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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118359, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648842

RESUMO

Rapid urbanization and the aggregation of human activities in cities have resulted in large amounts of anthropogenic heat (AH) emission, which affects urban climate. Quantifying and assessing the AH emission values accurately and analyzing their spatial distribution characteristics is important to understand the energy exchange processes of urban areas. In this study, the high spatial resolution anthropogenic heat flux (AHF) quantification and spatial distribution analysis were conducted using multi-source data in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH region) of China. First, the AH emission in district and city level were estimated using inventory method based on energy consumption and socio-economic statistical data; Then, AHF spatial quantification models were constructed based on high spatial resolution nighttime light (NTL) data and Point of interests (POI) data, and 130 m × 130 m gridded AHF quantification result in BTH region was realized; Finally, the potential numerical and spatial distribution patterns of AHF were analyzed using various indicators including contribution rate and aggregation index. The results show that: (1) The parameterized index constructed based on NTL and POI data shows a strong correlation with AHF, with R2 ranging from 0.79 to 0.94 and a mean absolute error (MAE) value of 0.72 w·m-2, which can be applied to the quantification of gridded AHF values with high resolution. The highest total AHF in the study area is 214 w·m-2, and the average value is 2.24 w·m-2. (2) Considering the sources of AHF, industrial emission sources in BTH region contribute the most to the total AHF, but commercial building emission sources in Beijing have a higher contribution, which can reach 33.8%. (3) Different types of AHF have different spatial aggregation levels. Commercial building emission and human metabolic emission have the highest aggregation level, and transportation emission has the lowest aggregation level.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150079, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525721

RESUMO

Characterizing the relationship between vegetation phenology and urbanization indicators is essential to understand the impacts of human activities on urban ecosystems. In this study, we explored the response of vegetation phenology to urbanization in Beijing (China) during 2001-2018, using impervious surface area (ISA) and the information of urban-rural gradients (i.e., concentric rings from the urban core to surrounding rural areas) as the urbanization indicators. We found the change rates of vegetation phenology in urban areas are 1.3 and 1.1 days per year for start of season (SOS) and end of season (EOS), respectively, about three times faster than that in forest. Moreover, we found a divergent response of SOS with the increase of ISA, which differs from previous results with advanced SOS in the urban environment than surrounding rural areas. This might be attributed to the mixed land cover types and the thermal environment caused by the urban heat island in the urban environment. Similarly, a divergent pattern of phenological indicators along the urban-rural gradient shows a non-linear response of vegetation phenology to urbanization. These findings provide new insights into the complicated interactions between vegetation phenology and urban environments. High-resolution weather data are required to support process-based vegetation phenology models in the future, particularly under different global urbanization and climate change scenarios.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Urbanização , Pequim , China , Cidades , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149980, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525764

RESUMO

Dust storm particles have been one of the important contributors to global aerosol loading, affecting human health and climate system. Beijing, a megapolitan city, experienced two severe dust storms in spring of 2015, with maximum hourly-mean PM10 mass concentrations exceeding 1000 µg/m3. The first dust storm (Dust 1) was from east area of Gobi Desert about 850 km in the north of Beijing and the second (Dust 2) was from west area of Gobi Desert about 1500 km in the northwest of Beijing. Morphologies and elemental compositions of dust particles were identified using high-resolution electron microscopy. The statistical analysis showed that the number fractions of mineral dust particles during the two dust storm episodes were 85.3% and 95.4%, respectively. Clay minerals were the most abundant among mineral particles, with a number fraction larger than 50%, followed by quartz particles (17.3% and 14.8%) and feldspar. Feldspar and carbonate particles accounted for 14.8% and 3.4% of mineral particles in Dust 1, and 9.9% and 13.6% in Dust 2, with the difference due to the different source areas. When the dust storms directly migrated to Beijing, the occurrence of S-containing mineral particles and the relative weight ratio of S in individual mineral particles were extremely low, indicating limited production of sulfate on the dust-storm particles in the atmosphere, regardless of the differences of source areas, migration paths, and mineralogical components. After the peaks of dust storms passed, the occurrence of S on the mineral particles were much higher, although the relative weight ratios of S in the mineral particles was still very small. This result suggests that most of the mineral particles underwent heterogeneous reactions, but the reaction rates were low.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Minerais/análise , Tamanho da Partícula
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150028, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798715

