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1.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 36(2): 95-101, 2023 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36853755

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recurrent cellulitis is a challenging clinical condition affecting up to 47% of patients after the first episode, especially those with predisposing risk factors. The purpose of this review is to describe the state of the art of literature evidence and to highlight recent developments in its management. RECENT FINDINGS: Recurrent cellulitis can occur after successful treatment of cellulitis. Conditions that commonly increase the risk of cellulitis include local and systemic modifiable and nonmodifiable factors. A rigorous approach to the management of risk factors and treatment of acute infection is important as the risk of recurrence rises with repeated episodes. Risk factors, if present, need to be targeted in association with antibiotic prophylaxis. Penicillin V is the preferred antibiotic for prevention but other antibiotics and new drugs can be considered in cases of ß-lactam allergy, intolerance, or failure. SUMMARY: Recurrent cellulitis is associated with short term and long-term morbidity as well as significant healthcare costs. Management of underlying predisposing conditions is crucial to prevent recurrence in addition with evaluation of pharmacological measures, but specialized and multidisciplinary skills are needed. More efforts are needed to prevent and treat this underestimated problem.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Celulite (Flegmão) , Humanos , Celulite (Flegmão)/tratamento farmacológico , Celulite (Flegmão)/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Penicilina V/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária , Doença Crônica , Recidiva
2.
Br Dent J ; 234(1): 11-12, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639456
3.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 34(1): 109-118, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515652

RESUMO

Enzyme kinetics is normally assessed by performing individual kinetic measurements using batch-type reactors (test tubes, microtiter plates), in which enzymes are mixed with different substrates. Some drawbacks of conventional methods are the large amounts of experimental materials, long analysis times, and limitations of spectrophotometry. Therefore, we have developed a method for facile determination of enzyme kinetics using online flow-based mass spectrometry. A concentration ramp of substrate or product was created by dynamically adjusting flow rates of pumps delivering stock solution of substrate and diluent. Precise kinetic measurements were performed by reaction product quantification and initial rate calculation. In the presence of ascending substrate concentrations, the rate of a target enzyme (penicillinase)-catalyzed hydrolysis was varied. By measuring the reaction product continuously, Michaelis constants (KM) could be calculated. The enzyme kinetic measurements for hydrolysis of penicillins were conducted based on this simple, rapid, and low sample consumption online flow device. In the homogeneous reaction, the KM values for amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin G, and penicillin V were 254.9 ± 14.5, 29.2 ± 0.3, 2.6 ± 0.1, and 5.4 ± 0.1 µM, respectively. In the heterogeneous reaction, the KM values for amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin G, and penicillin V were 408.9 ± 75.1, 114.4 ± 8.0, 21.8 ± 0.7, and 83.3 ± 4.8 µM, respectively. Apart from enzyme assay, the showcased method for the generation of temporal concentration ramps can be utilized to perform rapid quantity calibrations for mass spectrometric analyses.


Assuntos
Ampicilina , Penicilina V , Cinética , Penicilina G , Amoxicilina , Espectrometria de Massas
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 840, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sore throat is a common reason for prescribing antibiotics in primary care, and 10 days of treatment is recommended for patients with pharyngotonsillitis with group A streptococcus (GAS). Our group recently showed that penicillin V (PcV) four times daily for 5 days was non-inferior in clinical outcome to PcV three times daily for 10 days. This study compares duration, intensity of symptoms, and side effects in patients with a Centor Score (CS) of 3 or 4 respectively, after treatment with PcV for 5 or 10 days and evaluates whether all patients with pharyngotonsillitis with a CS of 3 or 4 should be treated for 5 days or if severity of symptoms or CS suggest a longer treatment period. METHOD: Data on symptoms and recovery from patient diaries from 433 patients included in a RCT comparing PcV 800 mg × 4 for 5 days or PcV 1 g × 3 for 10 days was used. Patients six years and older with CS-3 or CS-4 and positive rapid antigen detection test for GAS-infection were grouped based on CS and randomized treatment. Comparisons for categorical variables were made with Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. Continuous variables were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: Patients with CS-3 as well as patients with CS-4 who received PcV 800 mg × 4 for 5 days self-reported that they recovered earlier compared to patients with CS-3 or CS-4 who received treatment with PcV 1 g × 3 for 10 days. In addition, the throat pain as single symptom was relieved 1 day earlier in patients with CS-4 and 5 days of treatment compared to patients with CS-4 and 10 days of treatment. No differences in side effects between the groups were found. CONCLUSION: Intense treatment with PcV four times a day for 5 days seems clinically beneficial and strengthens the suggestion that the 4-dose regimen with 800 mg PcV for 5 days may be the future treatment strategy for GAS positive pharyngotonsillitis irrespectively of CS-3 or CS-4. Trail registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02712307 (3 April 2016).


