvelou as lacunas ainda existentes na produção nacional e a necessidade de fortalecimento de políticas direcionadas a editais de pesquisa no país.


The present study aimed to analyze the Brazilian scientific production on Chagas disease from publications indexed in the Web of Science database. Data from 1,008 articles published between 2006 and 2020 were collected and analyzed. The interpretation of the data allowed the identification of an expressive growth of Brazilian scientific production on Chagas disease and comprehensiveness of the theme in international journals. However, there is a focus on the biomedical areas of knowledge with emphasis on Parasitology and a small number of investigations directed to the areas of Public Health, Social Sciences and Pharmaceuticals. The bibliometry revealed the gaps that still exist in the national production and the need to strengthen policies directed to research edicts in the country.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la producción científica brasileña sobre la enfermedad de Chagas, a partir de las publicaciones indexadas en la base de datos Web of Science. Se recogieron y analizaron los datos de 1.008 artículos publicados entre 2006 y 2020. La interpretación de los datos permitió identificar un crecimiento expresivo de la producción científica brasileña sobre la enfermedad de Chagas y la amplitud del tema en las revistas internacionales. Sin embargo, hay un enfoque en las áreas biomédicas del conocimiento con énfasis en la Parasitología y un pequeño número de investigaciones dirigidas a las áreas de Salud Pública, Ciencias Sociales y Farmacéutica. La bibliometría reveló las lagunas que aún existen en la producción nacional y la necesidad de fortalecer las políticas dirigidas a los edictos de investigación en el país.


Assuntos
Humanos , Brasil , Bibliometria , Doença de Chagas , Atividades Científicas e Tecnológicas , Doenças Negligenciadas , Parasitologia , Medicina Tropical , Análise de Dados
10.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1837): 20200360, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538143

RESUMO

Species are shifting their distributions in response to climate change. This geographic reshuffling may result in novel co-occurrences among species, which could lead to unseen biotic interactions, including the exchange of parasites between previously isolated hosts. Identifying potential new host-parasite interactions would improve forecasting of disease emergence and inform proactive disease surveillance. However, accurate predictions of future cross-species disease transmission have been hampered by the lack of a generalized approach and data availability. Here, we propose a framework to predict novel host-parasite interactions based on a combination of niche modelling of future host distributions and parasite sharing models. Using the North American ungulates as a proof of concept, we show this approach has high cross-validation accuracy in over 85% of modelled parasites and find that more than 34% of the host-parasite associations forecasted by our models have already been recorded in the literature. We discuss potential sources of uncertainty and bias that may affect our results and similar forecasting approaches, and propose pathways to generate increasingly accurate predictions. Our results indicate that forecasting parasite sharing in response to shifts in host geographic distributions allow for the identification of regions and taxa most susceptible to emergent pathogens under climate change. This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/parasitologia , Mudança Climática , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Modelos Biológicos , Parasitologia/métodos , Perissodáctilos/parasitologia , Animais , Previsões , América do Norte
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18547, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535695

RESUMO

The rotating-crystal magneto-optical detection (RMOD) method has been developed for the rapid and quantitative diagnosis of malaria and tested systematically on various malaria infection models. Very recently, an extended field trial in a high-transmission region of Papua New Guinea demonstrated its great potential for detecting malaria infections, in particular Plasmodium vivax. In the present small-scale field test, carried out in a low-transmission area of Thailand, RMOD confirmed malaria in all samples found to be infected with Plasmodium vivax by microscopy, our reference method. Moreover, the magneto-optical signal for this sample set was typically 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than the cut-off value of RMOD determined on uninfected samples. Based on the serial dilution of the original patient samples, we expect that the method can detect Plasmodium vivax malaria in blood samples with parasite densities as low as [Formula: see text]5-10 parasites per microliter, a limit around the pyrogenic threshold of the infection. In addition, by investigating the correlation between the magnitude of the magneto-optical signal, the parasite density and the erythrocytic stage distribution, we estimate the relative hemozoin production rates of the ring and the trophozoite stages of in vivo Plasmodium vivax infections.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax/diagnóstico , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Magnetismo/métodos , Malária Vivax/sangue , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Microscopia/métodos , Dispositivos Ópticos , Parasitologia/métodos , Tailândia/epidemiologia
13.
J Parasitol ; 107(5): 762-769, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547102