RESUMO

Estazolam (EZ) is a long-acting benzodiazepine (BZD) drug with high clinical consumption in China to treat anxiety, depression and other syndromes. Recently, it has been found as a leading potentially inappropriate medication among hospitalized elderly patients, increasing the risk of falls. It is discharged into the aquatic environment after use and has been frequently detected, ultimately affecting the safety of drinking water. In the present study, the reaction of EZ during chlorination disinfection was investigated in detail with regard to its transformation and kinetics. By means of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS), four main disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were tentatively identified, and the transformation pathways were speculated to be cleavage at the imine linkage and oxidation on the diazepinone ring. The chlorination reaction rate in the pseudo-first-order kinetic model was significantly affected by free available chlorine (FAC) and pH. The increase in pH value led to a decrease in the reaction rate, while a higher dosage of chlorine resulted in a faster kinetic rate. We further estimated the potential toxicities of EZ and its DBPs using quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) software tools. DBPs exhibited much higher toxicity than EZ and exhibited developmental toxicity and mutagenicity. Finally, a total of 108 drinking water samples were collected in the wet and dry seasons to determine actual residue changes in real environmental conditions. The detection frequency was 29% for EZ, and the highest concentration of 0.60 ng L-1 was found for its DBPs in tap water. No seasonal variations in concentration were observed. Overall, the results indicate that EZ and its DBPs may persist in drinking water, posing potential risks to public health.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Idoso , Pequim , Benzodiazepinas , Cloro , Desinfecção , Estazolam , Halogenação , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118407, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715272

RESUMO

Benefiting from the pollution controls implemented by the Chinese government, the concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO showed a significant decrease in Beijing during 2013-2017. In this study, an observation-based method was employed to estimate the relative contributions of regional transport (MaxRTC) and local emissions (MinLEC) to air pollutant levels during 2013-2017 in Beijing. The results showed that the MaxRTC to SO2 and PM2.5 increased significantly over the five years, while those to CO and NO2 changed little. Furthermore, the difference in the emissions control efficiency (ΔECE) between Beijing (receptor region) and Shijiazhuang (source region), which refers to the concentration changes corresponding to unit emission changes of a certain air pollutant between the two regions, was introduced to verify the estimated variation in MaxRTC and MinLEC over 2013-2017. The negative value of ΔECE found for PM2.5 and SO2 supports the conclusion of an increasing effect of regional transport. This implies that local emissions control alone is not adequate for mitigating Beijing's air pollution, especially with the demand for continuously improving air quality. Joint prevention and control with regard to air quality on a regional scale is more important and urgent in the next Five-Year Plan.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149695, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438127

RESUMO

Particle number size distribution (PNSD) is of importance for understanding the mechanisms of particle growth, haze formation and climate impacts. However, the measurements of PNSD aloft in megacities are very limited. Here we report the first simultaneous winter measurements of size-resolved particle number concentrations along with collocated gaseous species and aerosol composition at ground level and 260 m in Beijing. Our study showed that the vertical differences of particle number concentrations between ground level and aloft varied significantly as a function of particle size throughout the study. Further analysis illustrated the impacts of boundary dynamics and meteorological conditions on the vertical differences of PNSD. In particular, the temperature and relative humidity inversions were one of the most important factors by decoupling the boundary layer into different sources and processes. Positive matrix factorization analysis identified six sources of PNSD at both ground level and city aloft. The local source emissions dominantly contributed to Aitken-mode particles, and showed the largest vertical gradients in the city. Comparatively, the regional particles were highly correlated between ground level and city aloft, and the vertical differences were relatively stable throughout the day. Our results point towards a complex vertical evolution of PNSD due to the changes in boundary layer dynamics, meteorological conditions, sources, and processes in megacities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149849, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455273

