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1.
Arthroscopy ; 38(5): 1615-1617, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501025

RESUMO

Patellofemoral stability is maintained through a complex network of static and dynamic soft-tissue stabilizers, the osseous structure of the patella and trochlea, and overall limb alignment. Thus, determining the risk of recurrent patellar instability must account for as many of these factors as possible in the clinical decision-making process. The tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance is the most common parameter used for this evaluation but may be limited because of methodologic issues and because this distance is an absolute value. Indices that incorporate other predisposing factors, including trochlear dysplasia, increase the accuracy of predicting recurrent patellar instability and can be used to generate a patient-specific treatment plan.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Articular , Articulação Patelofemoral , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/cirurgia , Patela , Articulação Patelofemoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia
2.
Acta Orthop Belg ; 88(1): 87-93, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512158

RESUMO

Bipartite patella is an abnormality where patella is incorrectly ossified resulting in fibrocartilaginous synchondrosis. In most cases bipartite patella is asymptomatic and incidental finding but can also be painful especially in adolescents. The aim of our analysis was to determine the preferable treatment for pediatric bipartite patella. We conducted a systematic review based on PubMed and Embase searches. All original articles with reference to treatment in the population of ≤ 20 years of age, were included. Case reports, and articles without individualized data were excluded. In total, the individual data of 126 knees in 116 patients was analyzed. In 77.8% (98/126) of the analyzed knees the result was excellent, and the majority of the knees, 89.7% (105/126) received surgical intervention, and seven different techniques were used. None of operative methods were superior to others. Excellent treatment outcomes were achieved more often in younger patients (p=0.004), and the median duration of symptoms in operatively treated patients was shorter (p=0.018). If operative treatment is used after unsuccessful conservative treatment, it should be considered early in adolescence and also within a relatively short period after the onset of symptoms. The best operative method could not be found. More research and RCTs are needed concerning the conservative methods and different operative techniques.


Assuntos
Artropatias , Patela , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Dor , Patela/diagnóstico por imagem , Patela/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 2454337, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528168

RESUMO

Background: During total knee arthroplasty (TKA), surgeons mobilize the patella to facilitate clear visualization of the articular surfaces and allow better prosthesis placement. According to the manipulation, this manipulation can be divided into patellar eversion and noneversion. However, the effect of patellar eversion in TKA is controversial, with substantial variability in clinical practice. This systematic review is aimed at assessing the adverse effects of patellar eversion and patellar noneversion duration in TKA. Methods: This updated systematic literature review identified randomized controlled trials comparing patellar eversion and noneversion durations in TKA. Two investigators independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of the studies. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan version 5.3. Results: Nine studies with a total of 608 patients (730 knees) were included. Of these, 374 knees were classified in the eversion group and 356 knees in the noneversion group. The quality of the studies was high. The results showed that patellar eversion could increase the postoperative complication rate (relative risk [RR] = 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-2.54; P = 0.02) and postoperative pain before discharge (mean deviation [MD] = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.34; P = 0.01), compared to noneversion. Additionally, patellar eversion could prolong the time until the patient is able to raise the leg while straightened (MD = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.24-0.59; P < 0.00001) and increase the length of stay (MD = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.05-1.25; P = 0.03). However, patellar eversion did not influence postoperative pain at 1 year (MD = 0.02; 95% CI, -0.23-0.28; P = 0.85), operative time (MD = -2.66; 95% CI, -8.84-3.52; P = 0.40), recovery of quadriceps force throughout the follow-up period, and Insall-Salvati ratio (MD = -0.04; 95% CI, [-0.11-0.02]; P = 0.23). Conclusions: The patellar eversion could increase the postoperative complication rate and postoperative pain. Current evidence supports the avoidance of patellar eversion in TKA. Further large-sample and long-term trials are required to validate these results.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Patela , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Patela/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/cirurgia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
JBJS Rev ; 10(4)2022 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394969

