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1.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 16, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A widely used method in assessing small bowel permeability is the lactulose:mannitol test, where the lactulose:mannitol ratio (LMR) is measured. However, there is discrepancy in how the test is conducted and in the values of LMR obtained across studies. This meta-analysis aims to determine LMR in healthy subjects, coeliac and Crohn's disease. METHODS: A literature search was performed using PRISMA guidance to identify studies assessing LMR in coeliac or Crohn's disease. 19 studies included in the meta-analysis measured gut permeability in coeliac disease, 17 studies in Crohn's disease. Outcomes of interest were LMR values and comparisons of standard mean difference (SMD) and weighted mean difference (WMD) in healthy controls, inactive Crohn's, active Crohn's, treated coeliac and untreated coeliac. Pooled estimates of differences in LMR were calculated using the random effects model. RESULTS: Pooled LMR in healthy controls was 0.014 (95% CI: 0.006-0.022) while pooled LMRs in untreated and treated coeliac were 0.133 (95% CI: 0.089-0.178) and 0.037 (95% CI: 0.019-0.055). In active and inactive Crohn's disease, pooled LMRs were 0.093 (95% CI: 0.031-0.156) and 0.028 (95% CI: 0.015-0.041). Significant differences were observed in LMR between: (1) healthy controls and treated coeliacs (SMD = 0.409 95% CI 0.034 to 0.783, p = 0.032), (2) healthy controls and untreated coeliacs (SMD = 1.362 95% CI: 0.740 to 1.984, p < 0.001), (3) treated coeliacs and untreated coeliacs (SMD = 0.722 95% CI: 0.286 to 1.157, p = 0.001), (4) healthy controls and inactive Crohn's (SMD = 1.265 95% CI: 0.845 to 1.686, p < 0.001), (5) healthy controls and active Crohn's (SMD = 2.868 95% CI: 2.112 to 3.623, p < 0.001), and (6) active Crohn's and inactive Crohn's (SMD = 1.429 (95% CI: 0.580 to 2.278, p = 0.001). High heterogeneity was observed, which was attributed to variability in protocols used across different studies. CONCLUSION: The use of gut permeability measurements in screening and monitoring of coeliac and Crohn's disease is promising. LMR is useful in performing this function with significant limitations. More robust alternative tests with higher degrees of clinical evidence are needed if measurements of gut permeability are to find widespread clinical use.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Doença de Crohn , Humanos , Lactulose , Manitol , Permeabilidade
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130622, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343815

RESUMO

This study presents functional KCNGO films obtained by incorporating graphite carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and graphene oxide (GO) into the konjac glucomannan (KGM) matrix. The concept of quasi-pasteurization proposed in current work refers to the shorter time needed and lower sterilization temperature used than that of the conventional pasteurization. The films had a compact microstructure formed by the hydrogen bond interactions, as revealed by morphology characterization, FTIR and rheological analysis. It also had excellent hydrophobicity, thermal stability, mechanical properties and water vapor barrier ability. Notably, this film exhibited potent bactericidal activity against foodborne pathogens based on functions of fast heating and instantaneous low temperature bactericidal (4 min, 55 ± 1 °C). The quasi-pasteurization efficacy and mechanism of films were explored. Moreover, this film was safe and can keep the "fresh-like" characteristics of the tangerines for 24 days. Therefore, a quasi-pasteurization strategy is provided in food preservation field.


Assuntos
Mananas , Pasteurização , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Permeabilidade
3.
Food Chem ; 366: 130709, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343951

RESUMO

Biocomposite films based on soy protein isolate (SPI) and sunflower oil (SO) were fabricated using freeze drying (FDM) as an innovative approach to formulate a fairly easy-to-apply way, moreover, results were compared with the classic film production method (CM). In FDM, SPI edible film solutions were prepared and dried using freeze drying, and then reconstituted to produce the films. The aim was to specify the effect of both using FDM and concentration of SO (0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15% (w/v)) on the characterization of SPI films via thermal, barrier and morphological analyzes. Reinforced mechanical and good barrier properties were achieved with FDM. By increasing SO content, an improvement of hydrophobic property of the films, a decrease in the swelling values, and a reduction in permeability was observed. The cakes which were wrapped with FDM films showed better textural results than either uncoated cake or the cakes wrapped with CM films.


