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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673864

RESUMO

Extreme carbohydrate deficits during a ketogenic diet (KD) may result in metabolic adaptations reflective of low energy availability; however, the manifestation of these adaptations outside of exercise have yet to be elucidated in cyclists and triathletes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the chronic and postprandial metabolic responses to a KD compared to a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and habitual diet (HD) in trained competitive cyclists and triathletes. For this randomized crossover trial, six trained competitive cyclist and triathletes (F: 4, M: 2) followed an ad libitum KD and HCD for 14 d each after their HD. Fasting energy expenditure (EE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and fat and carbohydrate oxidation (FatOx and CarbOx, respectively) were collected during their HD and after 14 d on each randomly assigned KD and HCD. Postprandial measurements were collected on day 14 of each diet following the ingestion of a corresponding test meal. There were no significant differences in fasting EE, RER, FatOx, or CarbOx among diet conditions (all p > 0.050). Although postprandial RER and CarbOx were consistently lower following the KD meal, there were no differences in peak postprandial RER (p = 0.452), RER incremental area under the curve (iAUC; p = 0.416) postprandial FatOx (p = 0.122), peak FatOx (p = 0.381), or FatOx iAUC (p = 0.164) between the KD and HD meals. An ad libitum KD does not significantly alter chronic EE or substrate utilization compared to a HCD or HD; postprandial FatOx appears similar between a KD and HD; this is potentially due to the high metabolic flexibility of cyclists and triathletes and the metabolic adaptations made to habitual high-fat Western diets in practice. Cyclists and triathletes should consider these metabolic similarities prior to a KD given the potential health and performance impairments from severe carbohydrate restriction.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica , Estudos Cross-Over , Metabolismo Energético , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Glicemia/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial
2.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678153

RESUMO

Salt and carbohydrates, two causes of elevated blood glucose, are essential components for survival; however, excessive intake of either is a known health risk. In a previous study, we reported the usefulness of pasta prepared from yellow pea (YPP) as a functional staple food that is beneficial for blood sugar control. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of YPP in reducing health risks by examining its effects on saltiness, postprandial satisfaction, and second meal. The results showed that YPP tasted saltier than conventional pasta made from semolina wheat when prepared with a 0.75% salt concentration. In addition, we examined blood glucose levels, insulin secretion, and postprandial hunger over a longer period than in previous studies. We observed that when the same amount of YPP and wheat pasta were eaten, the elevation in blood glucose and insulin secretion was lower after YPP consumption while maintaining a similar level of satiety. Furthermore, YPP was also observed to be able to suppress elevated insulin levels at the second meal.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Ervilhas , Triticum , Saciação , Fome , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Período Pós-Prandial , Insulina , Estudos Cross-Over
3.
Nutr Res ; 109: 35-46, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577255

RESUMO

Successful weight management represents a challenge to obesity control. Evidence suggests that nut consumption promotes a prolonged satiety response. Therefore, we hypothesize that nuts could be associated with greater weight loss in comparison to a control group, and we evaluate the acute and long-term effects of Brazilian nuts (BN: 15 g of Brazil nuts + 30 g of cashew nuts) included in an energy-restricted intervention on food intake, appetite, and peptide hormones. We conducted an 8-week, randomized, open-label, controlled, parallel-arm clinical trial with 28 women at cardiometabolic risk who received an energy-restricted diet containing BN or an energy-restricted nut-free diet (control). At baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention, subjective postprandial appetite ratings were assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) before and after consumption (0, 10, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes) of a 437-kcal nut-enriched (BN group) or nut-free (control) breakfast meal. Subsequently, an ad libitum lunch was served, and the participants completed another VAS at 280 minutes. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and leptin were measured at fasting and postprandially at 60, 120, and 240 minutes. Last, subsequent reported 24-hour energy intake was assessed in a free-living setting. BN consumption did not have acute effects on food intake, appetite, or peptide hormones. However, after an 8-week intervention, postprandial ghrelin (difference between post- and preintervention area under the curve) decreased in the BN group in comparison to the control (mean difference, 1978 pg/mL/min, 95% CI, 27-3929 pg/mL/min; P = .047) and therefore, an energy-restricted diet containing demonstrated potential to decrease hunger in cardiometabolic risk women.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Fome , Humanos , Feminino , Grelina , Nozes , Brasil , Dieta , Apetite , Ingestão de Energia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Período Pós-Prandial , Estudos Cross-Over , Glicemia
4.
Nutrients ; 14(23)2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36501092

