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1.
Nutrients ; 14(12)2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35745213

RESUMO

Human milk (HM) is the best feeding option for preterm infants; however, when mother's own milk (MOM) is not available, pasteurized donor human milk (DHM) is the best alternative. In this study, we profiled DHM microbiota (19 samples) using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and compared its compositional features with the MOM microbiota (14 samples) from mothers who delivered prematurely (PT-MOM). As a secondary study aim, we assessed the specific effect of pasteurization on the characteristics of the DHM microbiota. DHM showed significantly higher alpha diversity and significant segregation from PT-MOM. Compositionally, the PT-MOM microbiota had a significantly higher proportion of Staphylococcus than DHM, with Streptococcus tending to be and Pseudomonas being significantly overrepresented in DHM compared with the PT-MOM samples. Furthermore, pasteurization affected the HM microbiota structure, with a trend towards greater biodiversity and some compositional differences following pasteurization. This pilot study provided further evidence on the HM microbial ecosystem, demonstrating that the DHM microbiota differs from the PT-MOM microbiota, possibly due to inherent differences between HM donors and mothers delivering prematurely, and that pasteurization per se impacts the HM microbiota. Knowledge about HM microbiota needs to be acquired by investigating the effect of DHM processing to develop strategies aimed at improving DHM quality while guaranteeing its microbiological safety.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Bancos de Leite , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Leite Humano , Pasteurização , Projetos Piloto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
Food Res Int ; 157: 111272, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761584

RESUMO

The trends related to ohmic heating technology in food processing were evaluated using bibliometric analysis based on the scientific literature published in the last decade. Publications from Turkey, Brazil, and Iran represent 32% of all publications. Most studies have targeted the definition of the best combinations of operational parameters for application in different food matrices and their possible effects on the food properties. In addition, a tendency to use ohmic heating as an alternative technology for pasteurization was observed. Future studies should develop mathematical models that evaluate process parameters and food characteristics in the inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes and maintenance of bioactive compounds, the study of the non-thermal effect of electromagnetic waves on the food quality, the evaluation of the processing conditions and food physicochemical properties in the electrode corrosion and migration of metal ions to the treated food, and improvements of homogeneity during processing. This study was the first to perform a bibliometric analysis based on scientific literature concerning ohmic heating in food processing and presented the challenges, future trends, and evolution of scientific research.


Assuntos
Calefação , Temperatura Alta , Bibliometria , Manipulação de Alimentos , Pasteurização
3.
Food Res Int ; 157: 111463, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761696

RESUMO

Due to consumers' demand for ready-to-eat foods, in the last decades production of sauces has shifted from home-made to commercial practice. Besides to palatability and nutritional value, safety and stability are key issues of industrial sauces. The present study was aimed at evaluating the microbiological stability and safety of industrial-scale prototypes of two novel green sauces made with sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum L.) as the main ingredient. To this end, accelerated shelf-life and microbial challenge tests were performed to assess: (i) the microbiological shelf-stability of the two sauces stabilized by heat treatments commonly applied at industrial scale to inactivate vegetative cells of spoilage microorganisms and pathogens in vegetable preserves (F857=2min or F957=5min); and (ii) the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus in the sauce with pH = ∼ 4.6 and aw < 0.92, subjected to mild pasteurization (F757=1or2min). The results overall collected through the accelerated shelf-life tests clearly demonstrated the microbiological shelf-stability during one month of storage at thermal abuse conditions of both the novel sauces assayed; moreover, the microbial challenge tests revealed that both mild heat treatments assayed were able to inactivate S. aureus; in addition, an inhibition of the growth of B. cereus was seen during storage at 37 °C. Results from this study are expected to be useful both from a scientific and technological standpoint, enabling efficient risk-based development of novel acidified food products.


Assuntos
Apiaceae , Foeniculum , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Pasteurização , Staphylococcus aureus , Verduras
4.
J Food Sci ; 87(6): 2640-2650, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502682

RESUMO

This research investigated heating uniformity and pasteurization of canned pineapple using radio frequency (RF) energy. Experiments were conducted in a 6 kW, 27.12 MHz pilot-scale RF system. Results showed that the temperature difference was more than 16°C, and the standard deviation was 4.38°C at the end of heating when using RF heating alone. Water bath-assisted RF (WRF) heating effectively improved the heating uniformity, the temperature difference was less than 7°C and the standard deviation was 2.52°C at the end of heating in the condition of electrode gap (210 mm), chord length of the fruit block (26 mm), and the initial temperature of sugar solution (80°C). When the total number of colonies reached 4-log reduction, water bath (WB) heating alone needed 660 s, and WRF heating needed 180 s. Vitamin C, hardness, and color of fruit blocks were well preserved using WRF heating compared with WB alone. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study shows that the pasteurization of canned food by radio frequency heating can achieve better food quality than the traditional pasteurization methods. Therefore, this research can promote the application of radio frequency heating technology in canned food pasteurization.


