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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(3): 939-948, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687510

RESUMO

Tapirs are a taxonomic group with a high susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. However, successful therapy has only been documented sporadically. Here treatment of mycobacteriosis diagnosed in three, one male and two female, lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in a zoo in Germany is reported. Two of the animals showed chronic mild respiratory signs, and conventional therapy did not improve the condition. Culture of broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) samples was positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. hominissuis. Upon airway endoscopy, bronchial edema and increased mucus production were visible. Initially, all three infected tapirs received oral antimycobacterial therapy consisting of 5 mg/kg body weight isoniazid, 10 mg/kg rifampicin, and 10 mg/kg clarithromycin q24h. Based on therapeutic drug level monitoring, the doses of rifampicin were adjusted to 12 and 15 mg/kg in the females and the male, respectively. The treatment with all three drugs was continued for 11 mon. Six months into treatment, the clinical condition resolved, and repeated BAL samples of all three tapirs tested negative for mycobacteria by culture. Here the approach for a treatment protocol with minimal side effects suitable to control infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria in lowland tapirs is reported.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium , Animais , Feminino , Isoniazida , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Mycobacterium avium , Perissodáctilos
2.
Nature ; 599(7884): 209-210, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667298
3.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1837): 20200360, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538143

RESUMO

Species are shifting their distributions in response to climate change. This geographic reshuffling may result in novel co-occurrences among species, which could lead to unseen biotic interactions, including the exchange of parasites between previously isolated hosts. Identifying potential new host-parasite interactions would improve forecasting of disease emergence and inform proactive disease surveillance. However, accurate predictions of future cross-species disease transmission have been hampered by the lack of a generalized approach and data availability. Here, we propose a framework to predict novel host-parasite interactions based on a combination of niche modelling of future host distributions and parasite sharing models. Using the North American ungulates as a proof of concept, we show this approach has high cross-validation accuracy in over 85% of modelled parasites and find that more than 34% of the host-parasite associations forecasted by our models have already been recorded in the literature. We discuss potential sources of uncertainty and bias that may affect our results and similar forecasting approaches, and propose pathways to generate increasingly accurate predictions. Our results indicate that forecasting parasite sharing in response to shifts in host geographic distributions allow for the identification of regions and taxa most susceptible to emergent pathogens under climate change. This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/parasitologia , Mudança Climática , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Modelos Biológicos , Parasitologia/métodos , Perissodáctilos/parasitologia , Animais , Previsões , América do Norte
4.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 92(0): e1-e3, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212736

RESUMO

Etorphine-azaperone is the most commonly used drug combination for chemical immobilisation of free-ranging white rhinoceroses, but causes several profound physiological disturbances, including muscle tremors. The addition of benzodiazepine sedatives, such as midazolam, has been proposed to reduce the muscular rigidity and tremors in immobilised rhinoceroses. Twenty-three free-ranging, sub-adult white rhinoceros bulls were darted and captured using a combination of etorphine plus either azaperone or midazolam. Skeletal muscle tremors were visually evaluated and scored by an experienced veterinarian, and tremor scores and distance run were compared between groups using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. No statistical differences were observed in tremor scores (p = 0.435) or distance run (p = 0.711) between the two groups, and no correlation between these variables was detected (r = -0.628; p = 0.807). Etorphine-midazolam was as effective as etorphine-azaperone at immobilising rhinoceroses, with animals running similar distances. Although the addition of midazolam to the etorphine did not reduce tremor scores compared to azaperone, it might have other beneficial immobilising effects in rhinoceroses, and further investigation is necessary to elucidate possible methods of reducing muscle tremoring during chemical immobilisation of rhinoceroses.


