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1.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210183, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1346052

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo analisar a influência do retorno ao trabalho de mães trabalhadoras da enfermagem no aleitamento materno. Método pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida por meio de formulário semiestruturado, via Google Forms, junto a 49 trabalhadoras de enfermagem do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram submetidos à análise lexicográfica, com auxílio do software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes Et de Questionnaires (IRAMUTEQ), pelo método de Nuvem de Palavras e Classificação Hierárquica Descendente. Resultados o aproveitamento do corpus textual foi de 88,24%, gerando quatro classes de segmentos de texto. As principais influências do retorno ao trabalho na amamentação relatadas pelas participantes foram: a falta de apoio dos chefes e colegas de trabalho, a necessidade de local e tempo adequados para ordenha do leite materno, a diminuição na produção de leite por fatores inerentes ao trabalho e sobrecarga e ambientes insalubres de trabalho na enfermagem. Conclusão e implicações para a prática a identificação desses fatores possibilita a compreensão das demandas das nutrizes participantes e aponta para a necessidade de estratégias inovadoras, que garantam o direito das trabalhadoras, assim como adequações de infraestrutura em seus ambientes laborais.


Resumen Objetivo analizar la influencia de la reincorporación al trabajo sobre la lactancia materna de madres lactantes trabajadoras de enfermería. Método investigación cualitativa, desarrollada a través de un formulario semiestructurado, con utilización de Google Forms, con 49 trabajadoras de enfermería en el estado de Río de Janeiro. Los datos fueron sometidos a análisis lexicográfico, con el auxilio del software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes Et de Questionnaires (IRAMUTEQ), por los métodos de Nube de Palabras y Clasificación Jerárquica Descendente. Resultados el aprovechamiento del corpus textual fue del 88,24%, y se generaron cuatro clases de segmentos textuales. Las principales influencias de la reincorporación al trabajo sobre la lactancia materna señaladas por las participantes fueron: falta de apoyo de jefes y compañeros, necesidad de disponer de lugar y tiempo adecuados para el ordeñe de la leche materna, disminución de la producción de leche por factores inherentes al trabajo y sobrecarga e insalubridad de los ambientes de trabajo en enfermería. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica la identificación de estos factores permite comprender las demandas de las madres lactantes participantes y señala la necesidad de adoptar estrategias innovadoras, que garanticen los derechos de las trabajadoras, además de adaptaciones de infraestructura en sus ambientes de trabajo.


Abstract Objective to analyze the influences of returning to work on maternal breastfeeding in mothers who are Nursing workers. Method a qualitative research developed through a semi-structured form, using Google Forms, with 49 female Nursing workers in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The data were submitted to lexicographic analysis, with the aid of the Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes Et de Questionnaires (IRAMUTEQ) software, by the Word Cloud and Descending Hierarchical Classification methods. Results leverage of the text corpus was 88.24%, generating four classes of text segments. The main influences of returning to work on breastfeeding reported by the participants were as follows: lack of support from the management and coworkers, need for an adequate place and time for milking breast milk and decrease in milk production due to factors inherent to the work, in addition to overload and unhealthy working environments in Nursing. Conclusion and implications for the practice the identification of these factors enables understanding the demands of the participating nursing mothers and points to the need for innovative strategies, which guarantee the workers' rights, as well as infrastructure adaptations in their work environments.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Aleitamento Materno , Retorno ao Trabalho , Técnicos de Enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Apoio Social , Desmame , Jornada de Trabalho , Carga de Trabalho , Licença Parental , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Extração de Leite
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 623, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During interviews, medical students may feel uncomfortable asking questions that might be important to them, such as parental leave. Parental leave policies may be difficult for applicants to access without asking the program director or other interviewers. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether parental leave information is presented to prospective residents and whether medical students want this information. METHODS: Fifty-two program directors (PD's) at 3 sites of a single institution received a survey in 2019 to identify whether parental leave information is presented at residency interviews. Medical students received a separate survey in 2020 to identify their preferences. Fisher exact tests, Pearson χ2 tests and Cochran-Armitage tests were used where appropriate to assess for differences in responses. RESULTS: Of the 52 PD's, 27 responded (52%) and 19 (70%) indicated that information on parental leave was not provided to candidates. The most common reason cited was the belief that the information was not relevant (n = 7; 37%). Of the 373 medical students, 179 responded (48%). Most respondents (92%) wanted parental leave information formally presented, and many anticipated they would feel extremely or somewhat uncomfortable (68%) asking about parental leave. The majority (61%) felt that these policies would impact ranking of programs "somewhat" or "very much." CONCLUSIONS: Parental leave policies may not be readily available to interviewees despite strong interest and their impact on ranking of programs by prospective residents.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Humanos , Licença Parental , Pais , Políticas , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639585