Assuntos
Ananas , Pasteurização , Calefação/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Pasteurização/métodos , Ondas de Rádio , Água
5.
Food Res Int ; 155: 111072, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400450

RESUMO

Foodborne outbreaks and recalls of pathogen-contaminated low-moisture foods (LMFs, foods with water activity at 25 °C < 0.85) have led to numerous scientific studies on bacterial persistence, as well as newly developed industrial interventions. Conducting microbial tests of LMFs, lab tests, or validation studies in pilot plans requires complete information on protocols and parameters that need to be aware of-in particular, understanding how factors influence the thermal resistance of bacterial pathogen in LMFs is critical in designing any thermal processes. This review provides detailed information on the general protocols of microbial studies of LMFs: from pertinent pathogen identification to microbial validation studies. In particular, it reviewed the detailed procedures (e.g., lawn-harvest method), analytical protocols (e.g., recovery and enumeration of pathogens in LMFs), and specialized tools that have been utilized (even widely accepted) in laboratory-based microbial studies of LMFs. It also summarized the factors that influence the microbial validation studies. This article could support the intervention of existing pasteurization processes in the LMF industry, promoting the microbial safety of LMFs.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Pasteurização , Alimentos , Pasteurização/métodos , Água/análise
6.
Food Microbiol ; 105: 104031, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473969

RESUMO

A new nonthermal food pasteurization approach is here presented for the first time, proposed to be called low-pressure long-time (LPLT) pasteurization or moderate pressure pasteurization (MPP) by hyperbaric inactivation (HI). To test this novel pasteurization process on raw milk, MPP by HI was carried out at three different pressure levels (150, 200 and 250 MPa), over 24 h, at naturally variable uncontrolled room temperature (≈20 °C) and compared with high pressure processing (HPP) at 600 MPa (one cycle for 90 s and a second cycle of 120 s) followed by storage under refrigeration for 21 days. Based on the results obtained, MPP at 250 MPa over 24 h caused higher microbial inactivation on total aerobic mesophiles (TAM), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae (ENT) (of at least 2.2, 1.7 and 1.3 log CFU/mL, respectively) than HPP (1.1, 1.0 and 1.2 log CFU/mL, for the same microorganisms). Moreover, MPP showed a clear reduction of inoculated microorganisms to below the detection limit, in only 16 h for all pressures with reductions of at least 5.7, 5.4 and 5.5 for Listeria innocua, Salmonella senftenberg, and Escherichia coli, respectively. Additionally, during preservation under refrigeration, MPP samples (200 MPa and 250 MPa), maintained lower TAM/LAB/ENT compared to HPP, being the counts below the quantification/detection limit for at least 21 days for MPP by HI. MPP (200 MPa and 250 MPa) resulted also in counts below the detection limit for the inoculated microorganisms up to at least 21 days under refrigeration. The results of MPP by HI are very promising as a new nonthermal food pasteurization, since over 5 log reduction of vegetative bacteria were achieved, with counts maintained below the quantification/detection limit for at least 21 days under refrigeration.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Pasteurização , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Leite/microbiologia , Refrigeração , Temperatura
7.
J Clin Periodontol ; 49(7): 717-729, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35415929

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the administration of pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila and Amuc_1100 on periodontal destruction in lean and obese mice and to determine the impact of the mode of administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Porphyromonas gingivalis-associated experimental periodontitis was induced in lean and obese mice. After 3 weeks, live, pasteurized A. muciniphila or Amuc_1100 was administered by oral or gastric gavage for three additional weeks. Moreover, an evaluation of the interaction between A. muciniphila and P. gingivalis was performed by RNA-sequencing, and cytokines secretion was measured in exposed macrophages. RESULTS: Oral administration of live, pasteurized A. muciniphila or Amuc_1100 significantly decreased P. gingivalis-induced periodontal destruction and inflammatory infiltrate in lean and obese mice and contributed to the reduction of the plasma level of TNF-α and to the increase of IL-10. The co-culture of A. muciniphila and P. gingivalis induced an increased expression of genes linked to the synthesis of monobactam-related antibiotics in A. muciniphila, while a decrease of the gingipains and type IX secretion system was observed in P. gingivalis. In P. gingivalis-infected macrophages, pasteurized A. muciniphila decreased TNF-α and increased IL-10 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Pasteurized A. muciniphila can counteract P. gingivalis-associated periodontal destruction.


