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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4959, 2022 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002465

RESUMO

High-latitude peatlands are changing rapidly in response to climate change, including permafrost thaw. Here, we reconstruct hydrological conditions since the seventeenth century using testate amoeba data from 103 high-latitude peat archives. We show that 54% of the peatlands have been drying and 32% have been wetting over this period, illustrating the complex ecohydrological dynamics of high latitude peatlands and their highly uncertain responses to a warming climate.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Pergelissolo , Mudança Climática , Hidrologia , Solo
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5057, 2022 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030269

RESUMO

Subsea permafrost represents a large carbon pool that might be or become a significant greenhouse gas source. Scarcity of observational data causes large uncertainties. We here use five 21-56 m long subsea permafrost cores from the Laptev Sea to constrain organic carbon (OC) storage and sources, degradation state and potential greenhouse gas production upon thaw. Grain sizes, optically-stimulated luminescence and biomarkers suggest deposition of aeolian silt and fluvial sand over 160 000 years, with dominant fluvial/alluvial deposition of forest- and tundra-derived organic matter. We estimate an annual thaw rate of 1.3 ± 0.6 kg OC m-2 in subsea permafrost in the area, nine-fold exceeding organic carbon thaw rates for terrestrial permafrost. During 20-month incubations, CH4 and CO2 production averaged 1.7 nmol and 2.4 µmol g-1 OC d-1, providing a baseline to assess the contribution of subsea permafrost to the high CH4 fluxes and strong ocean acidification observed in the region.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Pergelissolo , Carbono , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Água do Mar , Solo
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5073, 2022 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36038568

RESUMO

Permafrost thaw can stimulate microbial decomposition and induce soil carbon (C) loss, potentially triggering a positive C-climate feedback. However, earlier observations have concentrated on bulk soil C dynamics upon permafrost thaw, with limited evidence involving soil C fractions. Here, we explore how the functionally distinct fractions, including particulate and mineral-associated organic C (POC and MAOC) as well as iron-bound organic C (OC-Fe), respond to permafrost thaw using systematic measurements derived from one permafrost thaw sequence and five additional thermokarst-impacted sites on the Tibetan Plateau. We find that topsoil POC content substantially decreases, while MAOC content remains stable and OC-Fe accumulates due to the enriched Fe oxides after permafrost thaw. Moreover, the proportion of MAOC and OC-Fe increases along the thaw sequence and at most of the thermokarst-impacted sites. The relatively enriched stable soil C fractions would alleviate microbial decomposition and weaken its feedback to climate warming over long-term thermokarst development.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Carbono , Clima , Minerais , Solo
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 847: 157624, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905958

RESUMO

Permafrost thaw due to climate change is altering terrestrial hydrological processes by increasing ground hydraulic conductivity and surface and subsurface hydrologic connectivity across the pan-Arctic. Understanding how runoff responds to changes in hydrologic processes and conditions induced by permafrost thaw is critical for water resources management in high-latitude and high-altitude regions. In this study, we analyzed streamflow recession characteristics for 1964-2016 for the Tahe watershed located at the southern margin of the permafrost region in Eurasia. Results reveal a link between streamflow recession and permafrost degradation as indicated by the statistical analyses of streamflow and the modeled ground warming and active layer thickening. The recession constant and the active layer temperatures at depths of 5, 40, 100, and 200 cm simulated by the backpropagation neural network model significantly increased during the study period from 1972 to 2020 due to intensified climate warming in northeastern China. The onset of seasonal active layer thaw was advanced by 10 days, and the modeled active layer thickness increased by 54 cm in this period. The average annual streamflow recession time increased by 11.5 days (+53 %) from the warming period (1972-1988) to the thawing period (1989-2016), with these periods determined from breakpoint analysis. These hydrologic changes arose from increased catchment storage and were correlated to increased active layer thickness and longer seasonal thawing periods. These results highlight that permafrost degradation can significantly extend the recession flow duration in a watershed underlain by discontinuous, sporadic, and isolated permafrost, and thereby alter flooding dynamics and water resources in the southern margin of the Eurasian permafrost region.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Hidrologia , Água
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 845: 157288, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839897