RESUMO

¼: An osteochondral fracture (OCF) of the patella or the femur is a frequent sequela after an episode of acute patellofemoral instability. ¼: Patients commonly present with anterior knee pain after direct trauma to the patella or a noncontact twisting injury. ¼: Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most common imaging modalities that are used to diagnose OCFs. ¼: Arthroscopy may be indicated in cases of displaced OCFs, and the decision regarding osteochondral fragment fixation or loose body removal depends on fragment size, location, and extent of injury. ¼: Most of the current literature suggests worse outcomes for patients with OCFs who undergo nonoperative treatment, no significant differences in outcomes for patients sustaining an acute patellar dislocation with or without an OCF, and inconclusive results concerning outcomes for patients treated with loose body removal compared with fixation. ¼: Current outcome data are limited by studies with low levels of evidence; therefore, well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Fraturas Intra-Articulares , Corpos Livres Articulares , Luxação Patelar , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Corpos Livres Articulares/cirurgia , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Patela/diagnóstico por imagem , Patela/cirurgia
5.
Am J Sports Med ; 50(6): 1635-1643, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cartilage transplants in the patellofemoral joint have demonstrated lower success rates than in the femoral condyles. This is likely related to the more complex morphology and biomechanics of the joint. While previous studies have evaluated cartilage surface matching and congruence, little work has been done to study the associated subchondral bone congruency in these grafts. PURPOSE: To determine if differences in patellar morphology play a role in the alignment of the donor patellar osteochondral allograft subchondral bone with the native patellar subchondral bone. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: A total of 20 (10 Wiberg I and 10 Wiberg II/III) fresh-frozen human patellae were designated as recipients and size-matched to both a Wiberg I and a Wiberg II/III patellar donor. A 16-mm osteochondral allograft transplant to the central ridge of the patella was performed in random order with each matched donor. Transplanted patellae underwent a nano-computed tomography (nano-CT) scan, were digitally reconstructed, and were superimposed on the initial nano-CT scan of the native recipient patella. MATLAB was used to determine the surface height deviation between the native and donor subchondral bone surfaces. DragonFly 3-dimensional imaging software was used to measure subchondral bone step-off heights at the native-donor interface. Differences between matched and unmatched grafts were compared using a 2-way analysis of variance and the Sidak post hoc test. RESULTS: Subchondral bone surface deviation did not differ between Wiberg matched and unmatched allografts. The step-off height was significantly greater in unmatched (1.38 ± 0.49 mm) compared with matched (1.14 ± 0.52 mm) plugs (P = .015). The lateral quadrant step-off differed between matched (0.89 ± 0.43 mm) and unmatched (1.60 ± 0.78 mm) grafts (P = .007). CONCLUSION: While unmatched Wiberg patellar osteochondral allograft implantation did not result in significantly different subchondral bone surface height deviations, there was a significant difference in the circumferential subchondral bone step-off height in the lateral quadrant. Further investigation using finite element analysis modeling will help determine the role of subchondral bone surface on shear and compression force distributions in these areas. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Given that subchondral bone stiffness and morphology play a role in cartilage health, subchondral bone congruency may play a role in graft survival. Understanding how this congruency plays a role in cartilage force distribution will help surgeons improve the long-term success of osteochondral allograft transplants.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Fraturas Intra-Articulares , Odonatos , Aloenxertos , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/cirurgia , Fêmur/transplante , Humanos , Patela/cirurgia , Transplante Homólogo
6.
Am J Sports Med ; 50(6): 1627-1634, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research supports that distal translation of the tibial tubercle osteotomy (dTTO) for patients with recurrent lateral patellar dislocation (R-LPD) and patella alta is effective for surgical patellar stabilization. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The main purpose of this article is to evaluate (1) the results of modifying the surgical threshold and postoperative goal of patellar height measurements for surgical stabilization originated in the "menu à la carte" approach to patellar surgical stabilization and (2) the relationship between the distance distalized in millimeters and postoperative complications. Our hypothesis was that dTTO with medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction (MPFL-R) will successfully stabilize the patella with improvement in outcome scores and few complications, using a modification of the original menu à la carte as our surgical algorithm. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: A total of 68 consecutive patients with R-LPD underwent dTTO and MPFL-R for surgical patellar stabilization by a single surgeon between May 2009 and September 2015. Surgical indications were R-LPD combined with patella alta. The surgical threshold for dTTO was Caton-Deschamps index (CDI) or Insall-Salvati ratio ≥1.4 and/or a patellar trochlear index <0.15. The postoperative surgical goal for patellar height was a CDI of 1.1 to 1.2. Length of the distalization was computed by using the CDI measurement as the primary intraoperative guide and measured intraoperatively with a ruler. Clinical, radiographic, and patient outcome measures were reviewed. RESULTS: The mean CDI preoperatively was 1.40 and postoperatively it was 1.09. The mean distalization was 9.9 mm (range, 4-15 mm). Three patients (4.4%) had frank R-LPD postoperatively. Ten patients had residual patella alta (CDI >1.2), with 1 redislocation. Mean postoperative CDI in the recurrent dislocation group was 1.13 (range, 1.06-1.25) as compared with 1.09 (range, 0.92-1.35) in the nonrecurrent group (P = 0.65). Complications included 3 tibial fractures (4.4%) and postoperative knee arthrofibrosis in 6 patients (8.8%), with mean distalization greater in the arthrofibrosis group (P = .04). Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) values improved in all domains, including a 31-point increase in Quality of Life. CONCLUSION: dTTO with MPFL-R for patients with patella alta leads to a high rate of normalization of patellar height measurements (87%) and patellar stabilization (95.6%). Residual patella alta is not associated with an increased risk of recurrence. The length of dTTO up to 15 mm is not associated with an increase in postoperative complications, except for an increased prevalence of arthrofibrosis (8.8%).


