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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2433: 169-181, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985744

RESUMO

We developed the PERSIA technique with an interest in quantifying proteins as they are being produced during a cell-free synthesis reaction. A short 6-amino acid sequence added to a protein of interest reacts with a fluorogenic reagent (ReAsH), yielding a measure of protein concentration in close to real time. We combine this measurement with simultaneous fluorescent detection of mRNA production, quantifying both transcription and translation. Alternatively, we combine simultaneous measurement of protein synthesis and that protein's enzymatic activity. We have found these simple capabilities enabling for multiple applications, including sequence-structure-function studies and target-specific assessment of drug candidate compounds.


Assuntos
Biossíntese de Proteínas , Pérsia , RNA Mensageiro/genética
2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 7(1): 105-107, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550308

RESUMO

Importance: The recognition of the pulmonary circulation is a complex evolution in medical history and draws on theories across eras and cultures. Observations: This narrative review summarizes evidence suggesting that the recognition of pulmonary circulation is older than the time of Ibn Nafis. The theory of pulmonary circulation originated in ancient Persia (ad 224-637), was overshadowed by Greek theory from the 11th century, and reestablished by Ibn Nafis in the 13th century. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this review may help contextualize the story of the discovery of pulmonary circulation in ancient Persian and Greek theories before Ibn Nafis.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/história , Circulação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Grécia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Pérsia
3.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578911

RESUMO

Traditional regional diets are considered as sustainable dietary patterns, while many have been examined with regard to their health benefits. The aim of the present systematic review was to aggerate all evidence on the physiological effects of regional diets among adults at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Three databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) implementing any regional diet (Mediterranean (MedD), Persian, Southern European Atlantic, Japanese, Chinese, new Nordic, or other) while examining cardiovascular risk factors among adults at increased risk. Primary outcomes included anthropometric indices and secondary outcomes involved blood lipid concentrations, glucose metabolism, inflammation and other markers of CVD progression. Twenty RCTs fulfilled the study's criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis, with the majority implementing a MedD. Adherence to most of the regional diets induced a reduction in the BW and anthropometric indices of the participants. The majority of RCTs with blood pressure endpoints failed to note a significant reduction in the intervention compared to the comparator arm, with the exception of some new Nordic and MedD ones. Despite the interventions, inflammation markers remained unchanged except for CRP, which was reduced in the intervention groups of one new Nordic, the older Japanese, and the Atlantic diet RCTs. With regard to blood lipids, regional diet interventions either failed to induce significant differences or improved selective blood lipid markers of the participants adhering to the experimental regional diet arms. Finally, in the majority of RCTs glucose metabolism failed to improve. The body of evidence examining the effect of regional dietary patterns on CVD risk among high-risk populations, while employing an RCT design, appears to be limited, with the exception of the MedD. More research is required to advocate for the efficacy of most regional diets with regard to CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Japão , México , Pérsia , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
4.
Am J Med Sci ; 362(3): 227-232, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081900

RESUMO

Health tourism has hundreds of years of history, most notably in visitors traveling to thermal baths. Medical tourism, a type of health tourism, has rapidly expanded in the last quarter century by patients travelling abroad to health centers for medical treatment. Because of lack of records in ancient times, the history of tourism for actual medical treatment is unknown. In Ottoman archives, medical treatment consent forms of patients were officially documented. We analyzed these existing records to identify foreign citizens who came to the Ottoman Empire for medical treatment. In our screening of Konya Ser'iye registration records, we found medical consent forms for three non-Ottoman foreign citizens. All three patients had the same medical illness and came to Konya for medical treatment. Therefore we emphasized that those patients searched for the name of doctor who was an authority on that illness. This study indicates that medical tourism may have occurred well before the 20th century.