Assuntos
Faringite , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Tonsilite , Humanos , Penicilina V/uso terapêutico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus pyogenes , Tonsilite/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Chemosphere ; 309(Pt 1): 136606, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174729

RESUMO

Bacterial communities are crucial for processing and degrading contaminants in hyporheic zones (HZ). However, the effects of antibiotics on HZ bacterial communities have seldom been addressed. Here, using MiSeq 16S amplicon sequencing technology, the effects of acute exposure to Enrofloxacin, Sulfathiazole, Tetracycline hydrochloride, and Penicillin V potassium on HZ bacterial communities were investigated. Results revealed that HZ sediment communities responded differently to different classes of antibiotics, reflecting the distinct selection stress of antibiotics on HZ bacterial communities. Besides, HZ communities from the locations with more severe antibiotic contamination backgrounds (∼150 µg kg-1) were more resistant towards antibiotic treatment. Compared with small/non-significant changes in HZ community diversity and composition treated with ng L-1∼ug L-1 level antibiotics compared to the control group, treatments with antibiotics over mg L-1 level significantly reduced the diversity and changed the structures of HZ bacterial communities, and enhanced the resistance of the community to antibiotics by enriching antibiotic resistant bacteria. The exposure to mg L-1 level antibiotics also changed community functions by restricting the growth of functional bacteria, such as ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) Nitrosomonas, resulting in ammonia accumulation in sediments. The results implied that at field-relevant concentrations, there was no or minor effect of antibiotics on HZ bacterial community structure and functions, and only those areas with high antibiotic concentrations would have effects.


Assuntos
Amônia , Antibacterianos , Amônia/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Tetraciclina , Penicilina V , Enrofloxacina , Bactérias , Sulfatiazóis
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(44): 67026-67045, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513617