Assuntos
Azaperona/farmacologia , Etorfina/farmacologia , Midazolam/farmacologia , Perissodáctilos , Tremor/veterinária , Animais , Azaperona/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/veterinária , Etorfina/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imobilização , Midazolam/efeitos adversos , Tremor/induzido quimicamente
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157750

RESUMO

A 30-year-old, intact female Indian rhinoceros (Rhinocerus unicornis) was presented with ongoing erosive, ulcerative skin lesions over a 4-year-period. The lesions appeared to be non-pruritic and non-seasonal. A systemic antibiotic therapy had been unsuccessful. The dermatological examination showed 8 diffusely demarcated areas of erosion, focal ulceration, mild crusting, and moderate erythema ranging from 8 to 20 cm in diameter, bilaterally on the lateral edges of the torso armor plates. The patient had no other clinical abnormalities. Coccoid and rod-shaped bacteria were identified on cytology and a bacterial culture revealed Escherichia coli spp., Staphylococcus dysgalacticae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Corynebacterium spp. and Micrococus spp. A topical product line containing essential fatty acids and plant extracts was administered daily, using a spot-on, spray and balm. Within 3 weeks a substantial alleviation of clinical signs was observed. Multiple impression smears of the lesions and a bacterial culture were negative by day 21. The patient achieved complete remission within 4 months of treatment and maintained remission for the 2-year observation period with continued use of the medication. Topically administered therapeutics containing essential fatty acids and plant extracts may offer a viable treatment option for recurrent cases of bacterial infectious skin lesions in Indian rhinocerotidae.


Assuntos
Perissodáctilos , Animais , Feminino
6.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 639, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140631

RESUMO

As one of the largest land mammals, the origin and evolution of the giant rhino Paraceratherium bugtiense in Pakistan have been unclear. We report a new species Paraceratherium linxiaense sp. nov. from northwestern China with an age of 26.5 Ma. Morphology and phylogeny reveal that P. linxiaense is the highly derived species of the genus Paraceratherium, and its clade with P. lepidum has a tight relationship to P. bugtiense. Based on the paleogeographical literature, P. bugtiense represents a range expansion of Paraceratherium from Central Asia via the Tibetan region. By the late Oligocene, P. lepidum and P. linxiaense were found in the north side of the Tibetan Plateau. The Tibetan region likely hosted some areas with low elevation, possibly under 2000 m during Oligocene, and the lineage of giant rhinos could have dispersed freely along the eastern coast of the Tethys Ocean and perhaps through some lowlands of this region.


Assuntos
Perissodáctilos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , China , Evolução Molecular , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Perissodáctilos/genética , Filogenia
7.
Theriogenology ; 172: 106-115, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153566

RESUMO

The Malayan tapir is a large endangered herbivore native to South-east Asia with fewer than 2500 animals remaining in the wild. Although a small number of animals (183 animals held by 60 institutions) are managed in zoos and breeding centres, there is limited information on the fundamental reproductive biology of this species. The purpose of this present study was to evaluate the associations of reproductive protein biomarkers (CRISP2 and CRISP3) in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa with reproductive characteristics in male Malayan tapirs. Ejaculates were collected from zoo-housed animals by electroejaculation and assessed for sperm motility and quality traits. Seminal plasma and sperm pellets were analysed for CRISP protein expression by immunoblotting. The reproductive tract of a single animal was also analysed for CRISP2 and CRISP3 protein expression and localization by immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that both CRISP2 and CRISP3 are expressed in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa derived from Malayan tapirs. CRISP expression was positively correlated with semen quality, especially ejaculate volume, number of motile sperm, and acrosomal integrity. In addition, CRISP2 and CRISP3 protein expression were slightly high in males that had recently sired an offspring. The results suggest that CRISP proteins may serve as biomarkers for ejaculate quality and fertility in male Malayan tapirs. These findings may have significant implications for planning future breeding and re-introduction efforts for this species.