RESUMO

Rapid climate warming across northern high latitudes is leading to permafrost thaw and ecosystem carbon release while simultaneously impacting other biogeochemical cycles including nitrogen. We used a two-year laboratory incubation study to quantify concomitant changes in carbon and nitrogen pool quantity and quality as drivers of potential CO2 production in thawed permafrost soils from eight soil cores collected across the southern Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. These data were contextualized via in situ annual thaw depth measurements from 2015 to 2019 at 40 study sites that varied in burn history. We found with increasing time since experimental thaw the dissolved carbon and nitrogen pool quality significantly declined, indicating sustained microbial processing and selective immobilization across both pools. Piecewise structural equation modeling revealed CO2 trends were predominantly predicted by initial soil carbon content with minimal influence of dissolved phase carbon. Using these results, we provide a first-order estimate of potential near-surface permafrost soil losses of up to 80 g C m-2 over one year in southern NWT, exceeding regional historic mean primary productivity rates in some areas. Taken together, this research provides mechanistic knowledge needed to further constrain the permafrost­carbon feedback and parameterize Earth system models, while building on empirical evidence that permafrost soils are at high risk of becoming weaker carbon sinks or even significant carbon sources under a changing climate.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio/análise , Territórios do Noroeste , Pergelissolo/química , Solo/química
6.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(20): 5973-5990, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852443

RESUMO

Biogeochemical cycling in permafrost-affected ecosystems remains associated with large uncertainties, which could impact the Earth's greenhouse gas budget and future climate policies. In particular, increased nutrient availability following permafrost thaw could perturb the greenhouse gas exchange in these systems, an effect largely unexplored until now. Here, we enhance the terrestrial ecosystem model QUINCY (QUantifying Interactions between terrestrial Nutrient CYcles and the climate system), which simulates fully coupled carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles in vegetation and soil, with processes relevant in high latitudes (e.g., soil freezing and snow dynamics). In combination with site-level and satellite-based observations, we use the model to investigate impacts of increased nutrient availability from permafrost thawing in comparison to other climate-induced effects and CO2 fertilization over 1960 to 2018 across the high Arctic. Our simulations show that enhanced availability of nutrients following permafrost thaw account for less than 15% of the total Gross primary productivity increase over the time period, despite simulated N limitation over the high Arctic scale. As an explanation for this weak fertilization effect, observational and model data indicate a mismatch between the timing of peak vegetative growth (week 26-27 of the year, corresponding to the beginning of July) and peak thaw depth (week 32-35, mid-to-late August), resulting in incomplete plant use of nutrients near the permafrost table. The resulting increasing N availability approaching the permafrost table enhances N loss pathways, which leads to rising nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions in our model. Site-level emission trends of 2 mg N m-2  year-1 on average over the historical time period could therefore predict an emerging increasing source of N2 O emissions following future permafrost thaw in the high Arctic.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Pergelissolo , Regiões Árticas , Ecossistema , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo , Óxido Nitroso
7.
Fungal Biol ; 126(8): 488-497, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851141

