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1.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 67(4): 382-389, 2022 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809265

RESUMO

Pediculosis is an integumentary disease caused by the ecto-parasite Pediculus humanus capitis, which infests human hair. It is a common public health problem that is most prominent worldwide in elementary school children. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of P. humanus capitis among primary school children in the Erbil province. For this purpose, this study was conducted from October 2019 to December 2019 among 1100 randomly selected elementary school children aged 6-12. Data collection was performed via a regular questionnaire and physical hair examination. For the genetic diversity part, after collecting one louse randomly from each individual, DNA was extracted. The mitochondrial Cox1 gene was then amplified by universal primer and PCR. Gene sequencing was performed by ABI (BioNEER, South Korea). Data analysis was done by Chi-Square and T-test using the SPSS ver. 23. The overall infestation rate was 21.27%, and the rate was significantly higher among females (34.93%) compared to males (7.91%). Some variables had found the prevalence rate to be strongly affected. This included age; the rate was not significant (26.87%) in the age group 8-9 years compared to other age groups. According to hair length, the rate was significantly increased (36.52%) among children with tall hair. In terms of hair type, the incidence of curly-haired children was significantly higher (31.54%); in terms of hair color, there were not significant differences among blonde children (25.90%) and others. According to the results of Cox1 gene sequencing, of 234 infested children to lice, 86 (36.75%) of them were exposed to clade A, 38 (16.24%) were exposed to clade B, clade C has not been seen among any children (0%), 105 students (44.87%) were exposed to clade D, and 5 of them exposed to clade E (2.14%). Eventually, a significantly higher incidence (33.78%) was reported in rural primary school children. The infection rate of human head lice in Erbil province is still high, which is one of the health problems of children in public schools.


Assuntos
Pediculus , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pediculus/genética , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Am Fam Physician ; 106(1): 91-92, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839355

RESUMO

Abametapir 0.74% (Xeglyze) is a topical ovicidal pediculicide labeled for the treatment of head lice infestation in patients six months and older.1,2.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos , Inseticidas , Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Animais , Humanos , Infestações por Piolhos/tratamento farmacológico
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 424, 2022 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediculosis is an important social challenge that can be caused by human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis. This infestation is cosmopolitan, especially in countries with low hygiene and sanitation. Regular health education classes for students and their parents are required to reduce this infestation in schools and families. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a health education intervention program on reducing head lice among pupils of an elementary school. METHODS: In a quasi-experimental study, a total of 880 elementary school girls were screened for pediculosis in (2017-2018). The prevalence of pediculosis follow-up continued monthly until the end of the school year after a two months educational intervention course. Visual inspection was applied for initial diagnosis of infection. The suspected cases were confirmed by wood lamp and potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopic examination. Also eight questions about diagnostic, epidemiology, treatment and prevention were answered in a questionnaire by 50 volunteer parents before and after the training intervention course, to evaluate their general knowledge and measure the effectiveness of learning. All data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software (version 20.0, SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). McNemar's test was also applied to investigate the prevalence rate before and after the intervention. A p -value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: At the beginning of study, pre-intervention prevalence of pediculosis among pupils was 8.4% (49/594). The mean age in all pupils was 9.86 ± 1.83 years old and the most infestation was shown in fourth-grade students with 10 years old. Analysis of statistics demonstrated a significant difference between having infestation and the number of members in the families. Post-intervention phase led to a decreased prevalence of pediculosis in pupils to 3% (8/594) (p-value < 0.05). Based on statistical analysis of questions before and after the training in the questionnaire, a significant increase of parental knowledge was observed on the prevention program of pediculosis (p-value < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pediculosis was significantly reduced following the educational interventions in the school. The applied interventions may be implemented in other residual centers to get rid of this important infestation.