Assuntos
Análise do Sêmen , Sêmen , Animais , Masculino , Perissodáctilos , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 573-579, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130400

RESUMO

Coxiellosis, or Query (Q) fever, a disease caused by the intracellular bacteria Coxiella burnetii, was recently described in a managed breeding herd of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in the southeastern United States. Clinical disease often results in abortion and could represent a conservation challenge for this species. In addition to the reproductive and herd management consequences, coxiellosis is also a zoonotic disease. Infection or clinical disease in any free-ranging rhinoceros species in a national park setting has not been previously described. In this study, evidence of prior infection was measured by immunofluorescent antibody titers in 89 serum samples collected from white rhinoceros within private reserves and a national park in South Africa. Total seropositivity was 48/89 (53.9% [95% CI, 43.6-63.9%]). Animals on private reserves had a seropositivity of 21/51 (41.1% [95% CI, 27.1-55.2%]), and national park rhinoceros had a higher rate of seropositivity at 71.0% [95% CI, 55.9-86.2%] (27/38; P= 0.004). Adults had a higher seropositivity compared with subadults (P= 0.03). There was no difference in seropositivity between sexes (P > 0.05). Results demonstrate that South African white rhinoceros populations are exposed to Coxiella, which could result in underrecognized reproductive consequences. Further studies should investigate potential implications for public health and conservation management of this species.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Perissodáctilos/sangue , Febre Q/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Febre Q/sangue , Febre Q/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
9.
J Hum Evol ; 156: 103013, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030060

RESUMO

Rhinocerotidae represents a common element in the Eurasian Pleistocene faunas. Origin, dispersal route, and biochronology of several species are still poorly understood due to gaps in the fossil record, in particular from central Eurasia. A remarkable collection of rhinoceros remains was recovered from the Early Pleistocene site of Dmanisi (Georgia). This collection is unique for the Early Pleistocene Rhinocerotidae records due to its abundance in remains, its age (ca 1.8 Ma) and geographic position (between Eastern and Western Eurasia). Two crania, which display some different morphological traits, are assigned to two different morphotypes and investigated by means of geometric morphometrics using landmarks and semilandmarks. Shapes in lateral and dorsal views of different Rhinocerotini species are compared with the studied crania to infer paleoecological information. The shape in the lateral view reflects ecological niche, in particular feeding type from browsing to grazing, and it also represent taxonomic discrimination. Morphotypes 1 and 2 from Dmanisi fall in two different clusters, corresponding to two different species, notably in lateral view. The results suggest a niche partitioning during the Early Pleistocene of Dmanisi between a browse-dominated and a grass-dominated mixed feeders, or possibly the presence of two ecomorphotypes of the same species. A comprehensive update of the Early Pleistocene occurrences of Eurasian Rhinocerotidae is reported in the discussion on the paleoecology of the extinct Northern Eurasian rhinocerotines.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Perissodáctilos , Animais , Feminino , República da Geórgia , Masculino
10.
Zoo Biol ; 40(5): 417-428, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010488

RESUMO

The proximate composition of milk from fifteen free-ranging white rhinoceroses at different lactation stages is reported with detailed analysis of fatty acid composition and minerals. Lactose is the main component at 7.93 ± 0.53%, followed by 0.93 ± 0.19% protein, 1.76 ± 0.39% fat, 0.40 ± 0.18% ash, 0.05 ± 0.01% glucose, and 0.04 ± 0.02% non protein nitrogen The interindividual variation of all the components is high, showing no trend of change over lactation. The K and P content decreased over lactation. The fatty acid composition of rhinoceros milk is characteristic with a high saturated fatty acids content of 62%-84%, of which the medium chain fatty acids form the major portion. The C10:0, C12:0, C16:0, and C18:1c9 are the major fatty acids in the milk fat. The results are compared with the two other Perissodactylae families, the Equidae and Tapiridae. Differences in gross composition are small, but the milk of the Rhinocerotidae have the lowest gross energy, while the milk fats consist of the highest amounts of saturated fatty acids, while the low levels of C16:1c9 and C18:1c9 indicate the lowest mammary Δ9-desaturase activity.