Assuntos
Akkermansia , Periodontite , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Animais , Inflamação , Interleucina-10 , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Pasteurização , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/terapia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
8.
Food Chem ; 384: 132581, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257998

RESUMO

Human milk (HM) is the gold standard for newborn nutrition. When own mother's milk is not sufficiently available, pasteurized donor human milk becomes a valuable alternative. In this study we analyzed the impact of Holder pasteurization (HoP) on the metabolic and lipidomic composition of HM. Metabolomic and lipidomic profiles of twelve paired HM samples were analysed before and after HoP by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and gas chromatography-MS. Lipidomic analysis enabled the annotation of 786 features in HM out of which 289 were significantly altered upon pasteurization. Fatty acid analysis showed a significant decrease of 22 out of 29 detectable fatty acids. The observed changes were associated to five metabolic pathways. Lipid ontology enrichment analysis provided insight into the effect of pasteurization on physical and chemical properties, cellular components, and functions. Future research should focus on nutritional and/or developmental consequences of these changes.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Pasteurização , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lipídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Leite Humano/química , Pasteurização/métodos
9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(7): 2739-2750, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262785

RESUMO

Diarrheal diseases caused by Salmonella pose a major threat to public health, and assessment of bacterial viability is critical in determining the safety of food and drinking water after disinfection. Viability PCR could overcome the limitations of traditional culture-dependent methods for a more accurate assessment of the viability of a microbial sample. In this study, the physiological changes in Salmonella Typhimurium induced by pasteurization and UV treatment were evaluated using a culture-based method, RT-qPCR, and viability PCR. The plate count results showed no culturable S. Typhimurium after the pasteurization and UV treatments, while viability PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA) and DyeTox13-qPCR indicated that the membrane integrity of S. Typhimurium remained intact with no metabolic activity. The RT-qPCR results demonstrated that invasion protein (invA) was detectable in UV-treated cells even though the log2-fold change ranged from - 2.13 to - 5.53 for PMA treatment. However, the catalytic activity gene purE was under the detection limit after UV treatment, indicating that most Salmonella entered metabolically inactive status after UV disinfection. Also, viability PCRs were tested with artificially contaminated eggs to determine physiological status on actual food matrices. DyeTox13-qPCR methods showed that most Salmonella lost their metabolic activity but retained membrane integrity after UV disinfection. RT-qPCR may not determine the physiological status of Salmonella after UV disinfection because mRNA could be detectable in UV-treated cells depending on the choice of target gene. Viability PCR demonstrated potential for rapid and specific detection of pathogens with physiological states such as membrane integrity and metabolic activity.Key Points• Membrane integrity of Salmonella remained intact with no metabolic activity after UV.• mRNA could be detectable in UV-treated cells depending on the choice of target gene.• Viability PCR could rapidly detect specific pathogens with their physiological states.


Assuntos
Azidas , Salmonella typhimurium , Azidas/farmacologia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Pasteurização , Propídio/análogos & derivados , Propídio/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/metabolismo
10.
J Lipid Res ; 63(5): 100183, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181315

RESUMO

Human milk is critical for the survival and development of infants. This source of nutrition contains components that protect against infections while stimulating immune maturation. In cases where the mother's own milk is unavailable, pasteurized donor milk is the preferred option. Although pasteurization has been shown to have minimal impact on the lipid and FA composition before digestion, no correlation has been made between the impact of pasteurization on the FFA composition and the self-assembly of lipids during digestion, which could act as delivery mechanisms for poorly water-soluble components. Pooled nonpasteurized and pasteurized human milk from a single donor was used in this study. The evolving FFA composition during digestion was determined using GC coupled to a flame ionization detector. In vitro digestion coupled to small-angle X-ray scattering was utilized to investigate the influence of different calcium levels, fat content, and the presence of bile salts on the extent of digestion and structural behavior of human milk lipids. Almost complete digestion was achieved when bile salts were added to the systems containing high calcium to milk fat ratio, with similar structural behavior of lipids during digestion of both types of human milk being apparent. In contrast, differences in the colloidal structures were formed during digestion in the absence of bile salt because of a greater amount of FFAs being released from the nonpasteurized than pasteurized milks. This difference in FFAs released from both types of human milk could result in varying nutritional implications for infants.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Pasteurização , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Cálcio , Digestão , Humanos , Lactente , Lipídeos/análise , Leite Humano/química
11.
Food Chem ; 383: 132378, 2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183963