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies have revealed that consuming green tea or coffee reduces diabetes risk. We evaluated the effects of the combined consumption of green tea catechins and coffee chlorogenic acids (GTC+CCA) on postprandial glucose, the insulin incretin response, and insulin sensitivity. Eleven healthy men were recruited for this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial. The participants consumed a GTC+CCA-enriched beverage (620 mg GTC, 373 mg CCA, and 119 mg caffeine/day) for three weeks; the placebo beverages (PLA) contained no GTC or CCA (PLA: 0 mg GTC, 0 mg CCA, and 119 mg caffeine/day). Postprandial glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) responses were measured at baseline and after treatments. GTC+CCA consumption for three weeks showed a significant treatment-by-time interaction on glucose changes after the ingestion of high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals, however, it did not affect fasting glucose levels. Insulin sensitivity was enhanced by GCT+CCA compared with PLA. GTC+CCA consumption resulted in a significant increase in postprandial GLP-1 and a decrease in GIP compared to PLA. Consuming a combination of GTC and CCA for three weeks significantly improved postprandial glycemic control, GLP-1 response, and postprandial insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals and may be effective in preventing diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Resistência à Insulina , Humanos , Masculino , Glicemia , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Glucose/farmacologia , Incretinas , Insulina/farmacologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Chá , Catequina/metabolismo
5.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 52: 68-77, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: White bread is widely consumed in many countries despite being a high-glycemic index (GI) food. It has been shown that the "food matrix effect" may help with diabetes and obesity management through lowering GI and appetite. This study aimed at investigating the effects of dough kneading time and flour particle size on white bread structure, glycemic response, and aspects of appetite. METHODS: A two-phase randomized cross-over design was used in 10 healthy subjects over the course of 2 h. In phase 1, Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) attributes, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image, glycemic response, and appetite aspects of white bread made with a 15-min dough kneading time (K15) were compared with white bread made with a 10-min dough kneading time (K10). In phase 2, TPA, SEM image, glycemic response, and satiety score of white bread made with coarse flour (CF) were compared to white bread made with fine flour (FF). RESULT: With increasing hardness (force required to compress a food between the molars to a given deformation), total blood glucose IAUC in K15 (IAUC = 119 ± 12; GI = 66) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in K10 (IAUC = 154 ± 10; GI = 81). No marked difference was observed between K15 and K10 on aspects of appetite except for hunger. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in glycemic response between CF (IAUC = 126 ± 18; GI = 64) and FF (IAUC = 147 ± 12; GI = 81). Similarly, no discernible difference in satiety between CF and FF. CONCLUSION: Changes in processing conditions can improve blood glucose response relalated to white bread consumption.


Assuntos
Pão , Farinha , Humanos , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia , Insulina , Tamanho da Partícula , Período Pós-Prandial , Estudos Cross-Over
6.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 69(4): 691-696, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521034

RESUMO

The cardiovascular events are frequent complications in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the general population the risk factors of CV disease are well established and divided into two groups: non-modifiable, and modifiable. The best-known modifiable risk factors leading to the atherosclerotic plaque formation are lipid disorders. In comparison, an association between serum lipid profile in haemodialyzed patients and cardiovascular mortality is more complex and still unclear. Furthermore, it is important to note that recent studies suggest an inverse relationship between lipid disorders and CV mortality in a haemodialyzed population called 'reverse epidemiology'. The disparity between the general and haemodialyzed populations may be supported by the fact that the haemodialysis process itself contributes to the development of dyslipidaemia. Moreover, the chronic kidney disease is associated with metabolic abnormalities which can increase the risk of CVD occurrence. It is estimated that one-third of the patients on haemodialysis have lipid profile abnormalities, the most common one is hypertriglyceridemia. The assessment of the lipid profile has so far been performed in a fasting and non-fasting (postprandial) state, but both of these methods have some limitations. This review evaluates the current knowledge about lipid profile abnormalities in haemodialyzed patients and discusses a potential role of the Oral Fat Tolerance Test (OFTT) as a new tool in clinical practice that may improve the diagnosis of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertrigliceridemia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/diagnóstico , Hipertrigliceridemia/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Risco , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Lipídeos
7.
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558487