RESUMO

In comparative studies, the advantage of increased sample sizes might be outweighed by detrimental effects on sample homogeneity and comparability when small numbers of hosts from a different demographic of the same species are included in samples. A mixed sample of sunfishes (Lepomis spp.) was subdivided in different ways and examined using cumulative performance curves to determine whether the exclusion of larger hosts from a single-species sample and/or the inclusion of hosts of the same size demographic from closely related host species would produce more homogeneous samples. The exclusion of larger hosts from the single-species samples tended to reduce the aggregation of the infrapopulation samples, and mixed-species samples of smaller fishes tended to have lower degrees of aggregation for a given sample size relative to the single-species sample. Cumulative performance curves for diversity and richness, in concert with nonmetric multidimensional scaling of the infracommunities, demonstrated sunfish size to be a more reliable determinant of infracommunity similarity than sunfish species in this particular sample. The results demonstrate that cumulative aggregation curves can be an effective tool for delineating homogeneous and comparable subsamples and that, under some circumstances, it is possible to offset the smaller sample sizes that result from the exclusion of older/larger hosts by the addition of congeneric or confamilial hosts within the same size/age classes as the stratified sample.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Parasitologia/métodos , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Olho/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Parasitologia/normas , Tamanho da Amostra
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009668, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437538

RESUMO

Protozoan parasites are responsible for severe disease and suffering in humans worldwide. Apart from disease transmission via insect vectors and contaminated soil, food, or water, transmission may occur congenitally or by way of blood transfusion and organ transplantation. Several recent outbreaks associated with fresh produce and potable water emphasize the need for vigilance and monitoring of protozoan parasites that cause severe disease in humans globally. Apart from the tropical parasite Plasmodium spp., other protozoa causing debilitating and fatal diseases such as Trypanosoma spp. and Naegleria fowleri need to be studied in more detail. Climate change and socioeconomic issues such as migration continue to be major drivers for the spread of these neglected tropical diseases beyond endemic zones. Due to the complex life cycles of protozoa involving multiple hosts, vectors, and stringent growth conditions, studying these parasites has been challenging. While in vivo models may provide insights into host-parasite interaction, the ethical aspects of laboratory animal use and the challenge of ready availability of parasite life stages underline the need for in vitro models as valid alternatives for culturing and maintaining protozoan parasites. To our knowledge, this review is the first of its kind to highlight available in vitro models for protozoa causing highly infectious diseases. In recent years, several research efforts using new technologies such as 3D organoid and spheroid systems for protozoan parasites have been introduced that provide valuable tools to advance complex culturing models and offer new opportunities toward the advancement of parasite in vitro studies. In vitro models aid scientists and healthcare providers in gaining insights into parasite infection biology, ultimately enabling the use of novel strategies for preventing and treating these diseases.


Assuntos
Plasmodium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trypanosoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Parasitologia/métodos
16.
Int J Parasitol ; 51(13-14): 1073-1084, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390744

RESUMO

In the five decades since the first publication of the International Journal for Parasitology, ecological parasitology has grown from modest beginnings to become a modern discipline with a strong theoretical foundation, a diverse toolkit, and a multidisciplinary approach. In this review, I highlight 12 advances in the field that have spurred its growth over the past 50 years. Where relevant, I identify pivotal contributions that have altered the course of research, as well as the influence of developments in other fields such as mainstream ecology and molecular biology. The 12 key advances discussed are in areas including parasite population dynamics and community assembly, the regulation of host population abundance and food web structure, parasites as agents of natural selection, the impacts of biodiversity and anthropogenic changes on host-parasite interactions, the biogeography of parasite diversity, and the evolutionary genetics of parasites. I conclude by identifying some challenges and opportunities lying ahead, which need to be met for the future growth of ecological research on host-parasite interactions.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Parasitos/genética , Parasitologia
17.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101782, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274573

RESUMO

We developed a transwell assay to quantify migration of the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), toward Ixodes scapularis salivary gland proteins. The assay was designed to assess B. burgdorferi s.s. migration upward against gravity through a transwell polycarbonate membrane overlaid with 6% gelatin. Borreliae that channeled into the upper transwell chamber in response to test proteins were enumerated by flow cytometry. The transwell assay measured chemoattractant activity for B. burgdorferi s.s. from salivary gland extract (SGE) harvested from nymphal ticks during bloodmeal engorgement on mice 42 h post-attachment and saliva collected from adult ticks. Additionally, SGE protein fractions separated by size exclusion chromatography demonstrated various levels of chemoattractant activity in the transwell assay. Sialostatin L, and Salp-like proteins 9 and 11 were identified by mass spectrometry in SGE fractions that exhibited elevated activity. Recombinant forms of these proteins were tested in the transwell assay and showed positive chemoattractant properties compared to controls and another tick protein, S15A. These results were reproducible providing evidence that the transwell assay is a useful method for continuing investigations to find tick saliva components instrumental in driving B. burgdorferi s.s. chemotaxis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Borrelia burgdorferi/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia , Ixodes/química , Parasitologia/métodos , Animais , Borrelia burgdorferi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Saliva/química
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14234, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244581

