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1.
Spinal Cord Ser Cases ; 7(1): 90, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588415

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This is a 20-year-old wheelchair athlete with history of caudal regression syndrome and cervical canal stenosis who developed spinal segmental myoclonus following routine intubation for an elective procedure. CASE PRESENTATION: This patient is a 20-year-old man with history of caudal regression syndrome and chronic cervical stenosis. He is a high-level wheelchair racer and paralympic hopeful. This patient initially presented 18 months prior with shoulder abduction weakness. He was found to have cervical stenosis at C4, C5 on MRI. Neurosurgical treatment was not needed at that time as symptoms resolved. On this encounter, he presented for an elective urologic surgical procedure. Glidescope intubation was performed with notable cervical extension. In the Post Anesthesia Care Unit, the patient began experiencing twitching movements in his pectoral muscles bilaterally as well as left deltoid and biceps. His findings were consistent with myoclonus due to his cervical myelopathy. He was initially started on levetiracetam, but experienced dizziness. His symptoms were finally controlled with clonazepam. Neurosurgery performed cord decompression and fusion with resolution of his symptoms. DISCUSSION: There are few cases of myoclonus secondary to myelopathy documented in literature. The current recommended treatments, levetiracetam and/or benzodiazepines, were successful in managing the myoclonus in this patient. However, cord decompression is necessary to avoid progression of myelopathic symptoms. In conclusion, myoclonus can be a presenting symptom of myelopathy and warrants further investigation, especially in patients with known spinal cord or vertebral pathology.


Assuntos
Mioclonia , Paratletas , Compressão da Medula Espinal , Doenças da Medula Espinal , Adulto , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Mioclonia/etiologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578997

RESUMO

Limited information exists on dietary practices in para-athletes. The aim of this study was to clarify the actual situation of para-athletes' dietary practice and to sort out the factors (i.e., eating perception, nutrition knowledge, and body image), that may hinder their dietary practices, and explored the practical challenges in nutritional support and improving nutrition knowledge for para-athletes. Thirty-two Japanese para-athletes (22 men) and 45 collegiate student athletes without disabilities (27 men) participated in the online survey. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, eating perception, dietary practices, and nutrition knowledge. The Japanese version of the body appreciation scale was used to determine their body image. Para-athletes who answered that they knew their ideal amount and way of eating showed significantly higher body image scores (r = 0.604, p < 0.001). However, mean score for nutrition knowledge of para-athletes were significantly lower than collegiate student athletes (19.4 ± 6.8 vs. 24.2 ± 6.1 points, p = 0.001). Both groups did not identify a dietitian as the source of nutrition information or receiving their nutrition advice. The results indicate para-athletes have unique eating perceptions and inadequate nutrition knowledge. Future interventions are needed to examine nutritional supports and education in relation to the role of dietitians.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Paratletas/psicologia , Adulto , Atletas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Apoio Nutricional , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
4.
Spec Care Dentist ; 41(6): 679-687, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245174

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the impact of dental caries on OHRQoL in Para athletes and to evaluate whether interleukin 1 alpha (IL1A) (rs17561, rs1304037), interleukin 10 (IL10) (rs1800871), and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) (rs9005) genes are potential biomarkers for OHRQoL in Para athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study consisting of 264 Para athletes (athletics, 143; powerlifting, 61; and swimming, 60) aged between 14 and 79 years was conducted. The decayed-missing-filled teeth index was used for the clinical evaluation. The Brazilian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was used to measure the OHRQoL. Genomic DNA was extracted from the saliva. Genetic polymorphisms were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: The overall mean OHIP-14 score observed was 6.24 (standard deviation, 7.05) and 10.03 (standard deviation, 8.11) in Para athletes with no caries experience and with caries experience, respectively (p = .002). Para athletes with the A allele in the IL1A gene (rs17561), in a dominant model, had a significantly higher risk of poor psychological discomfort than those with the other allele (p = .03). CONCLUSION: Dental caries affected the OHRQoL in Para athletes. IL1A genetic polymorphisms were the potential biomarkers for OHRQoL in Para athletes.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Interleucina-1alfa/genética , Saúde Bucal , Paratletas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 21(11): 1510-1517, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304697