Assuntos
Luxações Articulares , Instabilidade Articular , Luxação Patelar , Articulação Patelofemoral , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/etiologia , Instabilidade Articular/cirurgia , Ligamentos Articulares/cirurgia , Patela/cirurgia , Luxação Patelar/complicações , Luxação Patelar/cirurgia , Articulação Patelofemoral/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Qualidade de Vida , Tíbia/cirurgia
8.
Arthroscopy ; 38(4): 1299-1301, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35369926

RESUMO

An excessively lateral tibial tubercle is a well-accepted risk factor for recurrent patellar dislocation. Generally, it is measured on magnetic resonance imaging as the TT-TG distance (tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance), and recent meta-analyses have suggested that a value as low as 12.5 mm can be used as the threshold for deciding when to medialize the tibial tubercle. However, a problem with using the TT-TG distance is that it is influenced by the size of the knee. An individualized index helps overcomes this problem, and dividing the TT-TG distance by the trochlear width may be the most promising method. The suggested cut-off value of (TT-TG)/trochlear width is 0.572.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Articular , Luxação Patelar , Articulação Patelofemoral , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/cirurgia , Patela/diagnóstico por imagem , Patela/cirurgia , Luxação Patelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxação Patelar/cirurgia , Articulação Patelofemoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação Patelofemoral/cirurgia , Tíbia/cirurgia
9.
Ann Palliat Med ; 11(3): 1085-1092, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patella fractures treated with traditional open approach and tension band fixation are associated with a significant rate of soft tissues complications, including hardware irritation, postoperative adhesions and non-cosmetic scar. An alternative is to utilize cannulated screws and high-strength sutures by the minimally invasive technique. METHODS: This retrospective study comprised 48 patients who had been treated for unilateral closed transverse patellar fracture, type 34C1 according to the AO Foundation and Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO/OTA) classification, between June 2018 to June 2020. All patients were treated either by closed reduction and internal fixation using cannulated screws combined with high-strength sutures and Nice knots (the CRIF-NK group, n=24), or traditional open reduction and internal fixation using cannulated screws and tension band wiring (the ORIF-TBW group, n=24). The operative time and intraoperative blood loss for each patient were recorded. All the patients were underwent a regularly clinical and radiological follow-up. The clinical evaluation was performed using the Böstman scale and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain. RESULTS: Average follow up was 21.9 months (range, 16-29 months). The mean intraoperative blood loss of the CRIF-NK group (35.21±6.16 mL) was significantly less than that of the ORIF-TBW group (75.42±7.92 mL; P<0.001). The mean VAS scores at 4 and 8 weeks and the mean Böstman scale score at 8 weeks after surgery were significantly better in the CRIF-NK group (3.52±0.42, 1.47±0.40 and 28.13±0.94, respectively) than the ORIF-TBW group (5.16±0.68, 3.14±0.72 and 26.33±1.00, respectively; all P<0.001). No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of operative time, Böstman scale score at 1-year follow-up, or fracture healing time. The union rate was 100% (24/24) in both groups. One patient (1/24) in the CRIF-NK group, and all patients (24/24) in the ORIF-TBW group required internal fixation removal. CONCLUSIONS: The percutaneous minimally invasive technique using cannulated screws combined with high-strength sutures and Nice knots exhibited some superiority to traditional open reduction with cannulated screws and tension band wiring for treatment of transverse patellar fractures in terms of efficacy and safety by reducing soft-tissue stimulating complications and promoting functional recovery.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Patela , Parafusos Ósseos , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Patela/lesões , Patela/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suturas
10.
J Biomech ; 136: 111062, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364562