RESUMO

We assessed the potentially pathogenic fungi present in Antarctic permafrost and the overlying active layer on King George, Robert, Livingston and Deception Islands in the South Shetland Islands archipelago, maritime Antarctica. Permafrost and active layer sub-samples were incubated at 37 °C to select fungi able to grow inside the human body. A total of 67 fungal isolates were obtained, 27 from the permafrost and 40 from the active layer. These represented 18 taxa of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Curvularia, Penicillium, Rhodotorula and Talaromyces. The majority of fungi detected occurred exclusively either in the permafrost or the active layer at each site. Only Aspergillus thermomutatus, Penicillium cf. chrysogenum and Rhodotorula cf. mucilaginosa were present in both permafrost and active layer samples from the same site. The yeast R. cf. mucilaginosa was recovered from both in at least two sites. The genus Penicillium was the most abundant and widely distributed genus in both permafrost and active layer samples across the sites sampled. All fungal isolates were screened using enzymatic, pH and antifungal assays to identify their virulence potential. Aspergillus hiratsukae, A. thermomutatus and R. cf. mucilaginosa, known human opportunistic fungi, were identified, displayed phospholipase, esterase, proteinase and hemolytic activities. All three also displayed the ability to grow at 40°, 45° and/or 50 °C and resistance to fluconazole and itraconazole; additionally, R. cf. mucilaginosa showed resistance to amphotericin B and viability after 100 d at -80 °C. A. thermomutatus UFMGCB 17415 killed the entire larvae of Tenebrio molitor in six days and R. cf. mucilaginosa UFMGCB 17448 and 17473 in three and four days, respectively. The melting of maritime Antarctic permafrost as a result of climate change may threaten the release of wild strains of pathogenic fungi geographically isolated for long time, which may in turn be transported within and beyond Antarctica by different biological and non-biological vectors.


Assuntos
Penicillium , Pergelissolo , Regiões Antárticas , Antifúngicos , Fungos , Humanos , Rhodotorula
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(9): 594, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857116

RESUMO

The analysis of about 200 samples taken from 42 permafrost-affected soil profiles was carried out on four key sites in different regions of cryolithozone (West Siberia, Central, North, and North-East Yakutia) characterized by different active layer depths and soil lithology. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different processes of cryogenic mass-exchange on the redistribution and accumulation of major pollutants such as petroleum products, acid-soluble forms of trace elements, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and technogenic radionuclides transferred via atmospheric transport or after the local anthropogenic impact in different soil horizons of Cryosols and in the upper layers of permafrost. Samples were analyzed using modern precise techniques (direct γ-spectrometric measurements with Ge(Li) and NaI(Tl) detectors; fluorometric method; reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography; spectrofluorimetric detection; atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomization). The study has shown that processes (cryoturbations, frost heaving, gelifluction along with fluvial processes) that strongly affect Cryosols' profile structure can also lead to the active migration and accumulation of local and global pollutants in the middle and lowermost suprapermafrost soil horizons. The accumulation of some pollutants in suprapermafrost horizons of cryogenic soils and in the upper layers of permafrost (in particular, petroleum products and mobile forms of trace elements) can be associated with a combination of factors, such as the relatively light particle size distribution, relatively weak manifestation of cryoturbation processes, and low thickness of the active layer (about 40-60 cm). The integral calculation of the geoaccumulation index values has shown that all of the groups of human-affected soil horizons are moderately to extremely polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons (and at a relatively lower level by trace elements) and the maximum pollution stands for the suprapermafrost horizons as well as in cryoturbated or buried fragments of organogenic matter in some cases. The maxima of the heavy PAH content in permafrost-affected soils can be confined to horizons enriched with anthropogenic inclusions and artifacts (for example, construction slag, coal) and to individual horizons of soils buried as a result of both cryogenic and alluvial processes. The specific activity of the technogenic radionuclide cesium in cryogenic soils revealed its association mainly with the surface organogenic and organomineral horizons of the studied profiles and rarely observed in the cryoturbated fragments of these horizons in the middle and suprapermafrost layers of soil profiles. The necessity of the complex analytical assessment of the permafrost-affected soils has been revealed especially in case of studying of the ecological state of the anthropogenically affected Cryosols.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Pergelissolo/química , Petróleo/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 844: 157176, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803431