Assuntos
Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Infestações por Piolhos/diagnóstico , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
4.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(1): 497-501, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891768

RESUMO

Lice infestations or pediculosis occurs throughout the world and is caused by Pediculus humunus capitis (head louse), Pediculus humanus corporis (body louse), and Pthirus pubis (crab louse). This study was conducted within March-October 2020 and aimed to investigate the presence of human lice among 1,632 individuals from 225 families living at different economic and social levels in AL-Kut city, Iraq, and its suburbs (urban, rural, and slum areas). Data collection was performed on volunteer families by completing survey forms and visual examinations. The families were divided by the number of members into 10-15, 7-9, 4-6, and 3-2 persons, for which, the infestation rates were estimated at 24.2%, 21.4%, 12.5%, and 8.6%, respectively. Moreover, in this study, urban, rural, and slum areas were infected at 11.5%, 33.6%, and 21.6 %, respectively. The infestation appeared in all ages, and the higher and lowest rates were obtained for the age ranges of 3-17 and 18-40 years old (79.04% and 20.9%), respectively. Based on the results, the rates of infestation were 21.8% and 13.3% in females and males, respectively. The findings of this study showed that the infection rate of Pediculus humanus corporis among the subjects aged 4-24 years old was 11.0% and that of Pthirus pubis was 3.0% in the cases aging 14-32 years old. Due to the high infestation with ectoparasites in these areas and large families, it is highly important to create conditions for health and provide information to control and prevent infection.


Assuntos
Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Phthirus , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Iraque , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pediculus/classificação , Phthirus/classificação , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20210337, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730862

RESUMO

Pediculosis mainly affects school-age children worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the knowledge of the parents and guardians of children in elementary schools in Niterói, Brazil, regarding pediculosis. Questionnaires were applied to 237 guardians of children at five 1-5 grade municipal schools. The responses were analyzed and correlated with positivity to louse infestation, detected by scalp aspiration. 73.8% of the respondents reported that their child had already been infested with lice. 32.9% presented correct responses about transmission. Incorrect responses were attributed to the air/wind, blood type and the fact that lice jump and fly. 40.1% of the respondents erroneously correlated control over the parasitosis with hygiene. A majority of the participants (58.6%) responded that pediculosis is harmful to health, while a small proportion (20.7%) considered it to be a disease. The prevalence of pediculosis was 19.8% among schoolchildren. Female sex, pruritus on the head and indifference regarding infestation were shown to be risk factors for pediculosis. The lack of perception of pediculosis as a disease may lead to naturalization of this parasitosis. Incorrect responses may add difficulty to implementation of preventive and curative approaches, which highlights the importance of dissemination of correct information about pediculosis.


Assuntos
Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/etiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/prevenção & controle , Pais , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Korean J Parasitol ; 60(3): 217-221, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772742

RESUMO

The head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer) is a hematophagous ectoparasite that inhabits the human scalp. The infestations are asymptomatic; however, skin irritation from scratching occasionally may cause secondary bacterial infections. The present study determined the presence and frequency of the knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation T929I in 245 head lice collected from Mexico, Peru, and Canada. Head lice were collected manually using a comb in the private head lice control clinic. Allele mutation at T9291 was present in 100% of the total sampled populations (245 lice) examined. In addition, 4.89% of the lice were homozygous susceptible, whereas 6.93% heterozygous and 88.16% homozygous were resistant, respectively. This represents the second report in Mexico and Quebec and fist in Lima.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Animais , Canadá , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , México , Mutação , Pediculus/genética , Peru , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 58, 2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35619191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human pediculosis is caused by hematophagous lice, which are transmitted between individuals via direct and/or indirect contact. Despite the public health importance of louse infestation, information concerning the global burden of pediculosis and the epidemiological landscape of louse-borne diseases is limited. The aim of this review was to summarize the biology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and control of lice infestation in humans. We also discussed the latest advances in molecular taxonomy and molecular genetics of lice. METHODS: We searched five electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, CNKI, VIP Chinese Journal Database, and Wanfang Data) and followed a standard approach for conducting scoping reviews to identify studies on various aspects of human lice. Relevant information reported in the identified studies were collated, categorized, and summarized. RESULTS: A total of 282 studies were eligible for the final review. Human pediculosis remains a public health issue affecting millions of people worldwide. Emerging evidence suggests that head lice and body lice should be considered conspecific, with different genotypes and ecotypes. Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial (mt) cytb gene sequences identified six distinct clades of lice worldwide. In addition to the direct effect on human health, lice can serve as vectors of disease-causing pathogens. The use of insecticides plays a crucial role in the treatment and prevention of louse infestation. Genome sequencing has advanced our knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary biology of human lice. CONCLUSIONS: Human pediculosis is a public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. More progress can be made if emphasis is placed on the use of emerging omics technologies to elucidate the mechanisms that underpin the physiological, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of lice.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Animais , Humanos , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Pediculus/genética , Filogenia , Saúde Pública
8.
Acta Trop ; 232: 106503, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613657