RESUMO

Although antibiotic exposure in the general population has been well documented by a biomonitoring approach, epidemiologic data on the relationships between urinary antibiotic burden in the elderly with blood pressure (BP) are still lacking. The current study revealed thirty-four antibiotics in urine specimens from 990 elderly patients in Lu'an City, China, with detection frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 35.5%. Among the elderly, the prevalence of hypertension was 72.0%, and 12 antibiotics were detected in more than 10% of individuals with hypertension. The elderly with hypertension had the maximum daily exposure (5450.45 µg/kg/day) to fluoroquinolones (FQs). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed significant associations of BP and pulse pressure (PP) with exposure to specific antibiotics. The estimated ß values (95% confidence interval) of associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the right arm were 4.42 (1.15, 7.69) for FQs, 4.26 (0.52, 8.01) for the preferred as human antibiotics (PHAs), and 3.48 (0.20, 6.77) for the mixtures (FQs + tetracyclines [TCs] (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1)), respectively. Increased concentrations of TCs were associated with decreased diastolic BP (DBP; tertile 3: -1.75 [-3.39, -0.12]) for the right arm. Higher levels of FQs (tertile 3: 4.28 [1.02, 7.54]), PHAs (tertile 3: 4.25 [0.49, 8.01]), and FQs + TCs (tertile 3: 3.99 [0.71, 7.26]) were associated with increased SBP, and an increase in DBP for FQs (tertile 3: 1.82 [0.22, 3.42]) was shown in the left arm. Also, higher urinary concentrations of FQs (tertile 3: 3.18 [0.53, 5.82]), PHAs (tertile 3: 3.42 [0.40, 6.45]), and FQs + TCs (tertile 3: 3.06 [0.40, 5.72]) were related to increased PP, whereas a decline in PP for TCs (tertile 2: -2.93 [-5.60, -0.25]) in the right arm. And increased concentrations of penicillin V (tertile 3: 5.31 [1.53, 9.10]) and FQs + TCs (tertile 3: 2.84 [0.19, 5.49]) were related to higher PP in the left arm. By utilizing restricted cubic splines, our current study revealed a potential nonlinear dose-response association between FQ exposure and hypertension risk. In conclusion, this investigation is the first to present antibiotic exposure using a biomonitoring approach, and informs understanding of impacts of antibiotic residues, as emerging hazardous pollutants, on the hypertension risk in the elderly.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Hipertensão , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Fluoroquinolonas , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Penicilina V , Tetraciclinas
7.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 130(1): 151-157, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrepancies exist in Danish guidelines for the treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study aimed to investigate how general practitioners (GPs) treat adults with CAP and explore associations between GP characteristics and treatment duration. METHODS: In autumn 2020, GPs in the North Denmark Region were asked to complete an electronic questionnaire on antibiotic prescribing for CAP. Information about GP gender, age, experience and type of practice was obtained. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the association between GP characteristics and treatment duration. RESULTS: A total of 298 GPs were invited to participate of whom 108 completed the survey. Penicillin V was used as first line treatment for CAP by all participants. Treatment duration varied from 5 (54.6%) to 10 days (8.3%). A 5-day course of penicillin was less likely to be prescribed by male GPs (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.94) and more likely to be prescribed by GPs with 5-9 years of experience in general practice (OR 5.03, 95% CI 1.09-23.21) compared to those with 10-19 years of experience. CONCLUSION: Variation in antibiotic treatment of CAP emphasises the importance of generating solid evidence about the optimal duration regarding both effectiveness and safety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Dinamarca , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penicilina V/administração & dosagem
8.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 149: 109819, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311875

RESUMO

The recognition and interaction of FEZ-1 from Legionella (FEZ-1) with penicillin V(PV) and cefoxitin(CFX) were investigated using fluorescence spectra in combination with molecular dynamics simulation (MD). The results revealed that the CFX bind with FEZ-1 in stronger interaction and induced larger conformational change than PV, despite all being forced by the electrostatic interaction and along with the changing in an environment of amino acid residues as well as the polypeptide skeleton inside the FEZ-1. Moreover, only the loop1, loop2, and N-terminal were observed locating near the binding pocket of FEZ-1, consisting of a flexible "gate-like" zone with better adaptability that controlled the entrance of antibiotic into the pocket by allowing the newly introduced antibiotic to match the pocket better through the conformational changes of these three substructures in the binding procedure. The current study may provide some valuable information on the antibiotic hydrolytic process by metallo-beta-lactamase and thus the references for the development of new antibiotics for super bacteria.