RESUMO

Fairness in sport is a widely shared meritocratic norm. Its application is usually restricted to equality of opportunity to compete for victory. Paralympic sports lay down a further challenge in that equality of opportunity must be shaped by considerations of fairness, evidenced by the development of discrete competition categories to construct fair and meaningful contests. In this article, we extend these philosophical ideas to consider how Fair Equality of Opportunity might operate in the context of Paralympic sports classification. We articulate three conceptions of fairness relevant to these sports: (i) background fairness; (ii) procedural fairness; and (iii) stakes fairness. We critically review the International Paralympic Committee's Policy on Sport Equipment in relation to the first two conceptions and argue that greater clarification, theorization and rule modification is required if physical prowess, as opposed to equipment technology, is to be assured as the dominant determinant of Paralympic athletic success.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/classificação , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Paratletas/classificação , Equipamentos Esportivos/classificação , Equipamentos Esportivos/ética , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/ética , Humanos , Tecnologia/classificação , Tecnologia/ética
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208239

RESUMO

The use of dietary supplements is high among athletes and non-athletes alike, as well as able-bodied individuals and those with impairments. However, evidence is lacking in the use of dietary supplements for sport performance in a para-athlete population (e.g., those training for the Paralympics or similar competition). Our objective was to examine the literature regarding evidence for various sport supplements in a para-athlete population. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, MedLine, and Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Source. Fifteen studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in our review. Seven varieties of supplements were investigated in the studies reviewed, including caffeine, creatine, buffering agents, fish oil, leucine, and vitamin D. The evidence for each of these supplements remains inconclusive, with varying results between studies. Limitations of research in this area include the heterogeneity of the subjects within the population regarding functionality and impairment. Very few studies included individuals with impairments other than spinal cord injury. Overall, more research is needed to strengthen the evidence for or against supplement use in para-athletes. Future research is also recommended on performance in para-athlete populations with classifiable impairments other than spinal cord injuries.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Paratletas , Desempenho Atlético , Humanos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva
7.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 62-72, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092196

RESUMO

The current protocol for classifying Para swimmers with hypertonia, ataxia and athetosis involves a physical assessment where the individual's ability to coordinate their limbs is scored by subjective clinical judgment. The lack of objective measurement renders the current test unsuitable for evidence-based classification. This study evaluated a revised version of the Para swimming assessment for motor coordination, incorporating practical, objective measures of movement smoothness, rhythm error and accuracy. Nineteen Para athletes with hypertonia and 19 non-disabled participants performed 30 s trials of bilateral alternating shoulder flexion-extension at 30 bpm and 120 bpm. Accelerometry was used to quantify movement smoothness; rhythm error and accuracy were obtained from video. Para athletes presented significantly less smooth movement and higher rhythm error than the non-disabled participants (p < 0.05). Random forest algorithm successfully classified 89% of participants with hypertonia during out-of-bag predictions. The most important predictors in classifying participants were movement smoothness at both movement speeds, and rhythm error at 120 bpm. Our results suggest objective measures of movement smoothness and rhythm error included in the current motor coordination test protocols can be used to infer impairment in Para swimmers with hypertonia. Further research is merited to establish the relationship of these measures with swimming performance.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Hipertonia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Adulto , Algoritmos , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Atetose/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Hipertonia Muscular/classificação , Paratletas/classificação , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Natação/classificação , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 73-80, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092197