RESUMO

Promoting land use planning through ecosystem service (ES) protection is a crucial approach for maintaining landscape sustainability. Identifying ES bundles to serve landscape functional zoning can provide a new perspective for sustainable land use planning. Taking the Beijing metropolitan region as a study area, we quantitatively assessed the spatiotemporal distributions of multiple ESs, from 1980 to 2017, based on land use changes. By combining ES patterns and comprehensive ecosystem service (CES), distinct ES bundles were identified through the clustering method. Based on the ES bundles, landscape functional zones were then established. We further developed improved land use scenarios to conserve ESs in selected towns of different functional zones by exploring dominant factors influencing ESs. Results showed that most of ESs decreased due to the expansion of developed lands. According to the classification of ES bundles, Beijing can be classified into three landscape functional zones at town level: the ecological conservation region (ECR), food production region (FPR), and urban development region (UDR). For each landscape functional zone, the town with the greatest decline in CES value was selected. Associated with the influencing factors of ESs, local land use patterns, and ecological protection policies, corresponding multi-step improved land use scenarios were designed. These scenarios were demonstrated to be effective in conserving ESs in the selected towns: (1) the agricultural expansion scenario, which enhanced food provision services in the ECR; (2) the forest conservation scenario, which enhanced habitat and recreational services in the FPR; and (3) the developed land optimization scenario, which enhanced a range of regulating services in the UDR. Overall, this study used landscape functional zoning as a nexus to connect ES patterns and land use management. The optimized land use strategies can provide references for conserving ESs and enhancing landscape sustainability in Beijing and other similar metropolitan areas worldwide.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Pequim , China , Florestas
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149735, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492490

RESUMO

Currently, most regional thermal environment (RTE) studies in urban agglomerations focus on developing countries, especially China. However, there is still a lack of comparative studies on the RTEs of urban agglomerations between China and other developed countries, such as the United States. This paper used the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) agglomeration in China and Boswash (the highly urbanized area extending from Boston to Washington) in the United States as examples to investigate the differences in land development patterns, RTEs and their relationship between the agglomerations of China and America. The results showed that the land development patterns of BTH and Boswash were different, as evidenced by the spatial pattern of land development intensity (LDI) and impervious surface configuration. In terms of the RTE, the sub-high land surface temperature (LST) zones were aggregated in a large and compact patch in central and northern BTH. However, the sub-high zones of the cities in Boswash were relatively separate. Moreover, the land development pattern of Boswash showed a stronger relationship with the RTE than that of BTH did. Global Moran's I between the LDI and LST in Boswash was higher than that in BTH. In addition, the correlation between impervious surface configuration and LST in Boswash was stronger than that in BTH, and this correlation was more controlled by LDI in Boswash. This study also indicated that BTH should change the land development pattern to prevent the further expansion of aggregated sub-high LST zones and control the proximity of high LST zones in cities in central and southern BTH, however, Boswash should adopt some local heat management approaches (installing cool and green roofs and creating more green space) in the core areas to help reduce the very high temperatures in the already highly developed areas where the largest fraction of people live.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Pequim , Boston , China , Cidades , Humanos , Washington
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(3): 427-432, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814409

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clusters of COVID-19 associated with a market (market Y) in Haidian District, Beijing, and analyze the chain of transmission and provide reference for effective prevention and control of COVID-19. Methods: The investigation of field epidemiology and cluster epidemic was used to describe the distributions of all COVID-19 cases. The time sequence diagram of the cases, disease onset was drawn and transmission chains were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR assay was conducted for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test by using the respiratory samples of the cases. Results: The COVID-19 epidemic, originated from a wholesale farm produce market (market X) in Fengtai District, Beijing, was introduced by a marketer in the market Y who had exposed to market X, causing 8 clusters of 20 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and one asymptomatic case, including 8 men and 13 women, in market Y, surrounding communities, food plaza, companies,families and other places. The incidence peaked during June 10-14, 2020; the median age of the cases was 45 years, ranging from 5 years to 87 years. The initial symptoms of the cases included fever (10/20) and pharynx discomfort (7/20). The median of incubation period was 5 days (IQR:3-8). The median of serial interval between primary case and secondary cases was 5 days with a secondary attack rate of 3.7%(20/538), and the secondary attack rate in household close-contacts was 14.0% (7/50). Conclusions: The clusters of COVID-19 associated with market Y were caused by several modes of transmission, including human-to-human, contaminated material-to-human, etc. The combined public-health response measures were effective to control the COVID-19 epidemic in Haidian district of Beijing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Pequim/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(3): 448-454, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814412