Assuntos
Cefoxitina , Legionella , Penicilina V , beta-Lactamases , Cefoxitina/farmacologia , Legionella/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Penicilina V/farmacologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
9.
BMJ ; 372: n107, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the use of macrolide antibiotics in pregnancy and the risk of major birth defects. DESIGN: Nationwide, register based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, 1997-2016. PARTICIPANTS: Of 1 192 539 live birth pregnancies, pregnancies during which macrolides had been used (13 019) were compared with those during which penicillin (that is, phenoxymethylpenicillin) had been used (matched in a 1:1 ratio on propensity scores). Other comparative groups were pregnancies when macrolides had been used recently but before pregnancy (matched 1:1) and pregnancies where no antibiotics had been used (matched 1:4). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association with an outcome of any major birth defect and specific subgroups of birth defects were assessed by relative risk ratios and absolute risk differences. RESULTS: In matched comparisons, 457 infants were born with major birth defects to women who had used macrolides during pregnancy (35.1 per 1000 pregnancies) compared with 481 infants (37.0 per 1000 pregnancies) to women who had used penicillin (relative risk ratio 0.95; 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.08), corresponding to an absolute risk difference of -1.8 (95% confidence interval -6.4 to 2.7) per 1000 pregnancies. The risk of major birth defects was not significantly increased for women who had used macrolides during pregnancy compared with those who had used macrolides recently but before becoming pregnant (relative risk ratio 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.88 to 1.14); absolute risk difference -0.1 (95% confidence interval -4.8 to 4.7) per 1000 pregnancies) or compared with women who did not use any antibiotics (1.05 (0.95 to 1.17); 1.8 (-1.7 to 5.3) per 1000 pregnancies). For all three comparative group analyses and in the analyses of use of individual macrolides, no significant increased risk of specific subgroups of birth defects associated with the use of macrolides was found. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide cohort study, the use of macrolide antibiotics in pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of major birth defects. Analyses of the associated risk of 12 specific subgroups of birth defects with the use of macrolides in pregnancy were not significant.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Penicilina V/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros
10.
Behav Brain Res ; 404: 113156, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571573

RESUMO

Rates of perinatal maternal antibiotic use have increased in recent years linked to prophylactic antibiotic use following Caesarean section delivery. This antibiotic use is necessary and beneficial in the short-term; however, long-term consequences on brain and behaviour have not been studied in detail. Here, we endeavoured to determine whether maternal administration of antibiotics during a critical window of development in early life has lasting effects on brain and behaviour in offspring mice. To this end we studied two different antibiotic preparations (single administration of Phenoxymethylpenicillin at 31 mg/kg/day; and a cocktail consisting of, ampicillin 1 mg/mL; vancomycin 0.5 mg/mL; metronidazole 1 mg/mL; ciprofloxacin 0.2 mg/mL and imipenem 0.25 mg/mL). It was observed that early life exposure to maternal antibiotics led to persistent alterations in anxiety, sociability and cognitive behaviours. These effects in general were greater in animals treated with the broad-spectrum antibiotic cocktail compared to a single antibiotic with the exception of deficits in social recognition which were more robustly observed in Penicillin V exposed animals. Given the prevalence of maternal antibiotic use, our findings have potentially significant translational relevance, particularly considering the implications on infant health during this critical period and into later life.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Ampicilina/administração & dosagem , Ampicilina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Ciprofloxacina/administração & dosagem , Ciprofloxacina/efeitos adversos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital/efeitos dos fármacos , Imipenem/administração & dosagem , Imipenem/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Metronidazol/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Penicilina V/administração & dosagem , Penicilina V/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Comportamento Social , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos , Vocalização Animal/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 172, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prescribing in dental practice has a relatively small but important contribution to the quantity of antibiotics prescribed in primary care. This study aimed to analyse antibiotic prescribing in dentistry over time (2010-2016) in 4 different Northern European countries and their relative contribution to national outpatients consumption. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the frequency and number of national antibiotic prescriptions written by dentists in England, Scotland, Norway and Sweden. The consumption of such antibiotics was measured using WHO defined daily doses (DDDs), DDDs per 100,000 inhabitants per day (DIDs100,000). RESULTS: A total of more than 27 million prescriptions (27,026,599) archived between 2010 and 2016 from the four countries were analysed. The national contribution of Norwegian dentists to the total primary care prescription during this period was 8%. The corresponding figures for Sweden, Scotland and England were 7, 6, and 8%. Dental contribution to National antibiotic use in all four countries has decreased over the study time period for commonly prescribed antibiotics in dentistry, i.e., the beta-lactams (Phenoxymethyl penicillin/Amoxicillin) and metronidazole. There were less numbers of prescriptions by dentists in Norway and Sweden compared to England and Scotland. Marked differences in some classes of antibiotics were noted with Phenoxymethyl penicillin dominating in Sweden/Norway compared to Amoxicillin and Metronidazole in England/Scotland. In England and Scotland, dentists were the largest prescribers of metronidazole in primary care. Clindamycin prescriptions was higher in Norway and Sweden. CONCLUSION: Noticeable differences exist in prescribing patterns for the management of oral infections. High levels of metronidazole use in England and Scotland also require further analysis. All countries over the study period showed a decrease in total numbers of antibiotics prescribed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Noruega/epidemiologia , Penicilina V/análogos & derivados , Penicilina V/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escócia/epidemiologia , Espiramicina/uso terapêutico , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 169, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norwegian guideline recommendations on first-line empirical antibiotic prescribing in hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are penicillin G/V in monotherapy, or penicillin G in combination with gentamicin (or cefotaxime) in severely ill patients. The aim of this study was to explore how different empirical antibiotic treatments impact on length of hospital stay (LOS) and 30-day hospital readmission. A secondary aim was to describe median intravenous- and total treatment duration. METHODS: We included CAP patients (≥18 years age) hospitalised in North Norway during 2010 and 2012 in a retrospective study. Patients with negative chest x-ray, malignancies or immunosuppression or frequent readmissions were excluded. We collected data on patient characteristics, empirical antibiotic prescribing, treatment duration and clinical outcomes from electronic patient records and the hospital administrative system. We used directed acyclic graphs for statistical model selection, and analysed data with mulitvariable logistic and linear regression. RESULTS: We included 651 patients. Median age was 77 years [IQR; 64-84] and 46.5% were female. Median LOS was 4 days [IQR; 3-6], 30-day readmission rate was 14.4% and 30-day mortality rate was 6.9%. Penicillin G/V were empirically prescribed in monotherapy in 51.5% of patients, penicillin G and gentamicin in combination in 22.9% and other antibiotics in 25.6% of patients. Prescribing other antibiotics than penicillin G/V monotherapy was associated with increased risk of readmission [OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.08-3.42]. Empirical antibiotic prescribing was not associated with LOS. Median intravenous- and total treatment duration was 3.0 [IQR; 2-5] and 11.0 [IQR; 9.8-13] days. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that empirical prescribing with penicillin G/V in monotherapy in hospitalised non-severe CAP-patients, without complicating factors such as malignancy, immunosuppression and frequent readmission, is associated with lower risk of 30-day readmission compared to other antibiotic treatments. Median total treatment duration exceeds treatment recommendations.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Penicilina G/uso terapêutico , Penicilina V/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Noruega/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 186: 113309, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380353