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the effect of substituting plant-based mince for beef mince in a standard pasta meal on the amount consumed and on objective and subjective measures of post-prandial satiety. Healthy, adult males (n = 24) consumed a pasta lunch meal containing either plant-based or beef mince at separate visits, and the amount consumed measured at each visit. Perceptions of hunger, fullness and satisfaction were recorded and blood samples collected before and for 3 h after eating, when a buffet meal was provided. Participants consumed 586 kJ less of the pasta meal prepared with plant-based mince compared to beef mince (p < 0.05). Energy intake at the buffet meal and measures of fullness, satiety and satisfaction after the pasta meal were not different between plant and beef mince (p > 0.05). Post-prandial Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), but not insulin or leptin concentrations, were lower after the plant-based pasta meal (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that the pasta meal containing plant-based mince was more satiating than an equivalent meal prepared with beef mince, and that this was not associated with greater energy intake at a subsequent meal occasion. Further studies that evaluate the longer-term effects of replacing meat with plant-based mince on energy intakes and explore the mechanisms underlying the lower consumption of the plant-based mince meal would be valuable.


Assuntos
Fome , Saciação , Adulto , Masculino , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Ingestão de Energia , Refeições , Almoço , Período Pós-Prandial , Estudos Cross-Over
8.
Animal ; 16(11): 100663, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368265

RESUMO

Feeding diets with an unbalanced amino acid (AA) profile can reduce the postprandial AA utilization for protein synthesis. Growing pigs use dietary AA mainly for protein accretion, whereas non-lactating and non-pregnant adult pigs use AA mainly for maintenance. The requirement for AA for growth is much larger than that for maintenance and growing pigs may therefore be more affected by a diet with an unbalanced AA profile than adult pigs. This study aimed to compare the postprandial plasma AA and metabolite concentrations of adult and growing pigs after feeding a diet with either an unbalanced (UNB) or a balanced AA profile (BAL). The postprandial plasma concentrations of AA were used to study the influence of AA balance on postprandial AA metabolism. Extensively hydrolysed feathers (EHF) were used as an AA source. Both BAL and UNB contained EHF supplemented with L-Ala, L-Asp, L-Glu, Gly, and L-Trp while BAL was also supplemented with L-His, L-Ile, L-Lys, L-Met, and L-Tyr. Four growing and four male adult pigs were fitted with a jugular catheter and received each diet as a meal test thrice. The meal test consisted of giving a small meal after an overnight fast followed by serial blood collection for 360 min. A non-linear regression model was used to describe the postprandial plasma AA kinetics. Plasma kinetics of adult and growing pigs fed BAL resulted in a higher area under the curve (AUC) for the AA that were used to balance the diet. For the other AA, feeding BAL resulted in lower AUC, suggesting faster metabolic utilization of AA for protein synthesis. The apparent quantity of dietary AA appearing in the plasma after feeding was lower in adult pigs, suggesting higher first-pass AA utilization in the intestine and liver. For adult and growing pigs, balancing the AA profile of the diet resulted in faster overall metabolic utilization of AA as seen in the generally lower AUC of BAL compared to UNB.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Ração Animal , Suínos , Masculino , Animais , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Período Pós-Prandial , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Íleo/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430426

RESUMO

An unidentified cause of functional dyspepsia (FD) is closely associated with medication resistance. Acid suppression is a traditional and preferential method for the treatment of FD, but the efficacy of this treatment varies between epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and postprandial syndrome (PDS): it is efficient in the former but not much in the latter. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a surrogate of mucosal barrier function, was measured under pH 3 and pH 5 acidic conditions using duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from the patients with EPS and PDS and asymptomatic healthy controls. The infiltration of inflammatory cells to the duodenal mucosa was accessed by immunohistochemical analysis. The duodenal mucosal TEER in EPS patients was decreased by exposure to the acidic solution compared to that of the controls and the PDS patients. The decrease in TEER of the EPS patients was observed even under pH 5 weak acidic condition and was correlated to degree of the epigastric pain. Moreover, the duodenal mucosa of EPS patients presented an increase in mast cells and plasma cells that expressed Ig-E. Duodenal mucosal vulnerability to acid is likely to develop EPS.