RESUMO

As an elemental carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pool in the world, peatlands are very sensitive to environmental changes. Under global warming, the increase in available N affects the dynamic changes of plant community structure and nutrients in a permafrost peatland. This study was based on a long-term in situ N addition experiment that had been conducted for 9 years. It utilized the peatland in the permafrost area of Great Hing'an Mountain as the research object to analyze the effects of N addition on the growth characteristics, community structure, and nutrient dynamics of peatland plants. The N inputs were N1: 6 g N m-2·year-1, N2: 12 g N m-2·year-1 and N3: 24 g N m-2·year-1, respectively. Our results showed that the adding N can affect the plant community structure of peatland by affecting the plant growth characteristics. The diversity and richness of plant species in the peatland decreased as the concentration of added N increased. The long-term N addition can reduce the N limitation of plants to some extent. Still, it could further aggravate their phosphorus (P) limitation, resulting in the joint limitation of N and P or the complete limitation by P. The N resorption efficiency decreased with the increase of N addition level. The P resorption efficiency of different plants had varied responses to the changes in the N nutrient environment. Our study clarified the impact of long-term N addition on the plant community structure and nutrient dynamics of peatland in a permafrost area and provided an important theoretical basis to accurately evaluate the carbon and nitrogen balance of peatland in a permafrost area owing to future climate change.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Pergelissolo , Carbono , Nutrientes , Plantas , Solo/química
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(14): 10483-10493, 2022 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748652

RESUMO

Warming-induced permafrost thaw may stimulate soil respiration (Rs) and thus cause a positive feedback to climate warming. However, due to the limited in situ observations, it remains unclear about how Rs and its autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic (Rh) components change upon permafrost thaw. Here we monitored variations in Rs and its components along a permafrost thaw sequence on the Tibetan Plateau, and explored the potential linkage of Rs components (i.e., Ra and Rh) with biotic (e.g., plant functional traits and soil microbial diversity) and abiotic factors (e.g., substrate quality). We found that Ra and Rh exhibited divergent responses to permafrost collapse: Ra increased with the time of thawing, while Rh exhibited a hump-shaped pattern along the thaw sequence. We also observed different drivers of thaw-induced changes in the ratios of Ra:Rs and Rh:Rs. Except for soil water status, plant community structure, diversity, and root properties explained the variation in Ra:Rs ratio, soil substrate quality and microbial diversity were key factors associated with the dynamics of Rh:Rs ratio. Overall, these findings demonstrate divergent patterns and drivers of Rs components as permafrost thaw prolongs, which call for considerations in Earth system models for better forecasting permafrost carbon-climate feedback.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Processos Autotróficos , Ciclo do Carbono , Respiração , Solo/química
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3087, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655063

RESUMO

The melting of the cryosphere is among the most conspicuous consequences of climate change, with impacts on microbial life and related biogeochemistry. However, we are missing a systematic understanding of microbiome structure and function across cryospheric ecosystems. Here, we present a global inventory of the microbiome from snow, ice, permafrost soils, and both coastal and freshwater ecosystems under glacier influence. Combining phylogenetic and taxonomic approaches, we find that these cryospheric ecosystems, despite their particularities, share a microbiome with representatives across the bacterial tree of life and apparent signatures of early and constrained radiation. In addition, we use metagenomic analyses to define the genetic repertoire of cryospheric bacteria. Our work provides a reference resource for future studies on climate change microbiology.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Pergelissolo , Mudança Climática , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Neve
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(5): 1405-1412, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730100

RESUMO

A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of freeze-thaw intensity (-5-5 ℃, -10-5 ℃) and frequency (1, 5, 10, 15 times) on the community structure of soil arthropod in permafrost zone, Great Hing'an Mountains with the 5 ℃ as control. A total of 4198 individuals of soil arthropod were extracted, belonging to 4 classes, 9 orders, 24 families and 33 genera. The results showed that the number of individuals and groups of soil arthropod decreased significantly in the treatment with high frost intensity (-10-5 ℃), while the individuals of some taxa increased in the treatment with low frost intensity (-5-5 ℃) after the first freeze-thaw incubation. The group number, Margalef index and Shannon index decreased with the increases of freeze-thaw cycling times in low frost intensity treatment, while did not change regularly in high frost intensity treatment. Larva stage was a kind of survival strategy for arthropod to resist low temperature stress, with Acari showing stronger cold tolerance. Different responses of soil arthropod to freeze-thaw cycles, synergistic effect among species and soil environment were factors affecting the structure of soil arthropod community. This study could provide scientific data and theoretical basis for the research and conservation of soil arthropod diversity in the permafrost zone in mid-high latitudes.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Pergelissolo , Animais , China , Congelamento , Humanos , Solo/química
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 2): 156045, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597337