RESUMO

Glucantime (SbV) is the first-line treatment against American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis. Resistance cases to this drug have been reported and related to host characteristics and parasite phenotypes. In this study, 12 Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis isolates from patients that presented clinical cure (Responders-R) and relapse or therapeutic failure (Non-responders-NR) after treatment with antimony, were analyzed. These parasites were assessed by in vitro susceptibility to SbIII and SbV, serine proteases activity measured with substrate (z-FR-AMC) and specific inhibitors (TLCK, AEBSF and PMSF). In vitro susceptibility of axenic amastigotes to SbIII showed a significant difference between R and NR groups. The protease assays showed that TLCK inhibited almost 100% of activity in both axenic amastigotes and promastigotes while AEBSF inhibited around 70%, and PMSF showed lower inhibition of some isolates. Principal component and clustering analysis performed with these data yielded one homogeneous cluster with only NR isolates and three heterogeneous clusters with R and NR isolates. Additionally, differential expression of subtilisins (LbrM.13.0860 and LbrM.28.2570) and TXNPx (LbrM.15.1080) was evaluated in promastigotes and axenic amastigotes from both groups. The results showed a higher expression of LbrM.13.0860 and LbrM.15.1080 genes in axenic amastigotes, while LbrM.28.2570 gene had the lowest expression in all isolates, regardless of the parasite form. The data presented here show a phenotypic heterogeneity among the parasites, suggesting that exploration of in vitro phenotypes based on SbIII and serine proteases profiles can aid in the characterization of L. (V.) braziliensis clinical isolates.


Assuntos
Antimônio/farmacologia , Leishmania braziliensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania braziliensis/enzimologia , Serina Proteases/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/efeitos dos fármacos , Parasitologia , Serina Proteases/genética
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 296: 109509, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218175

RESUMO

The first parasite fecal egg counting techniques were described over 100 years ago, and fecal egg counting remains essential in parasitology research as well as in clinical practice today. Several novel techniques have been introduced and validated in recent years, but this work has also highlighted several current issues in this research field. There is a lack of consensus on which diagnostic parameters to evaluate and how to properly design studies doing so. Furthermore, there is a confusing and sometimes incorrect use of terminology describing performance of fecal egg counting techniques, and it would be helpful to address these. This manuscript reviews qualitative and quantitative diagnostic performance parameters, discusses their relevance for fecal egg counting techniques, and highlights some of the challenges with determining them. Qualitative parameters such as diagnostic sensitivity and specificity may be considered classic diagnostic performance metrics, but they generally only have implications at low egg count levels. The detection limit of a given technique is often referred to as the "analytical sensitivity", but this is misleading as the detection limit is a theoretically derived number, whereas analytical sensitivity is determined experimentally. Thus, the detection limit is not a diagnostic performance parameter and does not inform on the diagnostic sensitivity of a technique. Quantitative performance parameters such as accuracy and precision are highly relevant for describing the performance of fecal egg counting techniques, and precision is arguably the more important of the two. An absolute determination of accuracy can only be achieved by use of samples spiked with known quantities of parasite ova, but spiking does not necessarily mimic the true distribution of eggs within a sample, and accuracy estimates are difficult to reproduce between laboratories. Instead, analysis of samples from naturally infected animals can be used to achieve a relative ranking of techniques according to egg count magnitude. Precision can be estimated in a number of different approaches, but it is important to ensure a relevant representation of egg count levels in the study sample set, as low egg counts tend to associate with lower precision estimates. Coefficients of variation generally provide meaningful measures of precision that are independent of the multiplication factor of the techniques evaluated. Taken together, there is a need for clear guidelines for studies validating fecal egg counting techniques in veterinary parasitology with emphasis on what should be evaluated, how studies could be designed, and how to appropriately analyze the data. Furthermore, there is a clear need for better consensus regarding use of terminology describing the diagnostic performance of fecal egg count techniques.


Assuntos
Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Óvulo , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/normas , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Parasitologia/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Trends Parasitol ; 37(10): 856-858, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219031

RESUMO

Taxonomic reassignments were suggested for Neotropical anopheline malaria vectors, elevating four monophyletic groups Kerteszia, Lophopodomyia, Nyssorhynchus, and Stethomyia to the genus level, upending their conventional status as subgenera of the genus Anopheles. Two questions are proposed. Do the advantages of reclassification outweigh its disadvantages? Is the reclassification generally accepted and/or scientifically imperative?


Assuntos
Anopheles , Classificação , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Parasitologia/tendências
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