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of pediatric fracture in school-age children and adolescents in Beijing. Methods: A total of 12 056 students with complete fracture data of 2017 baseline survey and 2019 follow-up survey of School-based Cardiovascular and Bone Health (SCVBH) Promotion Program in Beijing were selected as study subjects. Logistic regression model was used to analyze associations of fracture incidence with age, BMI, fracture history and lifestyle. Results: The 2-year accumulative incidence rate of pediatric fracture was 3.1% (95%CI: 2.8%-3.4%) in school-age children and adolescents in Beijing, which was much higher in boys (4.1%) than in girls (2.1%) and increased with age in boys but decreased with age in girls. Fractures mainly occurred at upper-limb (69.0%), no gender and age specific significant in fracture sites were observed. Fracture history was the risk factor for fracture incidence in both boys and girls (boys: RR=1.81, 95%CI: 1.18-2.64; girls: RR=3.11, 95%CI: 1.74-5.13). In addition, higher duration and frequency of moderate to vigorous physical activities (≥120 min/day) and frequent consumption of sugar sweetened beverage (≥1 time/week) were also found to increase fracture risk in boys. Conclusion: The incidence of pediatric fracture was associated with gender, age, fracture history and lifestyle habits in school-age children and adolescents in Beijing. Targeted strategies are needed to prevent childhood fracture.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(7): 1240-1245, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814538

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the spatiotemporal distribution of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and influencing factors in Beijing from 2008 to 2018. Methods: The incidence data of pulmonary TB in Beijing from 2008 to 2018 were from Tuberculosis Information Management System of Chinese Disease Prevention and Control Information System. Software ArcGIS 10.2 was used to visualize the spatiotemporal distribution of pulmonary TB incidence. Getis's Gi* statistic was applied to analyze the spatial clustering of pulmonary TB incidence at street/township scale. Bayesian spatiotemporal model was applied to analyze factors affecting its spatiotemporal distribution, including urbanization rate, GDP per capita, number of hospital beds per thousand population, permanent migrant population and population density. Results: The reported pulmonary TB incidence showed a downward trend in the past 11 years in Beijing, from 58.64/100 000 to 30.43/100 000. The incidences were higher in Tongzhou, Changping and other newly developed urban districts, with the hot spots concentrated in local areas of these districts. The incidences of pulmonary TB were lower in Dongcheng, Xicheng and other old urban districts-with the cold spots also concentrated in these area. The risk for the incidence of pulmonary TB was associated with the urbanization rate and the permanent migrant population. For every 1% increase in the urbanization rate, the relative risk of pulmonary TB would increase by 1%. For every 10 000 person increase of permanent migrant population, the relative risk of pulmonary TB would increase by 0.6%. Conclusions: In Beijing, the current pulmonary TB prevention and control needs to be focused on the newly developed urban areas. Due to the accelerated process of urbanization, it is necessary to strengthen TB prevention and control in permanent migrant population to reduce the incidence of TB in Beijing.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Teorema de Bayes , Pequim , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
12.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(7): 1252-1259, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814540

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological, drug resistance and molecular characteristics of Salmonella (S.) Kentucky strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Beijing. Methods: The drug susceptibility of 22 S. Kentucky strains isolated in Beijing during 2010-2020 was tested by using the micro broth dilution method. The multilocus sequence typing (MLST), drug resistance genes and Salmonella genomic island (SGI) identifications of the strains were performed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS).The pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to analyze the molecular epidemiological characteristics of the isolates. Results: The 22 strains were highly resistant to 8-22 kinds of antibiotics, especially to ciprofloxacin, cephalosporins and azithromycin, etc., showing a super high level of multidrug resistance and 21 strains were positive for extended-spetrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). The WGS analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to ST198, carrying SGI1-K. The drug resistance genes tetA, sul1 and qacE were identified in all strains and Quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) showed 2 mutations in gyrA (S83F, D87 N) and 3 mutations in the parC gene (T57S, S80I, T255S). The resistance genes associated with ß-lactam antibiotics (blaCTX-M-55, blaCTX-M-14b, blaTEM-141, blaTEM-206, blaTEM-209, blaTEM-214, blaTEM-1B), resistance genes associated with aminoglycosides [aac(3)-Id, aac(3)-IId, aac(6')-Iaa, aadA7, aadA17, aph(3')-Ia, aph(3'')-Ib, aph(6)-Id,rmtB] as well as floR, dfrA14, mphA and qnrS1 had significant differences in the strains of different years, which were highly consistent with the drug-resistant phenotype. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that the similarity of the 22 strains was more than 85%, and the strains were highly homologous to CIP-resistant ST198-X1 circulating in the world. In the process of spread, the drug resistance and PFGE spectrums had changed, two clusters had formed. Conclusions: The S. Kentucky strains isolated in Beijing shared high homology with the multidrug-resistant strain ST198-X1-SGI-1K isolated in the world, which has maintained a low level of spread since 2016, causing sporadic infections and clusters of diarrhea, and has serious resistances to fluoroquinolones, ESBLs and azithromycin. The surveillance for multidrug-resistant S. Kentucky should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Salmonella enterica , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Pequim , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Humanos , Kentucky , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Salmonella/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(8): 1453-1459, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814567