RESUMO

Lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) have notably expanded over the past 20 years. Due to lake water level rise and lake area expansion, the permafrost surrounding these lakes is increasingly becoming submerged by lake water. However, the change process of submerged permafrost remains unclear, which is not conducive to further analyzing the environmental effects of permafrost change. Yanhu Lake, a tectonic lake on the QTP, has experienced significant expansion and water level rise. Field measurement results indicate that the water level of Yanhu Lake increased by 2.87 m per year on average from 2016 to 2019. Cold permafrost, developed in the lake basin, was partially submerged by lake water at the end of 2017. Based on the water level change and permafrost thermal regime, a numerical heat conduction permafrost model was employed to predict future changes in permafrost beneath the lake bottom. The simulated results indicate that the submerged permafrost would continuously degrade because of the significant thermal impact of lake water. By 2100, the maximum talik thicknesses could reach approximately 7, 12, 16, and 19 m under lake-bottom temperatures of +2.0, +4.0, +6.0, and +8.0 °C, respectively. Approximately 291 years would be required to completely melt 47 m of submerged permafrost under the lake-bottom temperature of +4 °C. Note that the permafrost table begins to melt earlier than does the permafrost base, and the decline in the permafrost table occurs relatively fast at first, but then the process is attenuated, after which the permafrost table again rapidly declines. Compared to climate warming, the degradation of the submerged permafrost beneath the lake bottom occurred more rapidly and notably.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Clima , Lagos , Tibet , Água
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7752, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562178

RESUMO

Temperature and precipitation changes are crucial for larch trees growing at high-elevation sites covered by permafrost in the Altai-Sayan mountain range (ASMR). To contextualize the amplitude of recent climate fluctuations, we have to look into the past by analyzing millennial paleoclimatic archives recording both temperature and precipitation. We developed annually resolved 1500-year tree-ring cellulose chronologies (δ13Ccell, δ18Ocell), and used these new records to reconstruct the variability in local summer precipitation and air temperature. We combined our new local reconstructions with existing paleoclimatic archives available for the Altai. The data show a strong decreasing trend by ca. 49% in regional summer precipitation, along with a regional summer temperature increase towards the twenty-first century, relative to the preceding 1500 years. Modern dry conditions (1966-2016 CE) in the ASMR are the result of simultaneous summer warming and decreased precipitation. Our new reconstructions also demonstrate that climate change in the ASMR is much stronger compared to the global average.


Assuntos
Larix , Pergelissolo , Mudança Climática , Florestas , Temperatura , Árvores
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 1): 155886, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569652

RESUMO

An accurate estimation of thaw depth is critical to understanding permafrost changes due to climate warming on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). However, previous studies mainly focused on the interannual changes of active layer thickness (ALT) across the QTP, and little is known about the changes in the seasonal thaw depth. Machine learning (ML) is a critical tool to accurately estimate the ALT of permafrost, but a direct comparison of ML with deep learning (DL) in ALT projection regarding the model performance is still lacking. Here, ML, namely random forest (RF), and DL algorithms like convolutional neural networks (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) neural networks were compared to estimate the interannual changes of ALT and seasonal thaw depth on the QTP. Meteorological series, in-situ collected ALT observations, and geospatial information were used as predictors. The results show that both ML and DL methods are capable of estimating ALT and seasonal thaw depth in permafrost areas. The CNN and LSTM models developed using longer lagging times exhibit better performance in thaw depth prediction while the RF models are either mediocre or sometimes even worse as the lagging time increases. The results show that the ALT from 2003 to 2011 on the QTP exhibits an increasing trend, especially in the northern region. In addition, 68.8%, 88.7%, 52.5%, and 47.5% of the permafrost regions on the QTP have deepened seasonal thaw depth in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The correlation between air temperature and permafrost thaw depth ranges from 0.65 to 1 with the time lag ranging from 1 to 32 days. This study shows that ML and DL can be effectively used in retrieving ALT and seasonal thaw depth of permafrost, and could present an efficient way to figure out the interannual and seasonal variations of permafrost conditions under climate warming.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Memória de Curto Prazo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Estações do Ano , Tibet
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(42): 63753-63767, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461419