RESUMO

Medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy is a surgical treatment for patients with a varus deformity and early-stage medial knee osteoarthritis. Observations suggest that this surgery can negatively affect the patellofemoral joint and change the patellofemoral kinematics. However, what causes these effects and how the correction angle can change the surgery's impact on the patellofemoral joint has not been investigated before. The objective of this study was to develop a biomechanical model that can predict the surgery's impact on the patellar position and find the correlation between the opening angles and the patellar position after the surgery. A combined finite element and multibody model of the lower limb was developed. The model's capabilities for predicting the patellofemoral kinematics were evaluated by performing a passive deep flexion simulation of the native knee and comparing the outcomes with magnetic resonance images of the study subject at various flexion angles. The model at a fixed knee flexion angle was then used to simulate the high tibial osteotomy surgery virtually. The results showed a correlation between the wedge opening angles and the patellar position in various degrees of freedom. These results indicate that larger wedge openings result in increased values of patellar distalization, lateral patellar shift, patellar rotation, and patellar internal tilt. The developed model in this study can be used in future studies to monitor the stress distribution on the patellar cartilage and connecting tissues to investigate their relationship with observations of pain and cartilage injury due to post-operative altered patellar kinematics.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Articulação Patelofemoral , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Extremidade Inferior , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteotomia/métodos , Patela/cirurgia , Articulação Patelofemoral/cirurgia , Tíbia/cirurgia
11.
Am J Sports Med ; 50(4): 984-993, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35373608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lateral patellofemoral complex (LPFC) is an important stabilizer of the patella composed of the lateral retinacular structures including the lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL), the lateral patellomeniscal ligament (LPML), and the lateral patellotibial ligament (LPTL). While the isolated anatomy of the LPFL has been previously described, no previous study has investigated the entirety of the LPFC structure, length changes, and radiographic landmarks. An understanding of LPFC anatomy is important in the setting of LPFL injury or previous lateral release resulting in iatrogenic medial instability requiring LPFC reconstruction. PURPOSE: To both qualitatively and quantitatively describe the anatomy and length changes of the LPFC on gross anatomic dissections and standard radiographic views. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: Ten nonpaired cadaveric specimens were utilized in this study. Specimens were dissected to identify distinct attachments of the LPFL, LPML, and LPTL. Ligament lengths, footprints, and centers of each attachment were described with respect to osseous landmarks using a 3-dimensional coordinate measuring device. Ligament length changes were also assessed from 0° to 90° of flexion. Radiopaque markers were subsequently utilized to describe attachments on standard anteroposterior and lateral radiographic views. RESULTS: The individual elements of the LPFC were identified in all specimens. The LPFL patellar attachment had an average total length of 22.5 mm (range, 18.3-27.5 mm), involving a mean of 59% (range, 50%-75%) of the sagittal patella. Based on the average patellar size, a mean of 63% of the LPFL attached to the patella, and the remainder (11.1 ± 1.4 mm) inserted into the patellar tendon. The femoral attachment of the LPFL had a mean maximum length of 24.4 ± 4.3 mm. The center of the LPFL femoral attachment was a mean distance of 13.5 ± 3.2 mm anterior and distal to the lateral epicondyle. The LPFL demonstrated significant shortening, especially in the first 45° of flexion (7.5 ± 5.1 mm). In contrast, the LPTL (5.5 ± 3.0 mm) and LPML (10.0 ± 3.3 mm) demonstrated significant shortening from 45° to 90°. On lateral radiographs, the center of the femoral attachment of the LPFL was a mean total distance of 19.2 ± 7.2 mm from the lateral epicondyle. CONCLUSION: The most important findings of this study were the correlative anatomy of 3 distinct lateral patellar ligaments (LPFL, LPML, and LPTL) and their anisometry through flexion. All 3 components demonstrated significant shortening during flexion. The quantitative and radiographic measurements detailed the LPFL osseous attachment on the patella; soft tissue attachment on the patellar tendon; and finally, the osseous insertion on the femur distal and anterior to the lateral epicondyle. Similarly, the authors documented the meniscal insertion of the LPML and defined a patellar insertion of the LPTL and LPML as a single attachment. These data allow for reproducible landmarks to aid in the understanding and reconstruction of the lateral patellar restraints. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The data produced from this investigation provide a comprehensive description of these 3 lateral patellar stabilizers (LPFL, LPML, LPTL). These data can be used intraoperatively to facilitate anatomic reconstructions of the lateral patellar stabilizers.