RESUMO

In this study, effects of varying levels of xanthan or guar gum (XG/GG, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8%, w/v) on the spatial structure and functional properties of egg white (EW) proteins under different pasteurization conditions of the liquid egg was evaluated. Results showed that XG could bury the aromatic ring residues and reduce the hydrophobicity of protein in EW, whereas GG could only increase the hydrophobicity. With 0.8% GG addition and pasteurization under 60℃/3.5 min, the emulsifying stability of EW was improved by nearly 100%, while with 0.8% XG addition the gel structure of EWwould become porousandloosen under each pasteurization condition. The hardness of EW gels was decreased by 90% when the concentration of XG was 0.4% or 0.8%. According to the results, the concentration of gums and the pasteurization parameters should be considered together when adding gums into the liquid egg products for pasteurization simultaneously.


Assuntos
Clara de Ovo , Pasteurização , Galactanos/química , Géis , Mananas , Gomas Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Reologia
12.
Food Res Int ; 152: 110940, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181102

RESUMO

Tropical fruits, such as cashew apple, acerola, and melon, can be used to obtain innovative juices with high contents of bioactive compounds. Technological processes are needed to ensure the safety of products during their shelf life. However, these processes can modify the sensory properties of the juice, which have an important role in consumer acceptance. From this perspective, this study aimed to evaluate consumer perception of the sensory characteristics of tropical mixed juice based on cashew apple, acerola, and melon obtained using different processing methods during cold storage at 4° C. Microbiological aspects were monitored during refrigerated storage at 4 °C. Samples were exposed to four technological processes: control (unprocessed), pasteurization (90 °C/1 min), and high-pressure processing: HHP1 (500 MPa/5 min) and HHP2 (520 MPa/2 min). Thirty fruit juice consumers participated in the characterization of mixed juices using rate-all-that-apply (RATA) questions. Samples were analyzed at zero, 14, and 28 days of storage at 4 °C. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, and Fisher's test was used for post-hoc comparison of means and PCA. Results showed that 12 of the 22 RATA terms differed (p ≤ 0.05) regarding the mean perceived intensity, suggesting that consumers perceived differences in the sensory characteristics of the juices. The first dimension of the PCA separated the pasteurized juices from the others. Pasteurized samples were characterized by yellow color, cooked aroma, cooked flavor, off aroma, off flavor, stale aroma, and stale flavor. On the other hand, the unprocessed (control) and pressurized (HPP1 and HPP2) juices were characterized by orange color, fruit aroma, fruit flavor, sweet aroma, fresh juice, and watery consistency. Results confirmed the suitability of the sensory characterization performed by consumers using RATA and the potential of HHP to obtain juices with sensory characteristics similar to the fresh product.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas , Pasteurização , Paladar
13.
F1000Res ; 11: 91, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35186276

RESUMO

Cow's milk is currently the most consumed product worldwide. However, due to various direct and indirect contamination sources, different chemical and microbiological contaminants have been found in cow's milk. This review details the main contaminants found in cow's milk, referring to the sources of contamination and their impact on human health. A comparative approach highlights the poor efficacy and effects of the pasteurization process with other methods used in the treatment of cow's milk. Despite pasteurization and related techniques being the most widely applied to date, they have not demonstrated efficacy in eliminating contaminants. New technologies have appeared as alternative treatments to pasteurization. However, in addition to causing physicochemical changes in the raw material, their efficacy is not total in eliminating chemical contaminants, suggesting the need for new research to find a solution that contributes to improving food safety.