Assuntos
Dessecação , Proteínas de Soja , Composição de Medicamentos , Liofilização , Permeabilidade , Óleo de Girassol
4.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113888, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619584

RESUMO

In this study, chelating surfactant N-lauroyl ethylenediamine triacetate (N-LED3A) was used as strengthening agent for electrokinetic (EK) remediation of copper (Cu) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) co-contaminated low permeability soil. The results indicated that negligible amount of N-LED3A would be adsorbed on the experimental soil. The synchronous elution efficiencies (SEEs) of Cu and BDE209 had reached 65.4% and 49.9%, respectively, when the concentration of N-LED3A was 4000 mg/L, and they kept almost unchanged as the concentration of N-LED3A further increased. Meanwhile, the optimal SEEs were obtained at the pH condition within 6-8. The removal efficiencies of Cu (55.3%-65.8%) and BDE209 (31.4%-46.4%) would be increased with the applied voltage gradient and concentration of N-LED3A. In addition, BDE209 and Cu contaminants were also detected in the catholyte and anolyte, respectively, and their concentrations still showed an uptrend by the end of the experiments. While in the control experiments, the removal efficiency of Cu was in the range of 18.2%-23.6%, and almost no BDE209 was migrated out. The electric current would be increased with N-LED3A concentration increased, further resulting in the enhancement of cumulative electro-osmotic flow (EOF). However, the increment of EOF was limited after an 8-day treatment due to the declined capacity of the soil water supply, and the removal efficiency of BDE209 did not change proportionally to the cumulative EOF as a consequence. The accumulated (21 days) energy consumption under the optimal operation conditions (voltage gradient 1 V/cm, N-LED3A 1 g/L) was 377.28 KWh/m3. Efficiently synchronous removal of BDE209 and Cu could be achieved by the N-LED3A enhanced EK technique, exhibiting a promising application potential in the organic pollutant and heavy metal co-contaminated soil remediation.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo , Cobre/análise , Etilenodiaminas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Permeabilidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tensoativos
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2375: 217-228, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591311

RESUMO

In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models have been widely used to simulate in vivo models due to their low cost, feasibility, and repeatability. To serve as a valid substitute, the in vitro BBB should have the similar barrier function as that in vivo. This chapter summarizes the detailed methods for quantifying the barrier function, e.g., the permeability of the BBB to water, ions, and solutes for an in vitro BBB generated on the Transwell filter.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica , Transporte Biológico , Permeabilidade Capilar , Permeabilidade
6.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(1): 177-183, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Commercially formulated pesticide products are complex mixtures of one or more active ingredients and several co-ingredients. However, the modifying effect of co-ingredients on skin uptake and glove barrier protection has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to understand the role of formulation co-ingredients in skin and glove barrier protection performance against organophosphate insecticides. RESULTS: We adapted standard in vitro diffusion cell methods to test permeation kinetics of two commonly used organophosphate insecticides: dimethoate and omethoate. For spray dilutions, dimethoate and omethoate did not reach breakthrough glove permeation rate (1 µg·cm-2 ·min-1 ) and no or little skin permeation was observed for up to 8 h, regardless of formulation. For exposure conditions involving highly concentrated products, significant differences in glove permeation were observed between different formulations of dimethoate (about 1.5-fold, P < 0.05) and of omethoate (184-fold, P < 0.001). In contrast, no difference (P > 0.05) was observed between formulations in terms of skin permeation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that co-ingredients play a critical role in glove barrier protection against undiluted organophosphate insecticides, whereas their influence on skin uptake was insignificant within the exposure time tested. This implies that dermal exposure risk may vary between handling different formulated products of the same active ingredient hence recommending a common glove material for different formulations of the same chemical without careful consideration of co-ingredients and their permeation properties may not necessarily be appropriate. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Luvas Protetoras , Permeabilidade , Pele
7.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131799, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364235