RESUMO

This study examined the determinants of perceived accessibility of maternity leave and childcare leave in South Korea. Although maternity leave and childcare leave are mandated in Korea, many employees are hesitant to use the policies. The purpose of this study was to empirically examine why some women are more likely than others to perceive the policies as inaccessible and to identify what those women's characteristics are. The results revealed that nonregular workers were significantly less likely than regular workers with secure contracts to perceive the policies as accessible even though they were eligible for them. In addition, workers who worked in the private sector, did not belong to a labor union, worked in small firms, or worked long hours were significantly less likely to perceive the policies as accessible than those who worked in the public sector, belonged to a labor union, worked in large firms, or worked short hours. Further, workers with low salaries were significantly less likely than workers with high salaries to perceive the policies as accessible. The study underscores that accessibility of leave policies in Korea is significantly correlated with women's employment status and wage level in the labor market.


Assuntos
Emprego , Licença Parental , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , República da Coreia , Salários e Benefícios
6.
Iowa Orthop J ; 41(1): 19-23, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552399

RESUMO

Background: Gender diversity in the field of orthopedic surgery has lagged behind other surgical subspecialties. One potential barrier to the recruitment and retention of female orthopedic surgeons lies in controversies surrounding pregnancy and parental leave during residency training, for which no clear guidelines exist. Trainees and residency programs face the challenge of balancing clinical and surgical competency with the health and well being of the mother and her child. This article addresses the current policies, health considerations, perceptions of parental leave and future recommendations regarding pregnancy and parental leave for orthopedic residents. Level of Evidence: V.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Licença Parental , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(2): 182-191, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294424

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several U.S. states have implemented paid family leave policies for new parents. Few studies have evaluated the impacts of U.S. paid family leave policies on families' health. This study tests the hypothesis that paid family leave policies in California and New Jersey improved parent and child mental health. METHODS: Using national data from the 1997-2016 waves of the National Health Interview Survey, the study assessed changes in parental psychological distress (measured using the Kessler 6 score, n=28,638) and child behavioral problems (measured using the Mental Health Indicator score, n=15,987) using difference-in-differences analysis, a quasi-experimental method that compared outcomes before and after the implementation of paid family leave policies in California and New Jersey while accounting for secular trends in states without paid family leave policies. Secondary analyses were conducted to assess differential responses among prespecified subgroups. Data analysis was conducted in 2018-2021. RESULTS: Exposure to paid family leave policies was associated with decreased psychological distress among parents (-0.49, 95% CI= -0.77, -0.21). There was no association between the paid family leave policies and children's behavioral problems (-0.06, 95% CI= -0.13, 0.012). Associations varied by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, with some subgroups experiencing benefits, whereas others were negatively impacted. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that state paid family leave policies improved mental health among parents, with mixed findings among children, including positive, negative, or no changes in mental health, depending on the subgroup. Future work should clarify how more recent state policies, some of which provide more generous benefits and job protections for low-income parents, influence health among affected families.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Licença Parental , Criança , Licença para Cuidar de Pessoa da Família , Humanos , Políticas , Salários e Benefícios
10.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(10): 1485-1496, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Little is known about program directors' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding parental leave policies in anesthesiology training. This study sought to understand program director perceptions about the effects of pregnancy and parental leave on resident training, skills, and productivity. METHODS: An online 43-question survey was developed to evaluate United States anesthesiology program directors' perceptions of parental leave policies. The survey included questions regarding demographics, anesthesiology program characteristics, parental leave policies, call coverage, and the perceived effects of parental leave on resident performance. Data were collected by Qualtrics (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA). RESULTS: Fifty-six of 145 (39%) anesthesiology program directors completed the survey. Forty-eight of 54 (89%) program directors had a female resident take maternity leave in the past three years. When asked how parental leave affects residents' futures, 24/50 (48%) program directors felt it delayed board certification and 28/50 (56%) thought it affected fellowship opportunities. Program directors were split on their perceived impact of becoming a parent on a trainee's work. Yet, when compared with male trainees, program directors perceived that becoming a parent negatively affected female trainees' timeliness, technical skills, scholarly activities, procedural volume, and standardized test scores and affected training experience of co-residents. Program directors perceived no difference in impact on female trainees' dedication to patients and clinical performance. CONCLUSIONS: Program directors perceived that becoming a parent negatively affects the work performance of female but not male trainees. These negative perceptions could impact evaluations and future plans of female residents.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia , Internato e Residência , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Licença Parental , Pais , Percepção , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e049682, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108172