RESUMO

This study examined the reliability of instrumented trunk assessment methods across two experiments to develop and improve evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Trunk coordination, range of motion (ROM), and strength were assessed in 38 non-disabled participants. Each test battery was completed on two occasions to determine inter-session reliability. Intra-session reliability was also determined in Experiment Two. Absolute agreement of two-way mixed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 3,1) was calculated to assess reliability. Standard errors of measurement (SEMs) were also reported to facilitate comparisons between different outcomes. Trunk coordination measures had low-to-moderate reliability (inter-session ICCs = 0.00-0.60; intra-session ICCs = 0.14-0.65) and variable SEMs (5-60%). Trunk ROM demonstrated moderate-to-excellent reliability (inter-session ICCs = 0.61-0.93; intra-session ICCs = 0.87-0.95) and good SEMs (<10%). Trunk strength measures demonstrated good-to-excellent reliability (ICCs = 0.87-0.98) and good SEMs (<10%). The strength values obtained for the load cell and hand-held dynamometer (HHD) were significantly different from each other with the HHD underestimating strength. Modifications provided in Experiment Two improved the reliability of strength and ROM assessments but did not improve coordination measures. Further research involving para swimmers is required to establish the validity of the methods.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Paratletas/classificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Postura Sentada , Coluna Vertebral , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/classificação , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(8): 1159-1172, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184496

RESUMO

The role of sleep is now recognized as an important component for success in athletic performance, and sleep is proposed to be one of the most effective recovery strategies available. Insufficient sleep is commonly reported among athletes while several factors have been put forward to explain why elite athletes might experience poor sleep. However, Paralympic athletes may be predisposed to a greater risk of poor sleep due to the associated complexities of some impairment types. In fact, clinical research has previously shown that individuals with disabilities have a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances when compared to their able-bodied counterparts. However, research and evidence-based practices regarding the sleep of elite Paralympic athletes are limited. Firstly, this narrative review aims to identify challenges associated with the Paralympic games to obtain optimal sleep. Secondly, identify the specific risk factors to sleep associated with particular impairment groups within the Paralympic population, and lastly to propose potential sleep-enhancing strategies that might be of relevance for Paralympic athletes. From this review, initial observations have identified that Paralympic athletes may have a heightened risk of sleep-related problems, and importantly highlighted the current lack of understanding within this population group. Furthermore, this review identified where further research is warranted to better understand how specific impairments impact sleep and, consequently, athletic performance. Additionally, this review highlighted that the forthcoming Tokyo games may offer a unique challenge for athletes trying to obtain optimal sleep, due to the anticipated thermal demands and the consequent irregular scheduling of events.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Paratletas , Atletas , Humanos , Sono , Tóquio
10.
Brain Inj ; 35(8): 971-977, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185611

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the 52-week incidence proportion and incidence rate of sports-related concussion (SRC) among elite Para athletes, and to analyze the injury mechanisms.Method: In total, 70 male and 37 female Swedish elite Para athletes (median age 29 years) with vision, physical and intellectual impairment, weekly self-reported sports-related injuries including concussion in an eHealth application adapted to Para athletes. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the incidence rate and incidence proportion. Chi-square statistics were used to analyze differences in the proportion of SRC.Results: A total of 13 SRC were reported: three athletes each sustained two SRC. The incidence proportion was 9.3% (95% CI 4.8-16.7), and the incidence rate 0.5 SRC/1000 hours (95% CI 0.3-0.9) of sports exposure. Athletes with vision impairment and female athletes reported a significantly higher proportion of SRC. A majority of the injuries (n = 9; 69%) occurred during sport-specific training. The injury mechanisms were collision with object (n = 7; 54%), collision with person (n = 4; 31%), and poor playing field conditions (n = 2; 16%).Conclusion: The incidence of concussion among elite Paralympic athletes is comparable to sports for able-bodied athletes. Athletes with vision impairment and female athletes reported a significantly higher incidence of SRC, and collisions were the most common injury mechanism. These results can form the basis for future preventive research studies.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Paratletas , Adulto , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 125-131, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180373