RESUMO

Head louse infestations caused by Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) are a public health problem in developing and developed countries worldwide. Head to head contact is by far the most common mode of lice transmission. In March 2020, WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic. Starting from March 2020, the Israeli government established mandatory isolation for extensive periods including closure of school systems for very long time. The aim of the project was to compare the pediculicide sale numbers before the COVID-19 epidemic with those starting of the epidemic in 2020, as a possible marker for changing epidemiology of head lice during the COVID pandemic. Data were collected from a large pharmacy chain in Israel, which provided the actual sales of pediculicides during the years 2010-2020. During the period 2010-2019 a significant increase of pediculicide sales from 281,986 - 498,107 was observed, the highest number being from 2019. In 2020, this number dropped to 294,477, a significant drop compared to previous years and to 2019. The results of this study suggest that head louse infestations are increasing in the last years, while the extended isolation of children due to COVID-19 influenced significantly the infestation rate of children with head lice.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Inseticidas , Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(5): e0010399, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617170

RESUMO

We describe a case of Bartonella quintana endocarditis in an 11-year-old child from Northern Manitoba, Canada. This case demonstrates the neglected endemicity of B. quintana in Northern Canada and highlights the need for improved case finding and elucidation of specific risk factors for B. quintana infection in the Canadian North. Considering B. quintana's predominant transmission via body lice ectoparasitosis, we hypothesize that B. quintana's endemicity in Northern Canada is linked to inadequate access to suitable housing and running water among remote communities in the Canadian North.


Assuntos
Bartonella quintana , Endocardite , Pediculus , Febre das Trincheiras , Animais , Bartonella quintana/genética , Canadá , Criança , Humanos , Manitoba
10.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221086369, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363562

RESUMO

In many regions of the world, human head lice infestations caused by Pediculus capitis are a major health concern among school-aged children. This study was carried out to explain variables influencing pediculosis prevention and control from the perspective of parents and teachers of female elementary school pupils, as well as healthcare practitioners in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Participants in this qualitative study included 23 participants, including parents and teachers of primary school girls, as well as healthcare practitioners. Purposive sampling was employed and sustained until data saturation was reached. Data was acquired through in-depth interviews and evaluated using content analysis in the form of constant comparison. To assess the quality of the outcomes, Lincoln and Guba's criteria were used. The data were extracted into 2 primary categories, including challenges and facilitators to controlling pediculosis, each with several subcategories as follows: 1) economic-political aspects; 2) family factors; 3) social-cultural elements; 4) personal and mental issues; 5) geographical position of the investigated region; 6) school and education factors; and 7) factors related to medications and therapy. There were 2 types of facilitators: 1) informative factors and 2) social-cultural variables. According to the findings, pediculosis prevention, control, and treatment necessitate multifaceted and multi-level intervention. Some solutions must be addressed at the personal-psychological, familial, political-economic, geographical, and informational levels, as well as school-related concerns, social stigma elimination, and evaluation of cultural components of the issue at the social level.


Assuntos
Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/etiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
Infect Immun ; 90(5): e0068321, 2022 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384689

RESUMO

Borrelia recurrentis is the causative agent of louse-borne relapsing fever and the only Borrelia species transmitted by an insect rather than a tick vector. While bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) are not established vectors of any human pathogens, a recent study reported that they may be competent vectors of B. recurrentis. However, many aspects of infection and transmission remain unclear in this possible secondary vector. Here, we carried out several quantitative laboratory studies to gain a better understanding of the host suitability of bed bugs relative to the established body louse vector as well as the factors that may affect the ability of bed bugs to transmit the pathogen. We fed bed bugs B. recurrentis and estimated the level and duration of infection in the hemolymph using live imaging. We performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) to examine whole-body spirochete levels and the occurrence of vertical transmission to progeny. We also developed an assay to compare the amounts of force required to release infectious hemolymph from recently engorged bed bugs and body lice. Finally, we analyzed humoral antibacterial activity in the hemolymph, hemolymph pH, and hemocyte activity in both insect species. Our results confirm that within 24 h of ingestion, B. recurrentis can penetrate the midgut epithelium of bed bugs and enter the hemolymph, overcoming a major host barrier, as in body lice. Once in the hemolymph, spirochetes remain visible for at least 4 days. Moreover, we show that bed bugs are more physically susceptible to crushing than body lice, suggesting that crushing is a feasible route for the natural dissemination of B. recurrentis from the hemolymph of bed bugs, as for body lice. Nonetheless, our data also indicate that bed bugs are suboptimal hosts for B. recurrentis, as the bacterium does not appear to proliferate to high levels or stably colonize the hemolymph and exhibits pleomorphism in this environment. In particular, our data suggest that hemolymph pH and unique cellular immune responses, rather than humoral effectors, may be involved in limiting spirochete survival in bed bugs. Notably, we document the formation of extracellular DNA traps by bed bug hemocytes for the first time. For these reasons, while bed bugs may be capable of limited transmission given their ecology, vector competence is probably minimal relative to body lice. Additional mechanistic studies of human pathogen infection of bed bugs may provide much-needed insight into the biological factors that restrict their ability to act as vectors and may reveal novel mechanisms of immunity.