RESUMO

Hydroxyapatite-decorated activated carbon (HAp/AC) nanocomposite was synthesized and utilized as a nanofiller to fabricate a novel type of polyethersulfone (PES) nanocomposite ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. Activated carbon (AC) derived from orange peel was synthesized by low-temperature pyrolysis at 400 °C. A hydroxyapatite/AC (HAp/AC) nanocomposite was developed by a simple one-pot hydrothermal synthesis method. The UF membrane was fabricated by intercalating HAp/AC fillers into PES casting solution by the non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) process. The prepared membranes exhibited a lower water contact angle than the pristine PES membrane. The hybrid membrane with 4 wt% HAp/AC nanocomposite displayed 4.6 times higher pure water flux (~660 L/m2 h) than that of the pristine membrane (143 L/m2 h). In static adsorption experiments, it was found that the amount of humic acid (HA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorbed by the HAp/AC-PES hybrid membrane was much lower than that of the original membrane due to the electrostatic repulsive forces between them and the surface of the membrane. Irreversible fouling was reduced from 33 to 6 % for HA and from 46 to 8 % for BSA after HAp/AC was incorporated into the PES matrix. After 7 cycles of water-BSA-water, the HAp/AC-PES hybrid membrane maintained a high pure water flux of 540 L/m2 h with an excellent flux recovery ratio (FRR), demonstrating the long-term stability of the membranes. The developed UF membranes outperformed the original PES membranes in terms of permeability, selectivity, and antifouling.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Ultrafiltração , Carvão Vegetal , Durapatita , Membranas Artificiais , Permeabilidade , Água
8.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131891, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416587

RESUMO

Nanocellulose based gas barrier materials have become an increasingly important subject, since it is a widespread environmentally friendly natural polymer. Previous studies have shown that super-high gas barrier can be achieved with pure and hierarchical nanocellulose films fabricated through simple suspension or layer-by-layer technique either by itself or incorporating with other polymers or nanoparticles. Improved gas barrier properties were observed for nanocellulose-reinforced composites, where nanocellulose partially impermeable nanoparticles decreased gas permeability effectively. However, for nanocellulose-based materials, the higher gas barrier performance is jeopardized by water absorption and shape deformation under high humidity conditions which is a challenge for maintaining properties in material applications. Thus, numerous investigations have been done to solve the problem of water absorption in nanocellulose-based materials. In this literature review, gas barrier properties of pure, layer-by-layer and composite nanocellulose films are investigated. The possible theoretical gas barrier mechanisms are described, and the prospects for nanocellulose-based materials are discussed.


Assuntos
Celulose , Nanopartículas , Permeabilidade , Polímeros
9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 265: 120343, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500409

RESUMO

Lipophilicity plays a significant role in the permeability of the drugs through cell membranes and impacts the drug activity in the human body. In this paper, the spectrophotometric method was used to determine the apparent partition coefficients of two amphoteric drugs: ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. The apparent partition coefficient was determined with the classic shake-flask method with n-octanol according to OECD guidelines. The lipophilicity profiles in a wide range of pH were determined and described quantitatively with the quadratic function. Basing on the macro- and microdissociation constants, the true partition coefficient for both drugs was calculated. Both levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were lipophilic. The neutral forms, i.e., zwitterionic and uncharged, dominate in the pH relevant to the one in the intestines, the place from which they are absorbed.


Assuntos
Ciprofloxacina , Levofloxacino , 1-Octanol , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Permeabilidade , Solubilidade , Água
10.
Food Chem ; 370: 130992, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509946

RESUMO

The effects of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment on the physicochemical properties of potato starch and its films were studied. The results showed that the plasma species caused etching lead to small cracks and pores in potato starch particles and that oxidation, de-polymerization, and crosslinking were the main mechanisms underlying the effects of DBD plasma treatment. As the treatment time extended, starch hydrolysis, turbidity, syneresis, and gelatinization temperatures increased first and then decreased, whereas the solubility, swelling power, and water absorption significantly increased (P < 0.05). There was a decrease in the retrogradation tendency of the starch gels. The surfaces of the DBD plasma-modified potato starch-based films were relatively flat. After a 9-min treatment, the films exhibited the lowest water vapor permeability and highest tensile strength. In conclusion, the use of DBD plasma is a simple and green method to enhance the properties of potato starch and its film.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Hidrólise , Permeabilidade , Solubilidade , Amido , Resistência à Tração
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2409: 207-222, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709644