Assuntos
Leite , Perissodáctilos , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Lactação
11.
Theriogenology ; 169: 76-88, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940218

RESUMO

The ongoing mass extinction of animal species at an unprecedented rate is largely caused by human activities. Progressive habitat destruction and fragmentation is resulting in accelerated loss of biodiversity on a global scale. Over decades, captive breeding programs of non-domestic species were characterized by efforts to optimize species-specific husbandry, to increase studbook-based animal exchange, and to improve enclosure designs. To counter the ongoing dramatic loss of biodiversity, new approaches are warranted. Recently, new ideas, particularly the application of assisted reproduction technologies (ART), have been incorporated into classical zoo breeding programs. These technologies include semen and oocyte collection, artificial insemination, and in-vitro embryo generation. More futuristic ideas of advanced ART (aART) implement recent advances in biotechnology and stem-cell related approaches such as cloning, inner cell mass transfer (ICM), and the stem-cell-associated techniques (SCAT) for the generation of gametes and ultimately embryos of highly endangered species, such as the northern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) of which only two female individuals are left. Both, ART and aART greatly depend on and benefit from the rapidly evolving cryopreservation techniques and biobanking not only of genetic, but also of viable cellular materials suitable for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). The availability of cryopreserved materials bridges gaps in time and space, thereby optimizing the available genetic variability and enhancing the chance to restore viable populations.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Perissodáctilos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/veterinária
12.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(7): 2648-2659, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990869

RESUMO

Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is the largest native terrestrial mammal in the Neotropics, which is endangered primarily as a consequence of habitat loss and overhunting. Baird's tapir is predominantly nocturnal and exists at low densities which complicates field studies. Baird's tapir is a large-bodied herbivore that plays a key role in maintaining healthy tropical forests through seed dispersal in its feces. Studies of gut microbiome are essential and valuable to assess the health status of the host and the interaction with the environment. In this study, we collected fresh fecal samples of T. bairdii to analyze its gut microbiome during the rainy and dry seasons in the Calakmul region, which is a critical rainforest conservation area in Mexico. The results of a high-throughput 16S rDNA gene sequencing approach suggest that the fecal microbiome of Baird's tapir has no significant differences in composition among seasons. The most common phyla were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Kiritimatiellaeota, and Spirochaetes. This study suggests that the stability of the fecal microbiome is related to similar feeding strategies throughout the year, and emphasizes the value of tapir in seed dispersal (and associated microbes) to the well-conserved forests of the Greater Calakmul region as biodiversity hotspots for conservation.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Perissodáctilos , Animais , Fezes , Florestas , México
13.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 443-446, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822143

RESUMO

We evaluated the presence of antibodies for rabies virus in 177 serum samples from 125 wild lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) from three different Brazilian biomes. The rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test was performed. No antibody titers suggesting the circulation of the rabies virus in tapir habitat were detected.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Perissodáctilos/sangue , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
14.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 357-367, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822147

RESUMO

Aerial translocation of captured black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) has been accomplished by suspending them by their feet. We expected this posture would compromise respiratory gas exchange more than would lateral recumbency. Because white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) immobilized with etorphine alone are hypermetabolic, with a high rate of carbon dioxide production (VCO2), we expected immobilized black rhinoceroses would also have a high VCO2. Twelve (nine male, three female; median age 8 yr old [range: 4-25]; median weight 1,137 kg [range: 804-1,234] body weight) wild black rhinoceroses were immobilized by aerial darting with etorphine and azaperone. The animals were in lateral recumbency or suspended by their feet from a crane for approximately 10 min before data were collected. Each rhinoceros received both treatments sequentially, in random order. Six were in lateral recumbency first and six were suspended first. All animals were substantially hypoxemic and hypercapnic in both postures. When suspended by the feet, mean arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) was 42 mm Hg, 4 mm Hg greater than in lateral recumbency (P=0.030), and arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) was 52 mm Hg, 3 mm Hg less than in lateral recumbency (P=0.016). Tidal volume and minute ventilation were similar between postures. The mean VCO2 was 2 mL/kg/min in both postures and was similar to, or marginally greater than, VCO2 predicted allometrically. Suspension by the feet for 10 min did not impair pulmonary function more than did lateral recumbency and apparently augmented gas exchange to a small degree relative to lateral recumbency. The biological importance in these animals of numerically small increments in PaO2 and decrements in PaCO2 with suspension by the feet is unknown. Black rhinoceroses immobilized with etorphine and azaperone were not as hypermetabolic as were white rhinoceroses immobilized with etorphine.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Etorfina/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Perissodáctilos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Diprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Diprenorfina/farmacologia , Etorfina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Masculino , Naltrexona/administração & dosagem , Naltrexona/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Postura
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2393, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896938