Assuntos
Percevejos-de-Cama , Borrelia , Pediculus , Febre Recorrente , Animais , Percevejos-de-Cama/microbiologia , Borrelia/fisiologia , Humanos , Pediculus/microbiologia , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia
13.
J Med Entomol ; 59(4): 1171-1176, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482601

RESUMO

Human head lice Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) are ectoparasites that cause pediculosis, a global scale disease mainly found in school-age children. Previous works from our laboratory found nonanal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone as the main human scalp volatile components, and individually evaluated their attraction to head lice using an olfactometer. In this work, we compared how their blends at different concentrations attract head lice, and how their blended effect compares to the effect of isolated compounds. At the concentrations evaluated, individual components did not show attraction towards head lice, but a ternary mixture of them was attractive. Moreover, a solvent extract from the human head scalp was analyzed by GC-MS, finding that tetradecanoic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, and squalene are the most abundant components. Attraction to these individual compounds at natural concentrations was tested by bioassays in a circular experimental arena. No attraction was observed when the components were tested individually, but when they were evaluated as a blend they attracted head lice. This work presents new information about how chemical signals are attractive at certain concentrations and proportions. This information could be used to better understand communication mechanisms in head lice and for the development of louse repellents.


Assuntos
Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Couro Cabeludo/química , Pele
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 834388, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35310843

RESUMO

Pediculus humanus is an obligate bloodsucking parasite of humans that has two ecotypes, the head louse and the body louse, which share an intimate history of coevolution with their human host. In the present work, we obtained and analysed head and body lice collected from Mbuti pygmies living in the Orientale province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Cytochrome b DNA analysis was performed in order to type the six known lice clades (A, D, B, F, C and E). The results revealed the presence of two mitochondrial clades. Clade D was the most frequent (61.7% of 47), followed by clade A (38.3% of 47). Sixteen haplotypes were found in 47 samples, of which thirteen were novel haplotypes, indicating an unusually high genetic diversity that closely mirrors the diversity of their hosts. Moreover, we report for the first time the presence of the DNA of R. felis in three (6.4% of 47) head and body lice belonging to both clades A and D. Additional studies are needed to clarify whether the Pediculus lice can indeed transmit this emerging zoonotic bacterium to their human hosts.


Assuntos
Pediculus , Rickettsia felis , Animais , República Democrática do Congo , Variação Genética , Humanos , Pediculus/genética , Filogenia
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 73, 2022 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human louse (Pediculus humanus) is a haematophagous ectoparasite that is intimately related to its host. It has been of great public health concern throughout human history. This louse has been classified into six divergent mitochondrial clades (A, D, B, F, C and E). As with all haematophagous lice, P. humanus directly depends on the presence of a bacterial symbiont, known as "Candidatus Riesia pediculicola", to complement their unbalanced diet. In this study, we evaluated the codivergence of human lice around the world and their endosymbiotic bacteria. Using molecular approaches, we targeted lice mitochondrial genes from the six diverged clades and Candidatus Riesia pediculicola housekeeping genes. METHODS: The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cytb) of lice was selected for molecular analysis, with the aim to identify louse clade. In parallel, we developed four PCR primer pairs targeting three housekeeping genes of Candidatus Riesia pediculicola: ftsZ, groEL and two regions of the rpoB gene (rpoB-1 and rpoB-2). RESULTS: The endosymbiont phylogeny perfectly mirrored the host insect phylogeny using the ftsZ and rpoB-2 genes, in addition to showing a significant co-phylogenetic congruence, suggesting a strict vertical transmission and a host-symbiont co-speciation following the evolutionary course of the human louse. CONCLUSION: Our results unequivocally indicate that louse endosymbionts have experienced a similar co-evolutionary history and that the human louse clade can be determined by their endosymbiotic bacteria.