RESUMO

Autumn freeze-thaw period significantly influenced the soil temperature, moisture, nutrients, and then affected the structure and diversity of soil microbial community. In this paper, three types of wetlands in the permafrost region of Daxing'an Mountains were selected to investigate the greenhouse gas fluxes during the autumn freeze-thaw period. CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes during the autumn freeze-thaw period ranged from 24.76 to 124.06 mg m-2 h-1, - 249.10 to 968.87 µg m-2 h-1, and - 4.21 to 12.86 µg m-2 h-1. CO2 fluxes were mainly influenced by soil temperature and moisture. CH4 fluxes were mainly influenced by temperature and soil moisture. And N2O fluxes were significantly affected by temperature, soil moisture, ammonia nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen. Environmental factors could explain 64-73.2%, 51-85.4%, and 60.3-93.3% of temporal variation of CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes, respectively. Comparing different wetlands, the soil temperature was the significant factor to affect the CH4 flux. The global warming potentials during the autumn freeze-thaw period ranged from 717.83 to 775.57 kg CO2-eq hm-2.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Pergelissolo , Amônia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Metano/análise , Nitratos , Nitrogênio , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo/química
17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(12): 3920-3928, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388942

RESUMO

Black spruce trees growing on warming permafrost lean in all directions due to soil movement, forming a "drunken" forest. Two hypothetical drivers of drunken forest development are (i) loosening of the soil foundation induced by permafrost degradation in warm summers and (ii) mound rising induced by freezing soil in winter. However, no evidence has previously clarified whether recent tree leaning is related to climate warming or is part of a natural hummock formation process. Here, we provide evidence that tree leaning and soil hummock formation have accelerated due to climate warming. We find that trees' leaning events synchronize with the development of soil hummocks as recorded in tree rings with lignin-rich cells. Tree leaning is caused by mound rising in winter due to refreezing of soil following deep thaws in summer, rather than by loosening of the soil foundation in summer. Hummock formation shifted from periodic events before 1960 to continuous mound rising in the warmer succeeding 50 years. Although soil change is generally a slow process, recent permafrost warming has induced rapid hummock formation, which threatens the stability of drunken forests and organic carbon in soil hummocks based on shallow permafrost table.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Picea , Clima , Florestas , Solo
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 834: 155227, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421504

RESUMO

Known as the third pole of the world, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has been experiencing rapid permafrost warming and thawing over the last few decades. However, the impact of permafrost distribution and hydrogeology on river hydrochemistry in alpine areas remains unclear. This study conducted four sampling campaigns to reveal the temporal and spatial variations in and factors driving river hydrochemistry in the upper reaches of the Heihe River, the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We found that the concentrations of major ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) in river water showed substantial seasonal variations; the concentrations were generally lower during the initial thawing and thawed periods than during the initial freezing period. However, solute fluxes during the thawed period were much higher than those during the frozen period. The concentrations of major ions and TDS gradually decreased to a minimum from the permafrost meander (PM) section to the seasonal frost meander (SFM) section and then increased the seasonal frost canyon section. Using the revised forward model, we found that river solutes were contributed by carbonate weathering (mean 38.9%) > sulfide oxidation (22.9%) > evaporite dissolution (20.2%) > atmospheric precipitation (8.7%) > silicate weathering (5.0%) > glacial meltwater (4.3%). The higher TDS, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- concentrations in the PM section reflected the influence of freeze-out fractionation. The concentrations of major ions and TDS were lowest in the SFM section, indicating that the riparian porous aquifer was essential in regulating river hydrochemistry, thus reducing its spatiotemporal variations in the alpine area. In the mountain glacier-hillslope-riparian porous aquifer-river system, the river was mainly recharged by groundwater with insufficient water-rock interactions due to the rapid flow owing to the high elevation difference and high permeability of the riparian quaternary porous aquifers. Our findings provide insights into the construction of hydrogeochemical models in alpine areas and are practically important for the scientific management of water resources in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Rios , China , Estações do Ano , Soluções , Tibet , Água
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 834: 155259, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452733