Assuntos
Dispepsia , Humanos , Duodeno , Síndrome , Período Pós-Prandial , Dor
10.
Diabetologia ; 65(1): 216-225, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590175

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Microvascular blood flow (MBF) increases in skeletal muscle postprandially to aid in glucose delivery and uptake in muscle. This vascular action is impaired in individuals who are obese or have type 2 diabetes. Whether MBF is impaired in normoglycaemic people at risk of type 2 diabetes is unknown. We aimed to determine whether apparently healthy people at risk of type 2 diabetes display impaired skeletal muscle microvascular responses to a mixed-nutrient meal. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants with no family history of type 2 diabetes (FH-) for two generations (n = 18), participants with a positive family history of type 2 diabetes (FH+; i.e. a parent with type 2 diabetes; n = 16) and those with type 2 diabetes (n = 12) underwent a mixed meal challenge (MMC). Metabolic responses (blood glucose, plasma insulin and indirect calorimetry) were measured before and during the MMC. Skeletal muscle large artery haemodynamics (2D and Doppler ultrasound, and Mobil-O-graph) and microvascular responses (contrast-enhanced ultrasound) were measured at baseline and 1 h post MMC. RESULTS: Despite normal blood glucose concentrations, FH+ individuals displayed impaired metabolic flexibility (reduced ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation vs FH-; p < 0.05) during the MMC. The MMC increased forearm muscle microvascular blood volume in both the FH- (1.3-fold, p < 0.01) and FH+ (1.3-fold, p < 0.05) groups but not in participants with type 2 diabetes. However, the MMC increased MBF (1.9-fold, p < 0.01), brachial artery diameter (1.1-fold, p < 0.01) and brachial artery blood flow (1.7-fold, p < 0.001) and reduced vascular resistance (0.7-fold, p < 0.001) only in FH- participants, with these changes being absent in FH+ and type 2 diabetes. Participants with type 2 diabetes displayed significantly higher vascular stiffness (p < 0.001) compared with those in the FH- and FH+ groups; however, vascular stiffness did not change during the MMC in any participant group. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Normoglycaemic FH+ participants display impaired postprandial skeletal muscle macro- and microvascular responses, suggesting that poor vascular responses to a meal may contribute to their increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We conclude that vascular insulin resistance may be an early precursor to type 2 diabetes in humans, which can be revealed using an MMC.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pais , Período Pós-Prandial
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360681

RESUMO

The current study compared postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses to four nutrition bars containing two different doses of resistant starch type-4. Normoglycemic adults (n = 17) completed six treatments, consuming either 50 g or 30 g digestible carbohydrate as: dextrose beverages (DEX), control puffed wheat bars (PWB), or RS4 test bars (RS4). Glucose (mg/dL) and insulin (µIU/mL) were measured at baseline and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. There was a main effect of dose and treatment on glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC, ps < 0.001), such that RS4 (50 g: 941, 95% confidence interval (CI): 501, 1519; 30 g: 481, 95% CI: 186, 914) was lower than PWB (50 g: 1746, 95% CI: 1109, 2528; 30 g: 693, 95% CI: 331, 1188) and DEX (50 g: 1940, 95% CI: 1249, 2783; 30 g:1432, 95% CI: 883, 2114). There was a main effect of dose and treatment on insulin iAUC (ps < 0.001), such that RS4 (50 g: 1993, 95% CI: 1347, 2764; 30 g: 943, 95% CI: 519, 1493) was lower than PWB (50 g: 3501, 95% CI: 2625, 4502; 30 g: 1789, 95% CI: 1193, 256) and DEX (50 g: 3143, 95% CI: 2317, 4095; 30 g: 2184, 95% CI: 1519, 2970). Results demonstrate significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses following consumption of nutrition bars containing RS4, regardless of dose, when compared with puffed wheat bars and dextrose.