Assuntos
Leite , Pasteurização , Alérgenos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162120

RESUMO

Legionellae are gram-negative bacteria most commonly found in freshwater ecosystems and purpose-built water systems. In humans, the bacterium causes Legionnaires' disease (LD) or a Pontiac fever. In this study, the different waters (drinking water, pool water, cooling towers) in which Legionella pneumophila has been isolated were studied to assess the possible risk of bacterial spreading in the population. The influence of physical and chemical parameters, and interactions with Acanthamoeba castellanii on L. pneumophila, were analyzed by Heterotrophic Plate Count, the Colony-forming units (CFU) methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Sequence-Based Typing (SBT) analysis. During the study period (2013-2019), a total of 1932 water samples were analyzed, with the average annual rate of Legionella-positive water samples of 8.9%, showing an increasing trend. The largest proportion of Legionella-positive samples was found in cooling towers and rehabilitation centers (33.9% and 33.3%, respectively). Among the isolates, L. pneumophila SGs 2-14 was the most commonly identified strain (76%). The survival of Legionella was enhanced in the samples with higher pH values, while higher electrical conductivity, nitrate, and free residual chlorine concentration significantly reduced the survival of Legionella. Our results show that growth in amoeba does not affect the allelic profile, phenotype, and morphology of the bacterium but environmental L. pneumophila becomes more resistant to pasteurization treatment.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Legionella pneumophila , Legionella , Doença dos Legionários , Ecossistema , Humanos , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Pasteurização , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Microbiologia da Água
15.
Food Chem ; 374: 131808, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021581

RESUMO

This work evaluated the impact of high temperature short time (HTST, 72 °C, 15 s), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 400-600 MPa at 5 and 10 min) and Holder pasteurization (HoP, 62.5 °C, 30 min) on protein profile and aggregation in a human milk protein concentrate (HMPC). The structural changes induced in milk proteins were investigated in HMPC as well as in sedimentable and non-sedimentable fractions recovered after ultracentrifugation. The results showed that heat treatments induced more protein denaturation and aggregation than did HHP treatments. Indeed, heat-induced protein aggregates observed in HMPC and the sedimentable fraction were mainly composed of lactoferrin and α-lactalbumin. More specifically, the concentration of lactoferrin in HMPC decreased by 86% after HTST and HoP whereas no effect was observed after HHP treatment. These results show the potential of HHP processing as a pasteurization method for HMPC since it minimizes the impact on protein structure, which generally correlates to protein quality and bioactivity.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Leite , Pasteurização , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Pressão Hidrostática , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite Humano/química , Temperatura
16.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing is a non-thermal method proposed as an alternative to Holder pasteurization (HoP) for the sterilization of human breast milk (BM). HHP preserves numerous milk bioactive factors that are degraded by HoP, but no data are available for milk apelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), two hormones implicated in the control of glucose metabolism directly and via the gut-brain axis. This study aims to determine the effects of HoP and HHP processing on apelin and GLP-1 concentrations in BM and to test the effect of oral treatments with HoP- and HHP-BM on intestinal contractions and glucose metabolism in adult mice. METHODS: Mice were treated by daily oral gavages with HoP- or HHP-BM during one week before intestinal contractions, and glucose tolerance was assessed. mRNA expression of enteric neuronal enzymes known to control intestinal contraction was measured. RESULTS: HoP-BM displayed a reduced concentration of apelin and GLP-1, whereas HHP processing preserved these hormones close to their initial levels in raw milk. Chronic HHP-BM administration to mice increased ileal mRNA nNos expression level leading to a decrease in gut contraction associated with improved glucose tolerance. CONCLUSION: In comparison to HoP, HPP processing of BM preserves both apelin and GLP-1 and improves glucose tolerance by acting on gut contractions. This study reinforces previous findings demonstrating that HHP processing provides BM with a higher biological value than BM treated by HoP.


Assuntos
Apelina/análise , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Pressão Hidrostática , Leite Humano/química , Animais , Humanos , Íleus/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pasteurização
17.
Food Chem ; 377: 131957, 2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990954

RESUMO

In human milk banks (HMBs), donor milk (DM) is commonly sterilized by Holder pasteurization (HoP). High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing is an innovative, alternative method for DM sterilization. We evaluated the impact of HHP processing on the concentration of seven metabolic milk hormones. Eight samples of raw DM were aliquoted. One aliquot was sterilized by HoP (62 °C for 30 min), and another was processed by HHP (350 MPa at 38 °C). Compared with raw DM, HoP milk displayed reduced concentrations of insulin, nesfatin-1, cortisol, leptin, apelin and GLP-1, though adiponectin levels were unchanged. HHP processing maintained the levels of insulin, nesfatin-1, cortisol and leptin at their initial levels in raw DM, reduced apelin and adiponectin levels, but increased GLP-1 level. Sterilization of DM by HHP thus preserves the main metabolic hormones in human milk, underlining the interest of this method for use in HMBs.