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the transitions of frailty status and related factors influencing its worsening in middle-aged and elderly adults. Methods: Data was obtained from the Beijing MJ Health Screening Center. A total of 13 689 participants who attended health checkups at least twice during 2008-2019 and had more than three years' intervals during these two health checkups were included in the study. The frailty index comprising 28 variables was used to measure frailty status. Frailty was defined as frailty index ≥0.25, and prefrailty was defined as frailty index >0.10 and <0.25. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association of socio-demographic factors and lifestyle characteristics with the worsening of frailty status, stratified by frailty status at the first health checkup. Results: The mean age at the first and last health checkups were (42.3±9.2) and (47.9±9.3) years, respectively. The mean interval during these two health checkups was (5.7±1.9) years. At the first health checkup, the prevalence of frailty and prefrailty were 2.5% and 50.3%, respectively. While at the last health checkup, the prevalence of frailty and prefrailty rose to 3.9% and 55.4%. Of all participants, 67.3% remained in the same frailty state, 21.2% worsening, and 12.5% improving. In robust participants at the first health checkup, older age, female, low education level, smoking cessation, daily smoking, being general obesity measured by BMI or central obesity measured by WHR showed an increased the risk of worsening frailty status. However, in prefrail participants at the first health checkup, older age, female, general, or central obesity presented as risk factors for worsening frailty status. Conclusion: Modifiable factors such as low education level, smoking, and obesity may increase the risk of worsening frailty status.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Idoso , Pequim , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Vida Independente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(10): 1757-1762, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814608

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of close contacts of COVID-19 cases and infection-related risk factors in Beijing and provide evidences for COVID-19 prevention and control. Methods: A total of 20 681 close contacts of COVID-19 cases, who had exposures during January 6, 2020 to February 15, 2021, were traced in Beijing. The information about their demographic characteristics, exposure history, and quarantine outcomes were collected and analyzed with descriptive statistics. The logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for COVID-19. Results: The infection rate SARS-CoV-2 in close contacts was 2.16% (447/20 681). The age M(P25, P75) was 35 (27, 49) years. The majority of the close contacts were aged 20-59 years, accounting for 81.77% (16 912/20 681). Centralized isolation was the major type of medical observation, accounting for 82.15% (16 989/20 681). Among the exposure types, working and studying in the same room (16.06%, 3 322/20 681), sharing same transport vehicle (12.88%, 2 664/20 681), performing diagnosis and treatment nursing (7.80%,1 612/20 681), and living together (7.23%,1 495/20 681), accounting for 43.96% (9 093/20 681). The index cases included staff (19.34%, 3 999/20 681), the unemployed (17.34%, 3 586/20 681), people engaged in business service (13.85%, 2 864/20 681), people engaged in food service (10.77%, 2 228/20 681), their close contacts accounted for 61.30% (12 677/20 681). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with other types of exposure, the risk factors for infection were having meal together (OR=3.96, 95%CI: 2.30-6.83) and living together (OR=6.41, 95%CI:4.48-9.17); Compared with the other occupations, the index case being engaged in food service (OR=3.06, 95%CI:1.29-7.25) and teacher (OR=4.94, 95%CI:1.43-17.08) were risk factors for the infection. Conclusions: The main environmental exposure types of SARS-CoV-2 infection in close contacts were having meal together and living together. Contact with the index case being engaged in food service and teacher increased the risk for COVID-19. Comprehensive prevention and control measures such as centralized isolation and vaccination should be continued.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pequim , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(11): 1115-1119, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763407

RESUMO

The Beijing National Medical School Faculty of Dentistry was established in 1943. This article reviewed the files preserved in Beijing Municipal Archices and presented the early background of the establishment including the approval process, formulation of teaching plans and design of the curriculums. These historical records provide us with thought-provoking insights into the evolution of the stomatological discipline and subsequent development of various sub-disciplines, as well as the educational ideals embedded.