Assuntos
Amido Resistente , Triticum , Adulto , Humanos , Glicemia , Amido/uso terapêutico , Período Pós-Prandial , Insulina , Estudos Cross-Over , Carboidratos da Dieta
12.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364763

RESUMO

Postprandial insulinaemia, triglyceridaemia and measures of inflammation are thought to be more closely associated with cardiovascular risk than fasting measures. Although hypertension is associated with altered fasting metabolism, it is unknown as to what extent postprandial lipaemic and inflammatory metabolic responses differ between hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Linear models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), visceral fat mass (VFM) and multiple testing (false discovery rate), were used to investigate whether hypertensive cases and normotensive controls had different fasting and postprandial (in response to two standardised test meal challenges) lipaemic, glycaemic, insulinaemic, and inflammatory (glycoprotein acetylation (GlycA)) responses in 989 participants from the ZOE PREDICT-1 nutritional intervention study. Compared to normotensive controls, hypertensive individuals had significantly higher fasting and postprandial insulin, triglycerides, and markers of inflammation after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI (effect size: Beta (Standard Error) ranging from 0.17 (0.08), p = 0.04 for peak insulin to 0.29 (0.08), p = 4.4 × 10-4 for peak GlycA). No difference was seen for postprandial glucose. When further adjusting for VFM effects were attenuated. Causal mediation analysis suggests that 36% of the variance in postprandial insulin response and 33.8% of variance in postprandial triglyceride response were mediated by VFM. Hypertensive individuals have different postprandial insulinaemic and lipaemic responses compared to normotensive controls and this is partially mediated by visceral fat mass. Consequently, reducing VFM should be a key focus of health interventions in hypertension. Trial registration: The ClinicalTrials.gov registration identifier is NCT03479866.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Humanos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Inflamação , Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos
13.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364827

RESUMO

While increased intake of dietary fiber is known to reduce postprandial glycemic response, it is less understood whether the disruption of dietary fiber, in a blender, alters the postprandial glycemic response. We compared the postprandial glycemic response in 20 young, healthy college students (12 female, 8 male) after consuming whole fruit vs. blended fruit. The fruit included gala apple, with the seeds removed, and blackberries. We used a repeated measures two-way ANOVA with fruit treatment as the within-subject variable, sex as the between-subjects factor, and glucose maximum, glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC), and 60 min glucose as dependent variables. Glucose maximum and glucose iAUC were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in blended fruit compared to whole fruit and 60 min glucose was marginally significantly lower (p = 0.057) in blended fruit compared to whole fruit. Sex was not a significant main effect and sex*treatment was not a significant interaction for any of the dependent variables. We hypothesize that a reduced glycemic response in blended apple and blackberries compared to whole apple and blackberries might be associated with the release of dietary fiber and nutritive components from ground blackberry seeds.


Assuntos
Malus , Rubus , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Humanos , Frutas , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Glicemia , Fibras na Dieta , Glucose , Estudos Cross-Over , Insulina
14.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364951

RESUMO

Therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1DM) focuses on maintaining optimal blood glucose levels, achieved with intensive insulin treatment, proper nutrition, and physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate postprandial glycemic changes under low (30%) and standard (50%) carbohydrate diets in adolescents with T1DM. A single-center cross-over nutritional study was conducted, during which 26 adolescent patients provided 220 continuous glucose-monitored (CGM) meals data from the two consecutive 3-day nutritional plans. Overall, the 50% carbohydrate diet was associated with higher postprandial glucose variability in the small meals (afternoon snacks, second breakfast) and greater postprandial peaks for other meals (breakfast, dinner, supper). Nevertheless, after the adjustment of a patient's individual clinical variables (age, Tanner classification, glucose disposal rate), we observed that mean postprandial glucose was higher for afternoon snacks and lower for suppers in the 30% carbohydrate diet. Although a 30% carbohydrate diet seems to offer better postprandial glycemia, it requires additional attention from the physician and patient when it comes to modifying daily carbohydrate intake. Increased fat/protein content and size of the main meal lead to a prolonged postprandial glycemic response, which may affect the insulin treatment and result in suboptimal glycemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Insulinas , Adolescente , Humanos , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Carboidratos da Dieta , Período Pós-Prandial , Refeições , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Estudos Cross-Over , Insulina
15.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 73(8): 1124-1131, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329602