RESUMO

This chapter will discuss reliable and relatively easy and fast strategies to evaluate the integrity of endothelial cell monolayers when infected by dengue virus (DENV). Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) were exploited here as general model of vessel wall core, but it may also be used as an in vitro simplified model of blood brain barrier (BBB). The integrity of endothelial cells monolayer can be inferred using a transwell culture system by: (1) measuring transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) using a Voltohmmeter; (2) analyzing the monolayer permeability to fluorescent-conjugated proteins and fluorimetric assay; (3) investigating virus extravasation by quantitative RT-PCR and plaque conventional assay. The rational to use those strategies is that vascular alterations are often observed during dengue infection, being associated to disease severity. The vasculature core consists of a barrier of endothelial cells, which are tightly adhered by the expression of adhesion molecules and tight junctions. This structure must be preserved in order to control the flux of cells and metabolites from the circulation to the tissues and to maintain vascular homeostasis. Therefore, experimental assays that allow evaluation of endothelial integrity can be useful platforms to further understand disease pathogenesis and screen pharmaceutical interventions to control vascular disturbance.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Encéfalo , Permeabilidade Capilar , Células Cultivadas , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Permeabilidade
12.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt A): 131409, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715630

RESUMO

Straw mushrooms are prone to autolyze, leading to a high requirement of environmental humidity. In this work, thermoplastic starch/polylactic acid/poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (TPS/PLA/PBAT) film was produced by extrusion. The moisture permeability of the film was controlled by adjusting the content of TPS, which could be expected to further control humidity of the microenvironment in the package. Results revealed that the water vapor transmission rate of the film linearly increased from 612.31 g/m2·24 h to 1082.50 g/m2·24 h with the increase in the TPS concentration. The TPS/PLA/PBAT film with 30 wt% TPS showed the strongest inhibition on the autolysis of straw mushrooms compared with other groups, effectively delaying the increase in the free water, soluble solid content, rate of weight loss, and polyphenol oxidase of straw mushrooms and extending the shelf life of straw mushrooms from 24 h to 72 h.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Amido , Adipatos , Alcenos , Permeabilidade , Ácidos Ftálicos , Poliésteres
13.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt A): 131439, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717090

RESUMO

Three edible food packaging films loaded with perillaldehyde (P), thymol (T), or ɛ-polylysine (ɛ-PL) in gelatin/zein (G/Z) nanofibers were prepared and characterized. Their effects on the preservation of chilled chicken breast were evaluated. Results showed that the addition of perillaldehyde, thymol, and ɛ-polylysine improved the morphology and diameter of the G/Z. Loading with perillaldehyde improved the elongation and tensile strength of the G/Z/P by 18% and 55%, respectively. The water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability of the G/Z/P were lower than those of the G/Z/T and G/Z/ɛ-PL. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry suggested that perillaldehyde enhanced the thermal stability of the G/Z/P. Measurements of 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), total volatile basic nitrogen, and total viable bacterial counts demonstrated that the G/Z/P had good bio-compatibility and effectively prolonged the shelf life of chilled chicken breasts by over 6 days. Therefore, the G/Z/P developed herein has potential application in chilled meat packaging.


Assuntos
Nanofibras , Zeína , Animais , Galinhas , Embalagem de Alimentos , Gelatina , Monoterpenos , Permeabilidade , Polilisina , Resistência à Tração , Timol
14.
FASEB J ; 36(1): e22061, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861075

RESUMO

Corticosterone, the stress hormone, exacerbates alcohol-associated tissue injury, but the mechanism involved is unknown. We examined the role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in corticosterone-mediated potentiation of alcohol-induced gut barrier dysfunction and systemic response. Hepatocyte-specific GR-deficient (GRΔHC ) and intestinal epithelial-specific GR-deficient (GRΔIEC ) mice were fed ethanol, combined with corticosterone treatment. Intestinal epithelial tight junction integrity, mucosal barrier function, microbiota dysbiosis, endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, liver damage, and neuroinflammation were assessed. Corticosterone potentiated ethanol-induced epithelial tight junction disruption, mucosal permeability, and inflammatory response in GRΔHC mouse colon; these effects of ethanol and corticosterone were absent in GRΔIEC mice. Gut microbiota compositions in ethanol-fed GRΔHC and GRΔIEC mice were similar to each other. However, corticosterone treatment in ethanol-fed mice shifted the microbiota composition to distinctly different directions in GRΔHC and GRΔIEC mice. Ethanol and corticosterone synergistically elevated the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli and reduced the abundance of Lactobacillus in GRΔHC mice but not in GRΔIEC mice. In GRΔHC mice, corticosterone potentiated ethanol-induced endotoxemia and systemic inflammation, but these effects were absent in GRΔIEC mice. Interestingly, ethanol-induced liver damage and its potentiation by corticosterone were observed in GRΔHC mice but not in GRΔIEC mice. GRΔIEC mice were also resistant to ethanol- and corticosterone-induced inflammatory response in the hypothalamus. These data indicate that the intestinal epithelial GR plays a central role in alcohol- and corticosterone-induced gut barrier dysfunction, microbiota dysbiosis, endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, liver damage, and neuroinflammation. This study identifies a novel target for potential therapeutic for alcohol-associated tissue injury.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/efeitos adversos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Animais , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Etanol/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Junções Íntimas/genética
15.
Food Chem ; 374: 131814, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915373