RESUMO

In Paralympic judo for athletes with vision impairment (VI judo) all eligible athletes (i.e. B1, B2 and B3 classes) compete against each other in the same competition. Evidence suggests that athletes with more impairment may be disadvantaged, but that more sensitive measures of performance are necessary to understand the impact of impairment on performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Para sport class and technical variation, time-motion variables, and performance in Paralympic judo. All 175 judo matches from the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games were analysed across 129 competitors (82 male and 47 female). The main results indicated that athletes who demonstrated less technical variation also experienced less competitive success, with the functionally blind athletes (class B1) demonstrating less technical variation than partially sighted (class B2 and B3) athletes (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the time-motion variables between sport classes (p > 0.05). We conclude that measures of technical variation are sensitive to differences in impairment and are suitable for studies that investigate the impairment-performance relationship in VI judo. Results further confirm that some athletes with impairment are disadvantaged under the current rules of VI judo.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Paratletas , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Análise de Variância , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Artes Marciais/classificação , Artes Marciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Paratletas/classificação , Fatores Sexuais , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Acuidade Visual , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/classificação
12.
J Sports Sci ; 39(18): 2133-2143, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148529

RESUMO

The resting metabolic rate (RMR) is one of the most representative components of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). Multiple equations have been developed to estimate RMR, but none have been described for Para-Athletes. This study aimed to; i) develop and validate new RMR estimation models from anthropometric variables; and ii) explore the level of agreement between the RMR determined by indirect calorimetry (IC) and the developed models, as well as a selection of existent estimation models in Para-Athletes. Fifteen young Paralympic swimmers (age, 18.7±6.5 years) underwent assessments of RMR by IC and anthropometric batteries. Four RMR estimation models (M1-M4) were developed. The anthropometric variables which explained most of the variance were biacromial breadth (M3-37%), stature (M1-45%; M2-49%), and estimated stature from half arm span (M4-24%). However, the neck girth corrected by the submandibular skinfold entered in all four models. The 95% limits of agreement between IC and M3 equation (best performance model) ranged from -142.02 to 172.39 kcal×day-1 (bias 15.19 kcal×day-1). Concerning the commonly used equations, Harris & Benedict equation was the most consistent when compared to IC. The results of this study suggest four novel RMR equations that may assist in the estimation of energy requirements in elite Para-Athletes.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Paratletas , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Adulto Jovem
13.
Spec Care Dentist ; 41(6): 700-706, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131935

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study investigated if recurrent manifestation of oral herpes lesions is associated with other factors and impacts the oral health-related quality of life in para-athletes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The studied population was composed of a convenience sample of 370 Brazilian para-athletes. All included individuals answered questionnaires and were submitted to an oral examination. A self-reported questionnaire addressed demographic and oral health data, including the recurrent manifestation of oral herpes lesions. The Oral Health Impact Profile was also applied in its reduced version with 14 questions (OHIP-14). The population was categorized according to results from previous competitions into a high-performance level, medium-performance level, and regional-performance level. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, odds ratio calculation, logistic regression analysis, and t-tests were performed (α = 5%). Sixty (16.2%) para-athletes reported recurrent manifestations of oral herpes lesions. Para-athletes with sleep bruxism (p = .007) and awake bruxism (p = .048) had a higher chance of reporting oral herpes lesions. Type of breathing was also associated with oral herpes lesions (p = .031). The OHIP-14 mean distribution among the groups was not statistically significant (p > .05). CONCLUSION: Bruxism and type of breathing were associated with self-reported oral herpes lesions in Brazilian para-athletes.