Assuntos
Turismo Médico/história , Sistema de Registros , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Império Otomano , Pérsia
5.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 72, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot self-care refers to a group of self-management behaviors that can reduce the incidence of foot ulcers and amputations. It is necessary to have a valid and reliable standard tool to measure foot self-care in diabetic patients. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Diabetic Foot Self-Care Questionnaire of the University of Malaga, Spain (DFSQ-UMA) in Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 407 diabetic patients who were selected using a convenient sampling method. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory (with 207 patients) and confirmatory (with 200 patients) factor analyses. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega coefficients. RESULTS: In the exploratory factor analysis, three factors with eigenvalues of 3.84, 2.41, and 2.26 were extracted that together explained 56.74% of the total variance of diabetic foot self-care. A Cronbach's alpha of 0.865 was found for the total instrument. CONCLUSIONS: The Persian version of the DFSQ-UMA has good validity and reliability, and given its good psychometric properties, it can be used in future studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Pé Diabético/epidemiologia , Psicometria/normas , Autocuidado/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Pé Diabético/diagnóstico , Pé Diabético/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pérsia , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autocuidado/métodos
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 83, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum maternal functioning has the potential to affect the quality of interaction between mother and child. A proper assessment of maternal functioning requires a comprehensive and accurate tool. The objective of this study was to prepare a Persian version of the Barkin Index of Maternal Functioning (BIMF) and evaluate its psychometric properties in order to determine its applicability in Iranian mothers. METHODS: The BIMF was translated into Persian and then culturally adapted for Iranian women. After evaluating face and content validity, to perform factor analysis, a cross-sectional study was conducted using the Persian version of BIMF. The data was collected from two unique groups of 250 mothers (in all 500 mothers) who had infants 2 to 12-months old and who were selected using a two-stage cluster sampling method. Factor analysis, Pearson's correlation, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach's alpha were employed in order to evaluate structural validity and reliability. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a five-factor structure consisting of 20 items. Subsequently, confirmatory factor analysis (X 2/ df = 1.61, RMSEA = 0.050, GFI = 0.91, CFI = 0.91) confirmed that the Persian version had satisfactory goodness of fit. Reliability and internal consistency were confirmed with a CR of 0.77, an ICC of 0.87 and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the Persian version of the BIMF is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing maternal functioning among Iranian mothers.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Características Culturais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/psicologia , Pérsia , Psicometria
7.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(3): 1064-1067, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403764

RESUMO

AIM: Artificial rupture of the amniotic membranes during the labor, which is called amniotomy, is a common procedure in modern obstetric and midwifery protocols. There is no definite agreement regarding the timing of amniotomy in a delayed labor. In this study, we have discussed the history of amniotomy in medieval Persia mentioning the Persian medicine recommendations in this regard. METHODS: We studied main Persian medicine textbooks such as Canon of Medicine by Avicenna to investigate the history of labor management and amniotomy indications. In addition, amniotomy in current literature was studied using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. RESULTS: Persian medicine has recommended artificial rupture of membranes for labor augmentation based on its own theories. Methods for facilitation of the labor have been divided into two groups: one group before and the other during the labor. Avicenna has carefully explained the indication of amniotomy. He has recommended artificial rupture of membranes in cases of intact membranes with cervical dilatation and fetal descent. A needle or a kind of surgical knife called Mabzaa had been introduced for this procedure. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that Iranian physicians are the first scholars who have introduced the amniotomy for labor management in the 11th century. Persian medicine recommendations for labor facilitation should be considered in future studies.


Assuntos
Amniotomia , Primeira Fase do Trabalho de Parto , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pérsia , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Med Biogr ; 29(1): 19-23, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382792

RESUMO

The medical history of Iran and Islam is marked by the presence of renowned physicians, some of whom are not well known outside Iran. Abυ¯ Man⋅υ¯r ῌasan ibn Nυ¯h Qamari Bukhara 'i was an Iranian physician living in the fourth century AH (10th century CE). The scientific works of this sage indicate his skill and expertise in medical science. He was a man of such scientific stature that the renowned Iranian philosopher and physician, Avicenna, use may have been one of his disciples. Qamari may be credited as one of the promoters of the medical school of Muhammad Ibn Zakariyya Razi. Some of his works, including Al-Tanwir Fi 'Istilahat Al-Tibbiyyah and Al-Ghina and Al-Muna are still extant. In this paper, his scientific life and works, based on primary sources, have been studied in order to shed light on his role in formation of the Muslim Medical School.