RESUMO

Asia has become the epicentre of type 2 diabetes (T2D), predominately due to the consumption of carbohydrate-rich and high-glycemic-index (high-GI) diets. Previously, almond consumption has been reported to reduce the risk of T2D, obesity, and related diseases. The hypothesis of this randomised cross-over clinical trial was that almond paste consumption with bread would improve postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses. Fifteen healthy Chinese men consumed four bread-based meals containing different amounts of almond paste and inulin. Our results show that co-ingesting bread with 15 g of almond paste and 4 g of inulin significantly reduced the postprandial glucose and insulin levels. The corresponding GI value was 44 (low GI), which was lower than the GI value of white bread, which was 60 (medium GI). However, co-ingestion of almond paste with bread increased the postprandial triglyceride levels. Further studies will be required to demonstrate these effects on a long term basis.Clinical trial registration No: NCT05504044.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Prunus dulcis , Masculino , Humanos , Glucose , Inulina , Insulina , Período Pós-Prandial , Índice Glicêmico , Fibras na Dieta , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Lipídeos , Carboidratos da Dieta
16.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235569

RESUMO

Dietary fiber exerts beneficial effects on human health reducing the risk factors of metabolic related diseases such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of a food supplement based on brewer's spent grain (BSG) extract in the reduction of postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in normoglycemic subjects. BSG was chemically characterized, revealing the presence of resistant starch (14.64 g/100 g), arabinoxylans (7.50 g/100 g), ß-glucans (1.92 g/100 g) and other soluble fibers (6.43 g/100 g), and bioaccessible ferulic acid (91.3 mg/100 g). For the clinical study, 40 normoglycemic subjects were randomized into two groups, 1 and 2 (n = 20), for a cross-over clinical design and received either BSG extract-based food supplement or placebo. Postprandial blood glucose values were significantly lower than corresponding values in the placebo group after 90 and 120 min, while at the baseline and in the first 60 min, the two glycemic curves overlapped substantially. This improved clinical outcome was corroborated by significant reductions in postprandial insulinemia. None of the subjects reported adverse effects. This study showed that the tested BSG extract-based food supplement improves glucose metabolism and insulinemic response in normoglycemic subjects with at most a mild insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Glucose , Resistência à Insulina , beta-Glucanas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Insulina , Período Pós-Prandial , Amido Resistente , beta-Glucanas/análise
17.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235718

RESUMO

Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a stress signal that can be induced by protein restriction and is associated with reduced food intake. Anorexia of aging, insufficient protein intake as well as high GDF15 concentrations often occur in older age, but it is unknown whether GDF15 concentrations change acutely after meal ingestion and affect appetite in older individuals. After an overnight fast, appetite was assessed in older (n = 20; 73.7 ± 6.30 years) and younger (n = 20; 25.7 ± 4.39 years) women with visual analogue scales, and concentrations of circulating GDF15 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were quantified before and at 1, 2 and 4 h after ingestion of either dextrose (182 kcal) or a mixed protein-rich meal (450 kcal). In response to dextrose ingestion, appetite increased in both older and younger women, whereas GDF15 concentrations increased only in the older group. In older women, appetite response was negatively correlated with the GDF15 response (rho = -0.802, p = 0.005). Following high-protein ingestion, appetite increased in younger women, but remained low in the old, while GDF15 concentrations did not change significantly in either age group. GLP-1 concentrations did not differ between age groups or test meals. In summary, acute GDF15 response differed between older and younger women. Associations of postprandial appetite and GDF15 following dextrose ingestion in older women suggest a reduced appetite response when the GDF15 response is high, thus supporting the proposed anorectic effects of high GDF15 concentrations.