RESUMO

Accurate analysis of all of the impurities present in a substance is critical for controlling the impurity profiles of drugs. Penicillins can easily yield a formidable array of degradation-related impurities (DRIs) with significantly different polarities and charge properties, which renders identifying each one a complicated matter. In this work, phenoxymethylpenicillin potassium (Pen V) was selected to find a way to quickly establish a robust analysis method for the impurity profiling of penicillin. Based on the analytical quality by design (AQbD) concept and the degradation mechanism of the drug, structures of all of the DRIs were first proposed. Then Pen V and its detected DRIs were separated and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS). Characteristic fragment ions and mass fragmentation process of Pen V and its detected DRIs were summarized. In addition, a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) model was constructed to predict the retention times of undetected impurities and to evaluate whether the chromatographic system can separate them. Finally, a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed that can separate all of the DRIs of Pen V.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Penicilina V/análise , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/normas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Contaminação de Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Penicilina V/química , Penicilina V/normas , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
mSphere ; 5(2)2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188746

RESUMO

Substantial concentrations of penicillin V potassium (PVK) have been found in livestock manure, soil, and wastewater effluents, which may pose potential threats to human health and contribute to the emergence of penicillin-resistant bacterial strains. In this study, bacterial strains capable of degrading PVK were isolated from sludge and characterized. Strain X-2 was selected for biodegradation of PVK. Based on morphological observations and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain X-2 was identified as an Ochrobactrum tritici strain. To enhance the PVK degradation ability of PVK, a whole-cell biodegradation process of Ochrobactrum tritici X-2 was established and optimized. In the whole-cell biodegradation process, the optimal temperature and pH were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the degradation rate using 0.5 mg/ml PVK reached 100% within 3 h. During biodegradation, two major metabolites were detected: penicilloic acid and phenolic acid. The present study provides a novel method for the biodegradation of PVK using Ochrobactrum tritici strains, which represent promising candidates for the industrial biodegradation of PVK.IMPORTANCE Substantial concentrations of penicillin V potassium (PVK) have been found in the environment, which may pose potential threats to human health and contribute to the emergence of penicillin-resistant bacterial strains. In this study, antibiotic-degrading bacterial strains for PVK were isolated from sludge and characterized. Ochrobactrum tritici was selected for the biodegradation of PVK with high efficiency. To enhance its PVK degradation ability, a whole-cell biodegradation process was established and optimized using Ochrobactrum tritici The degradation rate with 0.5 mg/ml PVK reached 100% within 3 h. The potential biodegradation pathway was also investigated. To the best of our knowledge, the present study provides new insights into the biodegradation of PVK using an Ochrobactrum tritici strain, a promising candidate strain for the industrial biodegradation of ß-lactam antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Ochrobactrum/genética , Ochrobactrum/metabolismo , Penicilina V/metabolismo , Esgotos/microbiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial , Ácido Penicilânico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Penicilânico/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
Waste Manag ; 105: 248-255, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088571

RESUMO

Penicillin V mycelial residue (PMR) is a byproduct of the pharmaceutical industry and may be disposed through land application after alkaline-thermal treatment. However, the efficacy of alkaline-thermally treated PMR in soil amelioration and the potential contamination risk caused by introduced penicillin V are poorly understood. In this study, soil pH, the contents of organic matter, available phosphorus, available potassium were measured to study the effect of alkaline-thermally treated PMR on soil fertility; the numbers of culturable microorganisms and the activities of enzymes, which not only reflect the decomposing ability of organic matter but also monitor the ecological suppression in soil ecosystem, were also investigated; moreover, the persistence of introduced penicillin V and the variation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil were examined to evaluate the resulting antibiotic resistance risk. The results indicated that the pH and the content of available potassium in amended soil with treated PMR profoundly improved. In addition, the culturable microorganisms and enzymes were not inhibited throughout the incubation of treated PMR in soil. The stability of treated PMR in soil relatively completed after 43 days. More importantly, the penicillin V derived by treated PMR rapidly depleted within 3 days, which suggested a relatively low environmental persistence. The treated PMR did not enrich the ARGs detected in soil, demonstrating that the addition of treated PMR might not trigger the antibiotic resistance risk in the short-term in soil. In conclusion, our results concluded that alkaline-thermally treated PMR is available for soil application.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Ecossistema , Genes Bacterianos , Penicilina V , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 20: 290-297, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic overuse has led to the global emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and children are among the most frequent users of antibiotics. Most studies with broad-spectrum antibiotics show a severe impact on resistome development in patients. Although narrow-spectrum antibiotics are believed to have fewer side effects, their impact on the microbiome and resistome is mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the narrow-spectrum antibiotic phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V) on the microbiome and resistome of a child treated for acute otitis media. METHODS: Oral and faecal samples were collected from a 1-year-old child before (Day 0) and after (Days 5 and 30) receiving penicillin V for otitis media. Metagenomic sequencing data were analysed to determine taxonomic profiling using Kraken and Bracken software, and resistance profiling using KMA in combination with the ResFinder database. RESULTS: In the oral samples, antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) belonging to four classes were identified at baseline. At Day 5, the abundance of some ARGs was increased, whereas some remained unchanged and others could no longer be detected. At Day 30, most ARGs had returned to baseline levels or lower. In the faecal samples, seven ARGs were observed at baseline and five at Day 5. At Day 30, the number of ARGs had increased to 21. CONCLUSIONS: Following penicillin V, we observed a remarkable enrichment of the aecal resistome, indicating that even narrow-spectrum antibiotics may have important consequences in selecting for a more resistant microbiome.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Metagenômica/métodos , Otite Média/microbiologia , Penicilina V/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Boca/microbiologia , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Penicilina V/farmacologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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