Assuntos
Medicina Bucal , Faculdades de Medicina , Pequim , Currículo , Docentes , Humanos
16.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(5): 722-727, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the physical activity and regular exercise status and influencing factors of people with high risk of chronic diseases among Beijing residents, and to provide science basis for health education strategies and intervention measures. METHODS: 13 200 participants aged 18-79 were selected by stratified cluster sampling method for questionnaire survey in 2017.3448 participants without hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia met the criteria of high risk population. The metabolic equivalent of physical activity was calculated by referring to the summary of physical activity in the United States and the global physical activity questionnaire. RESULTS: 1794 male(52.0%) and 1654 female(48.0%) are included in this study. 862(25.0%) are 18-29 years old, 778(22.6%) are 30-39 years old, 640(18.6%) are 40-49 years old, 709(20.6%) are 50-59 years old, and 193(13.3%) are 60-79 years old. 684 participants(18.6%) are low physical activity level, 1480 participants(42.9%) are medium level and 1284 respondents(37.2%) are high level. The rate of never exercising is 60.2%. Multivariate analysis shows female(OR=1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.55), aged 40-49(OR=1.34, 95%CI 1.04-1.72) and aged 50-59(OR=1.76, 95%CI 1.36-2.28) participants are likely to have high level physical activity. Participants with high education level(OR=0.78, 95%CI 0.66-0.93) and insufficient intake of fruits and vegetables(OR=0.73, 95%CI 0.64-0.84) are likely to have low physical activity level. Female(OR=1.46, 95%CI 1.22-1.76), participants with insufficient intake of fruits and vegetables(OR=1.44, 95%CI 1.24-1.69) are likely never to exercise. Participants with high education level(OR=0.46, 95%CI 0.38-0.55), high school education(OR=0.63, 95%CI 0.53-0.75), no job(OR=0.67, 95%CI 0.56-0.81) are likely to exercise. CONCLUSION: The population with high risk of chronic diseases in Beijing City was lack of physical activity. Gender, age, education level, fruit and vegetable intake are the influencing factors of physical activity level, while gender, fruit and vegetable intake, education level, marriage, employment and fruit and vegetable intake are the influencing factors of exercise.


Assuntos
Dieta , Verduras , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pequim/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Exercício Físico , Frutas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 57-65, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607674

RESUMO

Improving our understanding of air pollutant emissions from the asphalt industry is critical for the development and implementation of pollution control policies. In this study, the spatial distribution of potential maximum emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the complete life cycle of asphalt mixtures, as well as the particulate matter (PM), asphalt fume, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), VOCs, and benzoapyrene (BaP) emissions from typical processes (e.g., asphalt and concrete mixing stations, asphalt heating boilers, and asphalt storage tanks) in asphalt mixing plants, were determined in Beijing in 2017. The results indicated that the potential maximum emissions of VOCs in the complete life cycle of asphalt mixtures were 18,001 ton, with a large contribution from the districts of Daxing, Changping, and Tongzhou. The total emissions of PM, asphalt fume, NMHC, VOCs, and BaP from asphalt mixing plants were 3.1, 12.6, 3.1, 23.5, and 1.9 × 10-3 ton, respectively. The emissions of PM from asphalt and concrete mixing stations contributed the most to the total emissions. The asphalt storage tank was the dominant emission source of VOCs, accounting for 96.1% of the total VOCs emissions in asphalt mixing plants, followed by asphalt heating boilers. The districts of Daxing, Changping, and Shunyi were the dominant regions for the emissions of PM, asphalt fume, NMHC, and BaP, while the districts of Shunyi, Tongzhou, and Changping contributed the most emissions of VOCs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1045, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyse the changes in curative care expenditure (CCE) associated with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) before and after the Beijing healthcare reform, thus providing a reference for the healthcare system. METHODS: A total of 60 medical institutions were selected using multistage stratified cluster random sampling in Beijing, China. The records of approximately 100 million outpatients with NCDs in 2016-2018 were extracted. System of Health Accounts 2011 (SHA2011) was used to estimate the CCE. The segmented regression model was established to observe both the instant change and the slope change of intervention in interrupted time series analysis (ITSA). The study was conducted from December 2019 to May 2020 in Beijing, China. RESULTS: From SHA2011, we found that the CCE for outpatients with NCDs in Beijing were 58.59, 61.46 and 71.96 billion RMB in 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively. The CCE continued to rise at all hospital levels, namely, tertiary, secondary, and community-level hospitals. However, the proportion of CCE in tertiary hospitals decreased. From ITSA, we can also conclude that the CCE showed a significant increasing trend change at the three hospital levels after the intervention. The drug proportion showed a significant decreasing trend change in secondary and tertiary hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Beijing healthcare reform does have an impact on the CCE of NCDs.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Pequim/epidemiologia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/terapia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Centros de Atenção Terciária
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2895-2905, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664463