Assuntos
Bruxismo , Paratletas , Bruxismo do Sono , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Br J Sports Med ; 55(23): 1342-1349, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the implementation of a health monitoring programme for Norwegian Paralympic and Olympic candidates over five consecutive Olympic and Paralympic Games cycles (London 2012, Sochi 2014, Rio de Janeiro 2016, PyeongChang 2018 and Tokyo 2020). METHODS: Athletes were monitored for 12-18 months preparing for the games using a weekly online questionnaire (OSTRC-H2) with follow-up by physicians and physiotherapists, who provided clinical care and classified reported problems. RESULTS: Between 2011 and 2020, 533 Olympic and 95 Paralympic athletes were included in the monitoring programme, with an overall response of 79% to the weekly questionnaire and a total observation period of 30 826 athlete weeks. During this time, 3770 health problems were reported, with a diagnosis rate of 97%. The average prevalence of health problems at any given time was 32% among Olympic athletes and 37% among Paralympic athletes. Acute traumatic injuries represented the greatest burden for Olympic team sport athletes, and illnesses represented the greatest burden for Olympic endurance and Paralympic athletes. On average, Olympic athletes lost 27 days and Paralympic athletes lost 33 days of training per year due to health problems. CONCLUSION: Conducting long-term health monitoring of Olympic and Paralympic athletes is challenging, particularly because athletes travel frequently and often relate to many medical providers. This programme has been implemented and improved within Team Norway for five Olympic and Paralympic cycles and during this time we believe it has helped protect our athletes' health.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Paratletas , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Brasil , Humanos , Londres , Tóquio
16.
Prosthet Orthot Int ; 45(1): 46-53, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommendations for the alignment of the socket and foot in the sprinting prosthesis of athletes with transfemoral amputation are either based on walking biomechanics or lack public scientific evidence. OBJECTIVES: To explore the biomechanical changes and the sensations of a gold medal Paralympic sprinter, while running with three bench alignments: a conventional reference (A0), an innovative alignment based on the biomechanics of elite able-bodied sprinters (A2), and an intermediate alignment (A1). STUDY DESIGN: Single subject with repeated measures. METHODS: A1 and A2 feature a progressively greater socket tilt and a plantar-flexed foot compared to A0. The 30-year-old female athlete trained with three prostheses, one per alignment, for at least 2 months. We administered a questionnaire to collect her impressions. Then, she ran on a treadmill at full speed (5.5 m/s). We measured the kinematics and moments of the prosthetic side, and the ground reaction forces of both sides. RESULTS: A2 reduced the prosthetic side hip extension at foot-off while preserving hip range of motion, decreased the impulse of the hip moment, and increased the horizontal propulsion, leaving sufficient margin to prevent knee buckling without increasing sound side braking forces. Biomechanical outcomes matched well with subjective impressions. CONCLUSIONS: A2 appears promising to improve the performance and comfort of sprinters with transfemoral amputation, without compromising safety. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Observation of elite able-bodied sprinters led to the definition of a new specific alignment for the sprinting prosthesis of athletes with transfemoral amputation, which appears promising to improve performance and comfort, without compromising safety. This may constitute a major improvement compared to alignments based on walking biomechanics.


Assuntos
Amputados , Membros Artificiais , Distinções e Prêmios , Paratletas , Adulto , Amputação , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese
17.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 109-115, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902397

RESUMO

Adapted sailing is a Paralympic sport in which sailors with different types of disabilities can compete in the same event. According to 2.4mR Class, eligible impairments include limb deficiency and vision impairment. However, it is still unknown the variables that determine performance. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (i) to identify the variables that determine the sailing performance, (ii) to analyse the influence of the type of impairment on sailing performance, and (iii) analyse the influence of the wind force on sailing performance. Thirty-three elite sailors with disabilities participated and were divided into three groups according to the type of impairment: affectation of upper, lower, or upper and lower limbs. Participants were evaluated during three 2.4mR class World Cups and the following variables were assessed: velocity made good, distance and manoeuvres in upwind-downwind courses and type of impairment. Those sailors with better performance travelled a shorter distance during downwind sailing. The results showed that performance was not affected by which category the sailor was placed according to the type of impairment. The sailors with a lesser disability perform better when the wind is medium and high.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Paratletas , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Esportes Aquáticos , Vento , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limitação da Mobilidade , Paratletas/classificação , Navios/classificação , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Extremidade Superior , Transtornos da Visão , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 150-158, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861160