RESUMO

The properties of gelatin film fabricated by ethanol precipitation effect dehydration, Hofmeister effect dehydration and hot air drying dehydration were investigated. The results revealed that the mechanical properties were significantly improved by ethanol precipitation and Hofmeister effect. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the film prepared by ethanol precipitation were increased by 83.28% (20% gelatin concentration) and 122.42% (5% gelatin concentration) respectively compared with that of hot air-dried gelatin film. The water contact angle was increased and water solubility was reduced by ethanol precipitation, which could attribute to the formation of compact structure, more triple helix content, and non-covalent interactions. However, the water contact angle of Hofmeister effect fabricated films was decreased compared with that of hot air drying owing to the adhesion of ammonium sulfate. Moreover, ethanol precipitation effect improved the color difference and opacity due to the ethanol decolorization effect.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Gelatina , Humanos , Permeabilidade , Solubilidade , Resistência à Tração
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2384: 247-255, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550579

RESUMO

Primary monkey brain capillary endothelial cell cultures, with rat pericytes and astrocytes, provide an assay system for predicting the ability of oxytocin (OT) to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), using a commercially available in vitro BBB kit. The integrity of the in vitro "BBB," which has a high transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER), can be established approximately 4 days after preparations for experiments. Dominant endothelial transport of OT is from the upper (luminal blood side) to lower (abluminal brain side) chambers, dose-dependently. OT is transported by the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) in endothelial cells, which is evidenced using the RAGE knockdown system with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) treatment. This in vitro assay system is useful for further assessment of OT transport across the BBB.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica , Animais , Astrócitos , Permeabilidade Capilar , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Endoteliais , Ocitocina , Permeabilidade , Ratos , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada
17.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(1): 21, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907505

RESUMO

Disrupted skin barrier, one of the severe attributes of inflammatory skin diseases, is caused by lower content and pathological changes of lipids in the uppermost skin layer-stratum corneum (SC). Restoring skin barrier with native skin lipids, especially ceramides (Cers), appears to be a promising therapy with minimum side effects. For testing the efficiency of these formulations, suitable in vitro models of the skin with disrupted barriers are needed. For the similarity with the human tissue, our models were based on the pig ear skin. Three different ways of skin barrier disruption were tested and compared: tape stripping, lipid extraction with organic solvents, and barrier disruption by sodium lauryl sulfate. The level of barrier disruption was investigated by permeation studies, and parameters of each method were modified to reach significant changes between the non-disrupted skin and our model. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to elucidate the changes of the skin permeability on the molecular scale. Further, the potential of the developed models to be restored by skin barrier repairing agents was evaluated by the same techniques. We observed a significant decrease in permeation characteristics through our in vitro models treated with the lipid mixtures compared to the untreated damaged skin, which implied that the skin barrier was substantially restored. Taken together, the results suggest that our in vitro models are suitable for the screening of potential barrier repairing agents.