Assuntos
Bancos de Leite , Leite Humano , Feminino , Humanos , Pressão Hidrostática , Insulina , Pasteurização
18.
Pediatrics ; 149(2)2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibodies have been detected in human milk up to 6 weeks post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, neutralization activity, effect of pasteurization, and persistence through 6 months after vaccination. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study enrolled 30 pregnant or lactating women. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and neutralization capacity were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared at prevaccination and 1, 3, and 6 months postvaccination, and through Holder pasteurization. RESULTS: Human milk SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG levels peaked at 1 month postvaccination and persisted above prevaccination levels for at least 6 months (P = .005). SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA was detected at 1 and 3 months (both P < .001) but waned by 6 months compared with baseline (P = .07). Milk SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA correlated with serum IgG at the same time point (R2 = 0.37, P < .001 and R2 = 0.19, P < .001). Neutralization activity was seen in 83.3%, 70.4%, and 25.0% of milk samples at 1, 3, and 6 months postvaccination. Neutralization most strongly correlated with SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG (R2 = 0.57, P < .001). Pre- and postpasteurization samples showed similar IgG (0.84 vs 1.07, P = .36) and neutralizing activity (57.7% vs 58.7% inhibition, P = .27), but lower IgM and IgA levels postpasteurization (0.09 vs 0.06, P = .004 and 0.21 vs 0.18, P = .043). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that human milk SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies may be available to milk-fed infants for up to 6 months. In addition, donor milk from vaccinated mothers retain IgG and neutralizing activity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Leite Humano/química , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Estudos Longitudinais , Pasteurização , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 821: 153228, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35090920

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic presents many public health challenges including the tracking of infected individuals from local to regional scales. Wastewater surveillance of viral RNA has emerged as a complementary approach to track and monitor the presence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus in a variety of communities of different land use and population size. In the present study, we investigate how five different parameters (pasteurization, storage temperature, storage time, polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration, and pellet mass) affect the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 N gene and fecal abundance indicator pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) gene. Pre-treatment of 24-h composite wastewater samples (n = 14) by pasteurization at 60 °C resulted in a significant reduction of total RNA concentration and copies of the SARS-CoV-2 N gene copies/L (paired Student's t-test, P < 0.05). Comparing the wastewater samples collected from 6 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for a storage period of 7 and 14 days at 4 °C, -20 °C and -80 °C, demonstrated a decrease in SARS-CoV-2 N gene copies/L when samples were stored for 14 days at -20 °C. Polyethylene glycol-NaCl for purification and concentration of viral particles from the wastewater samples demonstrated that a short PEG incubation of 2 h during centrifugation at 4 °C was sufficient for the consistent detection of the SARS-CoV-2 N gene from a 30 mL sample volume. Combined, this paper presents method recommendations for developing a reliable, accurate, sensitive, and reproducible estimation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in diverse domestic wastewater samples.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Águas Residuárias , Humanos , Pandemias , Pasteurização , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
20.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262284, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045114

RESUMO

Food processing methods may influence the health of dogs. However, previous studies have mostly been based on a comparison of several commercial dog foods with different ingredients. In this study, eighteen adult beagles of the same age and health status (assessed by routine blood tests) were used in the experiments. This study analyzed the effects of the following different processing methods: raw, pasteurized, and high temperature sterilization (HTS) made with the same ingredients and nutrients (based on dry matter) on serum parameters, apparent total-tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content in beagle dogs. The data showed, after a test lasting 56-days, the apparent digestibility (ATTD) of protein and fat in HTS food was 91.9%, which was significantly higher (P< 0.05) than that in dry food (89.2%, P < 0.05). The serum content of triglyceride increased in beagles fed HTS food (P < 0.05), and the number of neutrophils in beagles fed raw food and pasteurized food increased significantly (P < 0.05), and the platelet count in beagles fed raw food showed an increasing trend compared with the beagles fed HTS food. Different processing methods had an impact on the intestinal microbiota and SCFA of beagles; at least 14 genera were significantly affected by the food produced using different processing methods. In particular, the abundance of Allprevotella, Escherichia-Shigella and Turicibacter, and the total acid content were lower in beagles fed the raw diet, whereas Streptococcus, Collinsella, Bacteroides and Ruminococcus gnavus were more abundant following the HTS diet, and Lactococcus showed the highest abundance in beagles fed the pasteurized diet. This study showed that dog food produced by different processing methods affected the health of adult beagles.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Cães , Fezes/química , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Nutrientes , Pasteurização/métodos , Alimentos Crus/efeitos adversos
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