RESUMO

Based on the MODIS NDVI data from 2000 to 2018, we estimated the fractional vegetation cover (FVC) using the dimidiate pixel model and analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of FVC in the Beijing-Tianjin sand source region (BTSSR). The geographical detector model was used to estimate the impacts of natural and human factors on FVC spatial distribution at the regional scale. The results showed that the FVC of the BBTSR showed an increasing trend from 2000 to 2018, with an annual growth rate of 0.013·(10 a)-1 and a vegetation increase rate of 8.2%. The area with high FVC was concentrated in the Yanshan Mountain water source protection area, followed by the pastoral transitional zone desertified land control area and the Otindag sandy land area. The area with poor FVC was concentrated in the northern arid grassland area. The explanatory power of driving factors to FVC varied across different regions. Among the natural factors, annual precipitation was the main driving factor for the spatial distribution of FVC in the northern arid grassland area, the Otindag sandy land area and the Yanshan Mountain water source protection area. Slope was the main driving factor for the spatial distribution of FVC in the pastoral transitional zone desertified land control area. Among different human activities, the number of large livestock at the year-end was the main driving factor controlling the spatial distribution of FVC in the northern arid grassland area and the pastoral transitional zone desertified land control area, while population density was the main driving factor controlling the spatial distribution of FVC in the Otindag sandy land area and the Yanshan Mountain water source protection area. There were regional differences in the influen-ce of other factors on FVC spatial distribution. The results of the interaction detector showed that the two-factor interactions were mainly the double-synergy and nonlinear synergy. The interaction of human activities with annual precipitation and slope could more fully explain the spatial variations of FVC. The range of suitable vegetation growth identified by the risk detector was the area with annual precipitation of 316.4-486.0 mm, average relative humidity of 48.4%-57.6%, and average annual temperature of 2.5-7.9 ℃, while other driving factors were different in different zones.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Areia , Pequim , China , Atividades Humanas , Humanos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639832

RESUMO

The COVID-19 has caused a serious impact on the global economy, and all countries are in a predicament of fighting the epidemic and recovering their economies. Aiming to discuss the impact of the COVID-19 on the economic resilience of urban agglomerations, the economic data of each quarter from June 2019 to September 2020 of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration are selected, and the economic development index (EDI) is calculated based on the entropy method. Combining the fundamental conditions of urban agglomerations and industrial policies during the COVID-19, urban economic resilience is discussed by the changing trend of the economic development index (EDI) and dividing into resistance and restoration. The results show that: (1) The economic development level of the urban agglomeration has been affected by the epidemic and has changed significantly. The change of endogenous power is the main cause of change; (2) During the outbreak of the COVID-19, the economic resilience of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration shows four different development types: high resistance and restoration, high resistance but low restoration, low resistance but high restoration, low resistance and restoration cities; (3) High resistance but low restoration, low resistance but high restoration, and low resistance and restoration cities influence each other, but the relationship between cities is mainly dependent; (4) The economic restoration within the urban agglomeration forms a synergy, which promotes the economic recovery and development of the urban agglomeration during the recovery period of the COVID-19. Urban agglomerations should enhance the combined effect of resistance and increase the impact of high resistance and restoration cities on surrounding cities in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Pequim/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2
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