Assuntos
Patela , Ligamento Patelar , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Ligamentos Articulares/anatomia & histologia , Ligamentos Articulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Patela/anatomia & histologia , Patela/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamento Patelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamento Patelar/cirurgia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389915

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The degree of osteoarthritis (OA) acceptable to leave in a native patella during unresurfaced total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains unknown. This study's purpose was to examine the effect of patellofemoral OA severity on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in primary TKAs performed without patellar resurfacing. METHODS: One hundred ninety-three primary TKAs performed without patellar resurfacing were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative patellofemoral OA severity was graded on severity, marginal osteophytes, joint space narrowing, and chondral damage using accepted grading systems. Patellar tilt and tibiofemoral alignment were measured radiographically. PROMs were evaluated at a minimum of 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: In multivariate regression, preoperative lateral patella Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≥2 was associated with superior change in Knee Society Score pain with level walking, higher absolute change in Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement (P ≤ 0.029), and knees ?always feeling normal" (odds ratio [OR] 3.12; P = 0.005). Osteoarthritis Research Society International atlas grades and Outerbridge classification scores did not significantly influence PROMs. DISCUSSION: Worse preoperative OA severity in the lateral patellar facet, graded with the Kellgren-Lawrence system, predicted superior knee-specific PROMs in patients with unresurfaced patellae after contemporary TKA. This observation supports the clinical finding that patients with more severe OA have optimized patient outcomes and highlights the minimal contribution of patella OA to knee function after primary TKA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Patela/cirurgia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 42(2): 244-249, 2022 Feb 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the early and mid-term clinical results of medial parapatellar soft tissue overlapping suture in total knee arthroplasty for treatment of severe osteoarthritis combined with permanent patellar dislocation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 12 patients (12 knees) diagnosed with severe knee osteoarthritis combined with permanent patellar dislocation undergoing total knee arthroplasty with medial parapatellar soft tissue overlapping suture. Knee Society Score (KSS), University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity-level rating, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score, and knee range of motion of the patients were assessed before and 2 years after the surgery. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the knee joint, full-length standing radiographs of the lower limbs and patellar axial radiographs were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean Knee Society Score of the patients increased from 34.2±11.1 before surgery to 73.5±6.3 at two years after the surgery (P < 0.001). The UCLA activity-level rating increased from an average of 3.8 ± 0.8 before surgery to 5.8 ± 0.6 at two years postoperatively (P=0.003). The mean VAS pain score decreased from 42.8±6.0 before surgery to 20.1±3.7 (P < 0.001) and the range of motion of the knee joint increased from 74.6±8.9 degrees to 97.5±4.5 degrees at two years (P < 0.001). The radiographs showed no signs of subluxation or dislocation of the patella in all the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Medial parapatellar soft tissue overlapping suture in total knee arthroplasty can achieve good early and mid-term clinical results for treatment of severe osteoarthritis combined with permanent patellar dislocation.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Patela/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suturas
14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 389, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patellar and patellar tendon pain is a common limitation to children's participation in social and physical activities. Some factors have been implicated in the occurrence and protraction of knee pain, but the causal relationship is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participants' physical characteristics and activity level are risk factors for the occurrence and protraction of patellar and patellar tendon pain in children and adolescents. METHODS: A three-year prospective cohort study was conducted with healthy students who were aged 8-14 years old, in Japan. Height, weight, heel-buttock distance, straight leg raising angle, and dorsiflexion angle of the ankle joint were collected as individual physical factors at the beginning of each year. The presence of self-reported patellar and patellar tendon pain and the Hospital for Special Surgery Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale (HSS Pedi-FABS) was collected every month. Protraction was defined as either (1) pain lasting for more than three continuous months or (2) recurrent pain after more than three months of complete recovery. Participants who did not have any pain at the beginning of the observation period were included in the analysis. We analyzed the odds ratio (OR) of pain occurrence within a year of registration and protraction throughout the study period for all physical factors and HSS Pedi-FABS. RESULTS: We included 1133 participants in the analysis and 252 participants developed knee pain within a year. 34.8% of participants with pain experienced protraction during the follow-up period. A high HSS Pedi-FABS significantly predicted knee pain occurrence (OR 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.05) and protraction (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.05). In addition, younger children and girls were at a significantly higher risk of patellar and patellar tendon pain protraction (age, OR 0.81, 95% CI, 0.73-0.90; sex, OR 1.69, 95% CI, 1.09-2.64). Other physical factors did not significantly predict the occurrence or protraction of knee pain. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a greater physical activity level was a risk factor for the occurrence and protraction of patellar and patellar tendon pain in childhood. In addition, younger age and female sex predicted higher risk of protraction of pain.