RESUMO

Small populations are often exposed to high inbreeding and mutational load that can increase the risk of extinction. The Sumatran rhinoceros was widespread in Southeast Asia, but is now restricted to small and isolated populations on Sumatra and Borneo, and most likely extinct on the Malay Peninsula. Here, we analyse 5 historical and 16 modern genomes from these populations to investigate the genomic consequences of the recent decline, such as increased inbreeding and mutational load. We find that the Malay Peninsula population experienced increased inbreeding shortly before extirpation, which possibly was accompanied by purging. The populations on Sumatra and Borneo instead show low inbreeding, but high mutational load. The currently small population sizes may thus in the near future lead to inbreeding depression. Moreover, we find little evidence for differences in local adaptation among populations, suggesting that future inbreeding depression could potentially be mitigated by assisted gene flow among populations.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Perissodáctilos/genética , Animais , Bornéu , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/história , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Genoma , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Endogamia , Indonésia , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Mutação , Densidade Demográfica , Seleção Genética
16.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(1): 389-395, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827203

RESUMO

A primiparous white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) gave birth to a calf overnight after approximately 16 mo of gestation. The calf was found dead in the morning. Necrosuppurative placentitis with bacterial inclusions suggestive of coxiellosis was diagnosed histologically, and Coxiella burnetii was identified in fetal tissues and placenta by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Another primiparous female from the same herd aborted later that year after approximately 15 mo of gestation, and coxiellosis was similarly diagnosed in fetal tissues and on vaginal shedding. Estimates of exposure time, duration of vaginal shedding, and phase I and phase II antibody dynamics were determined retrospectively and prospectively for the two confirmed cases. Biosecurity measures were put in place to prevent guests, staff, and conspecific exposure to the organism. No other confirmed cases have occurred in the collection 3 yr after the initial cases. Coxiellosis outbreaks could represent an emerging threat to conservation efforts and ex situ white rhinoceros breeding programs.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Perissodáctilos/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/veterinária , Febre Q/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/patologia , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Febre Q/patologia , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Zoonoses
17.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(3): 322-333, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651225

RESUMO

In contrast to understanding spinescence in savanna woody species, little is known about the functions of plant secondary metabolites (PSM). Negative effects of PSMs on individual animal performance potentially translate into negative effects on herbivore population growth. Hence, understanding PSM functions is important for the conservation of savanna megafauna. We tested the view that black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) diet preference is not affected by spinescence or total phenolic abundance. We hypothesized that the composition of phenolic mixtures, however, would affect preference. Furthermore, we tested our data from 71 woody species for a trade-off between structural and chemical defenses. Spinescence type, and spinescence generally, did not deter black rhino feeding. Using eco-metabolomic data, we found that total abundance of phenolics did not affect preference, but mixture composition did and that the probability of spinescence trading off against phenolics depended on the mixture. We note that our study was restricted to black rhino and that diet preferences of other mammal herbivores might be influenced by subtle differences in phenolic mixtures. However, our results did support a previous, more detailed study of phenolic profiles of six species showing the same patterns in relation to preference generalised across mammal herbivore species in savannas. Our results represent substantial advancement in the understanding of the roles of PSMs, especially flavonoid compounds, in the functioning of savanna ecosystems, and highlight the need to dig deeper into broad groups of traits such as spinescence or total phenolics to improve understanding of woody plant defenses in savannas.