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sweden has long been praised for a generous parental leave policy oriented towards facilitating a gender-equitable approach to work and parenting. Yet certain aspects of Swedish parental leave could also be responsible for the maintenance of (or even the increase in) health inequalities. Using a 'Health in All Policies' lens, this research project aims to assess the unintended health consequences of various components of Sweden's parental leave policy, including eligibility for and uptake of earnings based benefits. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use individual-level data from multiple Swedish registers. Sociodemographic information, including parental leave use, will be retrieved from the total population register, Longitudinal Integration Database for Health Insurance and Labour Market Studies and Social Insurance Agency registers. Health information for parents and children will be retrieved from the patient, prescribed drug, cause of death, medical birth and children's health registers. We will evaluate parents' mental, mothers' reproductive and children's general health outcomes in relation to several policy reforms aiming to protect parental leave benefits in short birth spacing (the speed premium) and to promote father's uptake (the father's quota) and sharing of parental leave days (the double days reform). We will also examine effects of increases in basic parental leave benefit levels. Using quasi-experimental designs, we will compare health outcomes across these reforms and eligibility thresholds with interrupted time series, difference-in-difference and regression discontinuity approaches to reduce the risk of health selection and assess causality in the link between parental leave use and health. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This project has been granted all necessary ethical permissions from the Stockholm Regional Ethical Review Board (Dnr 2019-04913) for accessing and analysing deidentified data. The final outputs will primarily be disseminated as scientific articles published in open-access, high-impact peer-reviewed international journals, as well as press releases and policy briefs.


Assuntos
Licença Parental , Pais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Políticas , Suécia
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 95, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Providing an enabling environment for breastfeeding is hampered by the inequitable implementation of paid maternity leave, primarily due to perceived or actual financial costs. To estimate the real cost of paid maternity leave requires using reliable methods. We compared methods utilized in two recent studies in Indonesia. Study A estimated the financial need of providing paid maternity leave in the formal sector with a 10-year forecast at 21% coverage of eligible mothers, while study B estimated similar costs for the informal sector at 100% coverage annually. Results are critical for guiding future application of either method to inform paid maternity leave policies. METHODS: We compared number of covered mothers working informally, total annual cost, and cost per mother. We modified some parameters used in study A (method A) to be similar to study B (method B) for comparison, namely the period of estimate (annual), coverage (100%), estimate of women potentially breastfeeding, exchange rate, female labor force participation rate, the percentage of women working in the informal sector, and adding administration cost. RESULTS: The methods differ in determining the number of mothers working in the informal sector who gave birth, the minimum wage as unit cost, and administrative cost. Both studies estimated the cost at various lengths of leave period. Method A requires more macro (e.g. national/regional) level data, while method B involves (e.g. individual) micro level data. We compared the results of method A with method B, respectively: 1) number of covered mothers working informally were 1,425,589 vs. 1,147,204; 2) total annual costs including administrative costs were US$650,230,167 vs. US$633,942,726, and; 3) cost/mother was US$456 vs US$553. CONCLUSION: Certain flexibilities can be applied to both methods, namely using parameters specific to respective regions (e.g. provincial level parameters), flexible period of analysis, and the use of administrative cost. In a setting where micro data is scarce and not easily accessible, method A provides a feasible approach, while method B will be most appropriate if suitable micro data is available. Future comparison studies in other settings are needed to provide further evidence on the strengths and weaknesses of both methods.


Assuntos
Setor Informal , Licença Parental , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Licença Parental/economia , Licença Parental/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez
18.
Vaccine ; 39(21): 2886-2893, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896660

RESUMO

Time constraints parents face can affect whether infant children are vaccinated on time. Using the National Immunization Survey, we employ a synthetic control difference-in-difference estimation technique to establish a causal relationship arising from California's implementation of Paid Parental Leave Program as a natural experiment. We find California Paid Family Leave reduced late vaccinations by up to 5 percentage points or approximately 10% for children born to parents in California after the policy was implemented. Further, the policy had a stronger impact on families below the poverty line. Thus access to paid family leave can improve on-time immunization of infants.


Assuntos
Licença para Cuidar de Pessoa da Família , Licença Parental , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Pais , Pobreza , Vacinação
20.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(2): 187-194, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795052

RESUMO

The presence of women in genitourinary (GU) specialty training and practice has lagged significantly behind other fields. Current challenges include maternity leave, sexual harassment, and pay disparities. Despite these obstacles, the prevalence of women in GU specialty training has risen rapidly. One consequence of retiring male providers and higher numbers of female graduates will be a notable demographic shift in the percentage of GU care provided by these younger women. It will be essential to anticipate and acknowledge the unique concerns of this workforce, particularly in light of the concomitant aging of the US population and the associated increase in demand for GU care.


Assuntos
Médicas , Urologistas , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Feminino , Humanos , Licença Parental , Gravidez , Salários e Benefícios , Sexismo
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