RESUMO

It is generally believed that there is a vegetation succession sequence from alpine marsh meadow to desert in the alpine ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, we still have a limited understanding about distribution patterns and community assemblies of microorganisms' response to such vegetation changes. Hence, across a gradient represented by three types of alpine vegetation from swamp meadow to meadow to steppe, the soil bacterial, fungal and archaeal diversity was evaluated and then associated with their assembly processes, and glacier foreland vegetation was also surveyed as a case out of this gradient. Vegetation biomass was found to decrease significantly along the vegetation gradient. In contrast to irregular shifts in alpha diversity, bacterial and fungal beta diversities that were dominated by species replacement components (71.07-79.08%) significantly increased with the decreasing gradient in vegetation biomass (P < 0.05). These trends of increase were also found in the extent of stochastic bacterial and fungal assembly. Moreover, an increase in microbial beta diversity but a decrease in beta nearest taxon index were observed along with increased discrepancy in vegetation biomass (P < 0.001). Stepwise regression analyses and structural equation models suggested that vegetation biomass was the major variable that was related to microbial distribution and community assembly, and there might be associations between the dominance of species replacements and stochastic assembly. These findings enhanced our recognition of the relationship between vegetation and soil microorganisms and would facilitate the development of vegetation-microbe feedback models in alpine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Solo , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Tibet
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(40): 61470-61487, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35445300

RESUMO

Permafrost regions store large amounts of soil organic carbon and nitrogen, which are major sources of greenhouse gas. With climate warming, permafrost is thawing and releasing an abundance of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and contributing to climate warming. Numerous studies have shown the mechanism of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the permafrost region during the growing season. However, little is known about the temporal pattern and drivers of nongrowing season N2O emissions from the permafrost region. In this study, N2O emissions from the permafrost region were investigated from June 2016 to June 2018 using the static opaque chamber method. We aimed to quantify the seasonal dynamics of nongrowing season N2O emissions and their contribution to the annual budget. The results showed that the N2O emissions ranged from - 35.75 to 74.16 µg m-2 h-1 with 0.89 to 1.44 kg ha-1 being released into the atmosphere during the nongrowing season in the permafrost region. The permafrost wetland types had no significant influence on the nongrowing season N2O emissions due to the nitrate content. The cumulative N2O emissions during the nongrowing season contributed to 41.96-53.73% of the annual budget, accounting for almost half of the annual emissions in the permafrost region. The driving factors of N2O emissions were different among the nongrowing season, growing season, and entire period. The N2O emissions from the nongrowing season and total 2-year observation period were mainly affected by soil temperature, which could explain 3.01-9.54% and 6.07-14.48% of the temporal variation in N2O emissions, respectively. In contrast, the N2O emissions from the growing season were controlled by soil temperature, water table level, pH, NH4+-N, NO3--N, total nitrogen, total organic carbon, and C/N ratio, which could explain 14.51-45.72% of the temporal variation of N2O emissions. Nongrowing season N2O emissions are an essential component of annual emissions and cannot be ignored in the permafrost region.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Pergelissolo , Agricultura , Carbono , China , Florestas , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Nitrogênio/química , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Áreas Alagadas
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