Assuntos
Anoplura , Pediculus , Animais , Anoplura/genética , Evolução Biológica , Genes Mitocondriais , Humanos , Pediculus/microbiologia , Filogenia
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(3)2022 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328076

RESUMO

Animal mitochondrial (mt) genomes are typically double-strand circular DNA molecules, but diverse structural variations have been widely found in multiple groups. In parasitic lice (Phthiraptera), the structure of mt genomes varies remarkably across all five suborders. In this study, we reported the complete mt genome of a chicken body louse, Menacanthus cornutus, which has a typical single circular mt chromosome and drastic mt gene rearrangements. This mt genome is 15,693 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 23 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region. A comparison with a typical insect mt genome suggested that two highly similar trnM are present in the mt genome of M. cornutus. Moreover, almost every single gene was rearranged, and over half of mt genes were inverted. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the mt genome sequences supported the monophyly and position of Amblycera. Mapped over the phylogenetic relationships of Amblycera, we identified two inversion events for the conserved gene blocks in Boopidae and Menoponidae. The inverted ND4L-ND4 was likely a synapomorphic rearrangement in Menoponidae. Our study demonstrated the importance of sequencing mt genomes for additional taxa to uncover the mechanism underlying the structural evolution of the mt genome in parasitic lice.


Assuntos
Amblíceros , Genoma Mitocondrial , Pediculus , Amblíceros/genética , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Pediculus/genética , Filogenia
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4307, 2022 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279677

RESUMO

The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is a strictly obligate human ectoparasite with a long history of association with humans. Here, 17 ancient head lice nits were recovered from six shrunken human heads (known as tsantsas) of individuals from the Shuar/Jivaro tribe, a native Amazonian population from Ecuador, South America. Cytochrome b DNA analysis revealed the presence of three known mitochondrial clades. Clade A was the most frequent (52.94%), followed by F (35.29%), and B (11.76%). Eleven haplotypes were found in 17 samples, and nine of the haplotypes were novel, indicating an unusually high genetic diversity. In conclusion, we confirmed the presence of clades A, B and F in South Amerindian population. Moreover, the description of clade F, together with its previous reports in another Amerindian population from French Guiana, strongly support the hypothesis of a native South American origin for this clade, and probably derived from clade B which was carried to America by an ancestral Eurasian Beringian population. Further support to our conclusion and new insights might come from the analysis of a larger collection of modern and ancient native American lice.


Assuntos
Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Animais , Citocromos b/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Pediculus/genética , Filogenia
18.
J Exp Biol ; 225(7)2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315491

RESUMO

Sucking lice feed on blood and therefore ingest more water than they require for maintaining hydration. This water must be excreted; however, unlike other blood-feeding insects, they do not produce urine but do become dehydrated within hours if unable to feed. Using human clothing lice and head lice, Pediculus humanus ssp., and high sensitivity balances, it was shown that recently fed lice lost mass consistently as water ingested with the blood meal was excreted via the respiratory system. If all spiracles were occluded using petroleum jelly, mass/water loss was inhibited. Blocking thoracic spiracles resulted in a slight reduction in the rate of mass loss compared with untreated lice, but blocking the abdominal spiracles resulted in an enhanced rate of mass loss. Lice immersed in water did not lose mass but maintained the same mass for several hours, after which they increased in mass as the tissues became turgid, indicating that the insects were able to block water ingress during the period of stability, but that after some time the mechanism failed allowing water to enter the lice by osmosis.


Assuntos
Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Animais , Humanos , Sistema Respiratório , Água
20.
Clin Dermatol ; 40(1): 81-84, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190069

RESUMO

Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestations are prevalent among young children and generally not considered a health hazard. Although massive chronic head lice infestations have been documented in paleo medical literature, their association with severe iron deficiency anemia has been rarely discussed in modern medicine. A recently published case implicating a head lice infestation as the cause of death of a 12-year-old girl brings this topic to the fore. This contribution discusses the available information concerning the circumstances under which this girl died and the ongoing criminal investigation as a springboard for discussion of how head lice infestations may serve as forensic and legal evidence and as a warning sign of mental illness, abuse, neglect, and rape.


Assuntos
Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Infestações por Piolhos/complicações , Infestações por Piolhos/diagnóstico
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