Assuntos
Ligamento Patelar , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Dor , Patela , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 337, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) complained of anterior knee pain (AKP) before and after Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) surgery. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the characteristics of patellofemoral joint (PFJ) deformities in patients with DDH and (2) to determine the effects of PAO on the PFJ. METHODS: Seventy patients (86 hips) were included in the DDH group. Thirty-three patients (33 knees) without AKP and hip pain were included in the control group. All patients underwent simultaneous CT scans of the hip and knee joints before PAO and after hardware removal surgery. The distance from the anterior inferior iliac spine to the ilioischial line (DAI), was measured in DDH patients. Imaging parameters of knees, including the sulcus angle (SA), femoral trochlear depth (FTD), patellar width (PW), tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG), patellar tilt angle (PTA) and lateral shift of the patella (LSP) were measured in patients in both the DDH and control group. TT-TG, PTA, and LSP of DDH patients were measured before PAO and after hardware removal. The DAI, PTA, LSP and TT-TG of all DDH patients before and after Bernese PAO were compared using paired t-tests. The FTD, PW, and SA of the DDH patients and the control group were analyzed using independent t-tests. PTA, TT-TG, and LSP between the control group and preoperative DDH patients, between the control group and post PAO patients were compared using independent t-tests. RESULTS: The DAI changed from 4.04 ± 0.61 mm before PAO surgery to 5.44 ± 0.63 mm after PAO surgery. The SA of the DDH group (140.69 ± 11.30 degree) was greater than that of the control group (130.82 ± 6.43 degree). The FTD and the PW of the DDH group (5.45 ± 1.59 mm, 4.16 ± 0.36 mm) were smaller than that of the control group (7.39 ± 1.20 mm, 4.24 ± 0.38 mm). The changes in LSP, PTA, and TT-TG before and after surgery were not statistically significant. Both before and after PAO, there was no statistically significant difference in the parameters of LSP, PTA, and TT-TG compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The knee joints of DDH patients presented a certain degree of femur trochlear groove dysplasia and patellofemoral instability. PAO surgery did not change PFJ stability, although the origination point of the rectus femoris muscle moved laterally during PAO surgery.