Assuntos
Apetite , Proteínas na Dieta , Glucose , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Humanos , Período Pós-Prandial , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296989

RESUMO

The relationship of high-carbohydrate (HC) meal intake to metabolic syndrome is still not fully explained. Metabolomics has the potential to indicate metabolic pathways altered by HC meals, which may improve our knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which HC meals may contribute to metabolic syndrome development. The fasting and postprandial metabolic response to HC or normo-carbohydrate (NC) meals with/without cinnamon + capsicum intake was evaluated using untargeted metabolomics and compared between normal-weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) healthy men. Healthy male participants (age-matched) were divided into two groups (12 subjects per group). One was composed of men with normal weight (NW) and the other of men with overweight/obesity (OW/OB). On separate visits (with 2-3 week intervals), the participants received standardized HC or NC meals (89% or 45% carbohydrates, respectively). Fasting (0 min) and postprandial (30, 60, 120, 180 min) blood were collected for untargeted plasma metabolomics. Based on each metabolic feature's intensity change in time, the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Obtained AUCs were analyzed using multivariate statistics. Several metabolic pathways were found dysregulated after an HC meal in people from the OW/OB group but not the NW group. The consumption of HC meals by people with overweight/obesity led to a substantial increase in AUC, mainly for metabolites belonging to phospholipids and fatty acid amides. The opposite was observed for selected sphingolipids. The intake of cinnamon and capsicum normalized the concentration of selected altered metabolites induced by the intake of HC meals. A HC meal may induce an unfavourable postprandial metabolic response in individuals with overweight/obesity, and such persons should avoid HC meals.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Síndrome Metabólica , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Refeições , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos , Esfingolipídeos , Amidas , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Insulina
19.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36297065

RESUMO

The study investigates the effects of wheat biscuits supplemented with plant flours originating from legumes/seeds enriched either in L-arginine (L-arg) or branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) on postprandial glucose response of healthy subjects. Gastrointestinal hormone and amino acid responses as well as subjective appetite sensations are also evaluated. Subjects consumed wheat-based biscuits, enriched either in L-arg (ArgB) or BCAAs (BCAAsB) or a conventional wheat biscuit (CB) or a glucose solution (GS) in an acute randomized crossover design. Responses of glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and glicentin, as well as those of L-arginine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-valine, were evaluated over 180 min. Consumption of ArgB and BCAAsB elicited lower glucose iAUC compared to GS (p < 0.05). A lower iAUC for insulin was observed after consumption of BCAAsB (p < 0.05 compared to CB and ArgB), while ArgB elicited higher iAUC for GLP-1 accompanied by higher glicentin response (p < 0.05 compared to CB). BCAAsB and ArgB increased postprandial amino acid concentrations and caused stronger satiety effects compared to CB. Increasing protein content of wheat biscuits with supplementation of plant flours originating from legumes/seeds decreases postprandial glycemia and provides with healthier snack alternatives which can easily be incorporated into diet.


Assuntos
Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Humanos , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada , Arginina , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Grelina , Glicentina , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Glucose , Voluntários Saudáveis , Insulina/metabolismo , Isoleucina , Leucina , Peptídeo YY , Período Pós-Prandial , Triticum/metabolismo , Valina
20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(12): 2386-2395, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36238978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of circadian misalignment (CM), induced by delaying mealtimes, independent of sleep timing and duration and eating window duration, on energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), and substrate oxidation. METHODS: Healthy adults, aged 20 to 49 years, participated in this randomized crossover study under controlled feeding conditions. Eating window duration was identical in both conditions (circadian alignment [CA]: 9:00 am-7:00 pm; CM: 1:00 pm-11:00 pm), and bedtimes were constant (11:30 pm-8:00 am). EE, RQ, and substrate oxidation were obtained over 23 hours in a metabolic chamber on days 3 and 4 and days 14 and 15 in each condition. Twenty-four-hour and post-meal outcomes were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model including condition, day, and day-by-condition interaction as main predictors and sex as a covariate. RESULTS: Three men and four women (age 37.4 ± 8.8 years, BMI 30.4 ± 3.3 kg/m2 ) completed the study. Twenty-four-hour EE did not differ between conditions. Post-meal RQ for dinner and snack was higher in CM versus CA (both p < 0.001) with correspondingly higher glucose oxidation (both p < 0.01) and lower fat oxidation (dinner only p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: CM, induced by delaying mealtimes by 4 hours relative to CA, independently shifts nutrient metabolism toward greater carbohydrate and lower fat oxidation.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Refeições , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Cross-Over , Oxirredução , Período Pós-Prandial
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