RESUMO

Classification within the sport of vision impairment (VI) shooting is based upon the athlete's visual function. This study aimed to determine whether more than one class of competition is needed within VI shooting on the basis of visual field loss. Qualification scores of 23 elite athletes were obtained at World Championship events in prone and standing shooting disciplines. Visual field data were obtained from classification data and from assessment at events. A standardized scoring protocol determined whether athletes had function (≥10 dB) or no function (<10 dB) at locations between 0-60 degrees eccentricity along 10 meridia. Visual field function was not associated with shooting performance in prone or standing disciplines (p > 0.05). Having measurable visual field function beyond 30 degrees made no difference to athletes' ability to shoot competitively in prone (p = 0.65) or standing disciplines (p = 0.47), although a potential impact on qualification was observed in the standing discipline. There was no evidence that loss of visual field function at any specific location adversely affected ability to shoot competitively. There is currently no evidence to consider visual fields in classification within prone or standing VI shooting, although further research is needed as the sport grows.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Paratletas , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Adulto , Idoso , Desempenho Atlético/classificação , Sensibilidades de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paratletas/classificação , Decúbito Ventral , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Posição Ortostática , Acuidade Visual
19.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803566

RESUMO

(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the symptoms of low energy availability (LEA) and risk of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) symptoms in para-athletes using a multi-parameter approach. (2) Methods: National level para-athletes (n = 9 males, n = 9 females) completed 7-day food and activity logs to quantify energy availability (EA), the LEA in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans to assess bone mineral density (BMD), and hormonal blood spot testing. (3) Results: Based on EA calculations, no athlete was at risk for LEA (females < 30 kcal·kg-1 FFM·day-1; and males < 25 kcal·kg-1 FFM·day-1; thresholds for able-bodied (AB) subjects). Overall, 78% of females were "at risk" for LEA using the LEAF-Q, and 67% reported birth control use, with three of these participants reporting menstrual dysfunction. BMD was clinically low in the hip (<-2 z-score) for 56% of female and 25% of male athletes (4) Conclusions: Based on calculated EA, the risk for RED-S appears to be low, but hormonal outcomes suggest that RED-S risk is high in this para-athlete population. This considerable discrepancy in various EA and RED-S assessment tools suggests the need for further investigation to determine the true prevalence of RED-S in para-athlete populations.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Deficiência Energética Relativa no Esporte/etiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Antropometria , Densidade Óssea , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros de Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Paratletas , Fatores de Risco , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Spec Care Dentist ; 41(4): 505-511, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749857

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the association of the salivary pH and parameters of oral health in Brazilian para-athletes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The sample was composed of 271 Brazilian para-athletes (147 athletics, 61 powerlifting, and 63 swimming); mean age was 31.2 ± 11.7 years. Data collected during anamnesis, clinical examination, and saliva collection revealed that salivary pH was different among sports (p = .01) and tends to decrease as age and body mass index (BMI) increase (p = .026, .027, respectively). The mean decay missing filled teeth was 8.8 (±0.57), but there is no correlation with salivary pH (R2  = -0.0852; CI 95%, -0.215-0.047; p = .194) as habits of grinding, clenching teeth, or bruxism was not associated with salivary pH (p = .317, .932, and .444, respectively). Regarding breathing, para-athletes that have buccal breathing had significantly higher salivary pH (p = .04). This data were confirmed by multiple logistic regression (p = .05). Open bite, lip seal, geographic or fissured tongue also were not associated with variation of salivary pH (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: This study provided evidence of an association between salivary pH with age, BMI, type of breathing, and type of sport practiced by the para-athletes.


Assuntos
Paratletas , Saliva , Adulto , Brasil , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Saúde Bucal , Adulto Jovem
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