Assuntos
Demência Frontotemporal , Instabilidade Articular , Articulação Patelofemoral , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Osteotomia/métodos , Dor , Patela , Articulação Patelofemoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação Patelofemoral/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tíbia/cirurgia
16.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) ; 30(1): 10225536221092223, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not established whether patellar resurfacing is better than patellar non-resurfacing during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study was to compare the clinical outcomes between groups with patellar resurfacing and non-resurfacing during cruciate retaining (CR) TKA. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, subjects undergoing primary CR TKA for osteoarthritis between 2012 and 2019 were included. Of 500 subjects, 250 had patellar resurfacing (group 1) and 250 had patellar non-resurfacing (group 2) CR TKA. Knee society knee score (KSKS), knee society function score (KSFS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) scale, Kujala score, anterior knee pain, patellar compression test and range of motion (ROM) of the replaced knee were assessed and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in KSKS, KSFS, WOMAC scale, Kujala score, prevalence of anterior knee pain and ROM of the replaced knee between the two groups at the last follow-up (p > .05). Group 2 had more subjects with positive patellar compression test than group 1 at the last follow-up (p = .010). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and functional outcomes of the replaced knee were not different between patellar resurfacing and non-resurfacing groups. Anterior knee pain was significantly reduced after total knee arthroplasty regardless of patellar resurfacing. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Retrospective cohort study, Level III.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Osteoartrite , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Dor/cirurgia , Patela/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Clin Orthop Surg ; 14(1): 96-104, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35251546

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Attune (DePuy Synthes) prosthesis was designed to overcome patellofemoral complications associated with PFC Sigma (DePuy Synthes) prosthesis. The aim of our study was to compare the incidence of anterior knee pain (AKP), patellofemoral crepitus (PCr), and functional outcome between them. METHODS: This prospective matched-pair study was conducted between January 2014 and June 2015, during which 75 consecutive Attune total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) were matched with 75 PFC Sigma TKAs based on age, sex, body mass index, pathology, and deformity. A single surgeon performed all the operations with aid of computer navigation, using a posterior-stabilized prosthesis with patellar resurfacing. Outcome was assessed by new Knee Society Score (NKSS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score. AKP and PCr were assessed by a patient-administered questionnaire till 2 years of follow-up. Three pairs were lost to follow-up and finally 72 pairs were analyzed. RESULTS: One patient in each group reported AKP and 1 patient from each group had PCr at 2 years postoperatively. None of these patients required additional surgery. The incidence of lateral retinacular release was higher with PFC Sigma (5/72) than Attune (2/72); however, this was statistically not significant (p = 0.4). The Attune group had a significantly greater range of motion (ROM) at 3 months postoperatively (p = 0.049). At final follow-up, ROM was comparable between two prosthesis designs. NKSS and WOMAC scores were also comparable between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that both Attune and PFC Sigma had a low and comparable incidence of AKP and PCr up to 2 years of follow-up. The Attune group achieved a significantly greater ROM at 3 months postoperatively. At 2 years of follow-up, both prostheses had excellent and comparable clinical and functional results.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Análise por Pareamento , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Patela/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265331, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298516