Assuntos
Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta , Ecossistema , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Pradaria , Metaboloma , Perissodáctilos , Fenótipo
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 119, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771210

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Sumatran rhinoceros is critically endangered, with fewer than 100 individuals surviving across its current range. Accurate census estimates of the remaining populations are essential for development and implementation of conservation plans. In order to enable molecular censusing, we here develop microsatellite markers with amplicon sizes of short length, appropriate for non-invasive fecal sampling. RESULTS: Due to limited sample quantity and potential lack of genome-wide diversity, Illumina sequence reads were generated from two Sumatran rhinoceros samples. Genomic screening identified reads with short tandem repeats and loci that were polymorphic within the dataset. Twenty-nine novel polymorphic microsatellite markers were characterized (A = 2.4; HO = 0.30). These were sufficient to distinguish among individuals (PID < 0.0001), and to distinguish among siblings (PID(sib) < 0.0001). Among rhinos in Indonesia, almost all markers were established as polymorphic and effective for genotyping DNA from fecal samples. Notably, the markers amplified and displayed microsatellite polymorphisms using DNA extracted from 11 fecal samples collected non-invasively from wild Sumatran rhinoceros. These microsatellite markers provide an important resource for a census and genetic studies of wild Sumatran rhinos.


Assuntos
Repetições de Microssatélites , Perissodáctilos , Animais , Genoma , Genômica , Indonésia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Perissodáctilos/genética
19.
Environ Pollut ; 279: 116928, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774363

RESUMO

Seabirds are wide-ranging organisms often used to track marine pollution, yet the effect of migration on exposure over the annual cycle is often unclear. We used solar geolocation loggers and stable isotope analysis to study the effects of post breeding dispersal and diet on persistent organic pollutant (POP) and mercury (Hg) burdens in rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata, breeding on islands along the Pacific Coast of Canada. Hg and four classes of POPs were measured in auklet eggs: organochlorine insecticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluoralkyl substances (PFASs). Stable isotope values of adult breast feathers grown during winter were used in conjunction with geolocation to elucidate adult wintering latitude. Wintering latitude was the most consistent and significant predictor of some POP and of Hg concentrations in eggs. The magnitude and pattern of exposure varied by contaminant, with ∑PCBs, ∑PBDEs and DDE decreasing with wintering latitude, and mirex, perfluoro-n-tridecanoic acid, and Hg increasing with latitude. We suggest that concentrations of these contaminants in rhinoceros auklet eggs are influenced by variation in uptake at adult wintering locations related to anthropogenic inputs and oceanic and atmospheric transport.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Ilhas , Perissodáctilos , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes
20.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 52: 102472, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548856

RESUMO

The Greater one-horned (GoH) rhinoceros is one of the most charismatic endemic megaherbivores of the Indian subcontinent. Threatened by poaching, habitat loss and disease, the species is found only in small areas of its historical distribution. Increasing demands for rhino horns in chinese traditional medicine has put the existing population under continuing threat, and large profits and low conviction rates make poaching difficult to contain. DNA forensics such as the RhoDIS-Africa program has helped in combating illegal rhino horn trade, but the approach is yet to be optimised for Indian GoH rhinoceros. Here we followed the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) guidelines to establish a 14 dinucleotide microsatellite panel for Indian GoH rhinoceros DNA profiling. Selected from a large initial pool (n = 34), the microsatellite markers showed high polymorphism, stable peak characteristics, consistent allele calls and produced precise, reproducible genotypes from different types of rhino samples. The panel also showed low genotyping error and produced high statistical power during individual identification (PIDsibs value of 1.2*10-4). As part of the official RhoDIS-India program, we used this panel to match poached rhino carcass with seized contraband as scientific evidence in court procedure. This program now moves to generate detailed allele-frequency maps of all GoH rhinoceros populations in India and Nepal for development of a genetic database and identification of poaching hotspots and trade routes across the subcontinent and beyond.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Crime , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Repetições de Microssatélites , Perissodáctilos/genética , Animais , Genética Forense , Frequência do Gene , Marcadores Genéticos , Índia , Polimorfismo Genético
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