Assuntos
Ceramidas , Pele , Animais , Epiderme , Lipídeos , Permeabilidade , Suínos
18.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261678, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941950

RESUMO

The accurate determination of permeability is one of the parameters essential for the study of fluid flow and transport state. However, a large number of fractured coal bodies are faced during the production of coal mines. The study of permeability of these special media composed of grains of a certain size, whose structure is different from that of raw coal, has been in the exploratory stage. In this paper, inspired by the calculation method of median particle size and the calculation principle of KC's equation, we calculate the permeability parameters of broken coal particles. It is considered that its permeability is closely related to the compaction and re-crushing process of skeletal grains. The lateral limit compression test of the crushed coal body was designed, and the pore-dominated permeability calculation method was given to reveal the mechanism of the action of the effective stress. The dependence relationship between the effective stress and the pore-correlation permeability is obtained by data analysis, and the force and deformation process of the crushed coal grain media is described. In contrast to the conventional Darcy series of permeability discussions, our approach excludes the influence of fluid factors on the permeability of porous media. The permeability of porous media is considered to be determined only by its own pore structure.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Estresse Mecânico , Tamanho da Partícula , Permeabilidade , Porosidade , Pressão
19.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 73(6): 867-877, 2021 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961860

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel on the permeability of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) in rats with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (CHPH), so as to clarify the mechanism of vascular endothelial dysfunction during the occurrence of pulmonary hypertension (PH). CHPH rat model was established by exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH) for 21 days. Primary PMVECs were cultured by adherent tissue blocks at the edge of the lung. The permeability coefficient of primary cultured PMVECs was detected by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran. The structure of tight junction (TJ) was observed by transmission electron microscope. The expression of TRPV4 and TJ-related proteins, such as, Occludin, Claudin-5, ZO-1 were examined by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blotting. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in PMVECs and its effect on PMVECs permeability were observed after the intervention of TRPV4 specific agonist GSK1016790A (GSK, 10 nmol/L) and specific inhibitor HC-067047 (HC, 1 µmol/L, 0.5 µmol/L). The results showed that the CHPH model was successfully established in rats treated with CH for 21 days. In CHPH rats, the structure of TJ was destroyed, the function of PMVECs barrier was decreased, the intercellular permeability was increased, the expression of TJ-related proteins were significantly decreased and the expression of TRPV4 was significantly increased (P < 0.01). The amplitude of [Ca2+]i in PMVECs of CHPH rats was significantly increased after activation of TRPV4. The inhibition ratio of HC on [Ca2+]i in PMVECs of CHPH rats was significantly higher than that in normal PMVECs. TRPV4 specific inhibitor HC reversed the increase of PMVECs permeability and increased the expression of three TJ-related proteins in CHPH rats (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). These results suggest that TRPV4 channel can induce endothelial dysfunction by increasing the [Ca2+]i, resulting in the destruction of TJ structure and the decrease of TJ-related proteins expression on PMVECs in CHPH rats.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Canais de Cátion TRPV , Animais , Células Endoteliais , Hipóxia/complicações , Pulmão , Permeabilidade , Ratos , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética
20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(1): 10, 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951664

RESUMO

Keratin 8 (K8) is the main intestinal epithelial intermediate filament protein with proposed roles for colonic epithelial cell integrity. Here, we used mice lacking K8 in intestinal epithelial cells (floxed K8 and Villin-Cre1000 and Villin-CreERt2) to investigate the cell-specific roles of intestinal epithelial K8 for colonocyte function and pathologies. Intestinal epithelial K8 deletion decreased K8 partner proteins, K18-K20, 75-95%, and the remaining keratin filaments were located at the colonocyte apical regions with type II K7, which decreased 30%. 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoroglucose positron emission tomography in vivo imaging identified a metabolic phenotype in the lower gut of the conditional K8 knockouts. These mice developed intestinal barrier leakiness, mild diarrhea, and epithelial damage, especially in the proximal colon. Mice exhibited shifted differentiation from enterocytes to goblet cells, displayed longer crypts and an increased number of Ki67 + transit-amplifying cells in the colon. Significant proproliferative and regenerative signaling occurred in the IL-22, STAT3, and pRb pathways, with minor effects on inflammatory parameters, which, however, increased in aging mice. Importantly, colonocyte K8 deletion induced a dramatically increased sensitivity to azoxymethane-induced tumorigenesis. In conclusion, intestinal epithelial K8 plays a significant role in colonocyte epithelial integrity maintenance, proliferation regulation and tumor suppression.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Colo/patologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Marcação de Genes , Intestinos/patologia , Queratina-8/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Diarreia/complicações , Diarreia/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Integrases/metabolismo , Queratina-8/deficiência , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Fenótipo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
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