RESUMO

The patella-patellar tendon angle (PPTA) assessing the sagittal patellar tilt was reported to be related with anterior knee pain. Herein, clinical effect of PPTA in patients with medial patellar plica (MPP) syndrome, chondromalacia patella, and infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) syndrome, the most common causes of anterior knee pain, was evaluated. In this retrospective study, 156 patients with anterior knee pain who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopic surgery that confirmed isolated MPP syndrome, chondromalacia patella, or IPFP syndrome from June 2011 to January 2021 were included in the study group and 118 patients without knee pathology on MRI during the same period were included in the control group. The PPTA was measured on knee MRI and compared between the two groups. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the value of PPTA for predicting the risk of patellofemoral joint disorder. The mean PPTA was significantly smaller in study group (138.1 ± 4.2°) than control group (142.1 ± 4.3°) (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in PPTA among the patients with MPP syndrome, chondromalacia patella, and IPFP syndrome. Furthermore, the ROC analysis revealed that the area under curve, sensitivity, and specificity for predicting the risk of patellofemoral joint disorders were 0.696, 70.3% and 57.6%, respectively, at a PPTA cutoff of 138.3°. Therefore, the smaller PPTA may be associated with MPP syndrome, chondromalacia patella, and IPFP syndrome. Furthermore, PPTA could be a predictive factor for the risk of patellofemoral joint disease in patients with anterior knee pain.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cartilagens , Artropatias , Lipomatose , Ligamento Patelar , Sinovite , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Doenças das Cartilagens/patologia , Humanos , Artropatias/patologia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Obesidade/patologia , Dor/patologia , Patela/diagnóstico por imagem , Patela/cirurgia , Ligamento Patelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamento Patelar/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sinovite/patologia
19.
JBJS Rev ; 10(3)2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358114

RESUMO

¼: Patellar tendinopathy is an attritional injury of the patellar tendon that is frequently identified in jumping athletes. Through repetitive or explosive movements, considerable loads and high peak strains are generated across the patellar tendon. ¼: This leads to microinjury of tendon fibers, local mucoid degeneration, and loss of the fibrocartilaginous tissue that attaches tendon to bone. ¼: Management of patellar tendinopathy often begins with nonoperative modalities: progressive tendon loading and eccentric rehabilitative exercise programs are the most effective. While a variety of additional treatment modalities are available, the comparative efficacy of these supportive treatments is not well differentiated at this time. ¼: In this article, we analyze the existing literature regarding nonoperative treatment of patellar tendinopathy and provide additional insight on the effectiveness of current modalities.


Assuntos
Ligamento Patelar , Tendinopatia , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Patela , Ligamento Patelar/lesões , Tendinopatia/terapia , Tendões
20.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 129: 105158, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279448

RESUMO

The influence of joint degeneration on the biomechanical properties of calcified cartilage and subchondral bone plate at the osteochondral junction is relatively unknown. Common experimental difficulties include accessibility to and visualization of the osteochondral junction, application of mechanical testing at the appropriate length scale, and availability of tissue that provides a consistent range of degenerative changes. This study addresses these challenges. A well-established bovine patella model of early joint degeneration was employed, in which micromechanical testing of fully hydrated osteochondral sections was carried out in conjunction with high-resolution imaging using differential interference contrast (DIC) optical light microscopy. A total of forty-two bovine patellae with different grades of tissue health ranging from healthy to mild, moderate, and severe cartilage degeneration, were selected. From the distal-lateral region of each patella, two adjacent osteochondral sections were obtained for the mechanical testing and the DIC imaging, respectively. Mechanical testing was carried out using a robotic micro-force acquisition system, applying compression tests over an array (area: 200 µm × 1000 µm, step size: 50 µm) across the osteochondral junction to obtain a stiffness map. Morphometric analysis was performed for the DIC images of fully hydrated cryo-sections. The levels of cartilage degeneration, DIC images, and the stiffness maps were used to associate the mechanical properties onto the specific tissue regions of cartilage, calcified cartilage, and subchondral bone plate. The results showed that there were up to 20% and 24% decreases (p < 0.05) in the stiffness of calcified cartilage and subchondral bone plate, respectively, in the severely degenerated group compared to the healthy group. Furthermore, there were increases (p < 0.05) in the number of tidemarks, bone spicules at the cement line, and the mean thickness of the subchondral bone plate with increasing levels of degeneration. The decreasing stiffness in the subchondral bone plate coupled with the presence of bone spicules may be indicative of a subchondral remodeling process involving new bone formation. Moreover, the mean thickness of the subchondral bone plate was found to be the strongest indicator of mechanical and associated structural changes in the osteochondral joint tissues.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Osteoartrite , Animais , Placas Ósseas , Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Bovinos , Dacarbazina , Patela/diagnóstico por imagem
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