Assuntos
Médicos/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , História Medieval , Irã (Geográfico) , Pérsia
10.
Phytother Res ; 35(6): 2997-3012, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368772

RESUMO

Sweet almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb) is a known nut, which has long been used in several ethnomedical systems, especially in Persian medicine (PM) for its nutritional and therapeutic activities. In this study, we aimed to provide a summary on traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of sweet almond. Thus, we reviewed textbooks of PM and electronic literature on traditional medicine. Moreover, the available data on the usage of sweet almond were searched in electronic databases to find articles on its pharmacological properties and phytochemistry. According to phytochemical investigations, this plant contains macronutrients, micronutrients, essential oils, various phenolic compounds, and phytosterols. Current pharmacological studies represent that Prunus dulcis has several biological activities including prebiotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardiometabolic protection, nootropic, anxiolytic, sedative-hypnotic, and nervous-improving effects. Further clinical trials and meta-analysis are required to draw a definitive conclusion on the efficacy and therapeutic activities of almond.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Nozes/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prunus dulcis/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pérsia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Fitosteróis/uso terapêutico
12.
Endeavour ; 45(4): 100801, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235892

RESUMO

Narshakhi's The History of Bukhara, an account from the tenth century AD that has been narrated as a mythical and strange story about the formation of the citadel of Bukhara, has received scanty scholarly attention. This study addresses some of the unknown semantic and symbolic origins of Iranian citadels and fortresses through an analysis of documented legends and other classical sources. This analysis shows that the citadel (qal'a) was built based on the conceptual archetype of the Utopia of Kangdiz (Siavosgerd) and the geometric shape of Banat Na'sh (Big Dipper), which has played a symbolic role in protecting and guarding in Persian cosmology. This celestial analogy can explain the causes and origins of the irregular shape of some other Iranian citadels.


Assuntos
Astronomia , Astros Celestes , Irã (Geográfico) , Pérsia
13.
Infez Med ; 28(3): 450-452, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920583

RESUMO

A herpetic whitlow is a lesion (whitlow) on a finger or thumb caused by herpes simplex virus. It is a painful infection that typically affects the fingers or thumbs. Occasionally infection occurs on the toes or on the nail cuticle. Symptoms of herpetic whitlow include tenderness, swelling and reddening of the infected finger skin, fever and swollen lymph nodes. Although, it is believed that the first recorded observations were in 1909 CE by H. G. Adamson, in the medieval period, Bah?' al-Dawlah N?rbakhsh? Razi (1501 CE) described herpetic whitlow, under the title of Dakhes in Khulasat al-Tajarib (The Summary of Experience), his book on medicine. Some of Baha al-Dawlah's descriptions and his etiology of Dakhes are based on humoral theories and cannot be concurred with current medical concepts, but more symptoms and clinical manifestations are consistent with current definitions. It seems the earliest description of herpetic whitlow in the medical history.


Assuntos
Dermatoses da Mão/história , Dermatoses da Mão/virologia , Herpes Simples/história , Dedos , História do Século XV , Humanos , Pérsia
14.
Pharm Biol ; 58(1): 574-580, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615837

RESUMO

Context: In Persian medicine, topical ingredients such as Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae), are usually recommended for the treatment of uterine diseases. Scientific evaluation of these historical documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in conventional medicine.Objective: This clinical trial was performed to determine whether the use of the 'ward' vaginal tablet, which contains Rosa damascena, Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Querqus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae), Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae) and Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC. (Caprifoliaceae) could alleviate the symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis.Materials and methods: A parallel double-blinded placebo-controlled study was done. Eighteen to fifty-year-old women with vulvovaginal candidiasis were divided into the 'ward' and placebo groups, 46 individuals in each group. The 'ward' group received the 'ward' vaginal tablet containing 200 mg of dried extract. Placebo group received a placebo (composed of corn starch and lactose). One tablet was applied through the vagina for 7 consecutive nights.Results: Two weeks after medication administration, the vaginal discharge sample of patients was re-cultured; 29 patients (63.045%) in the 'ward' group and 6 (13.04%) patients in the placebo group had negative culture (p < 0.001). All clinical symptoms including itching, irritation, and vaginal discharge were significantly reduced in the 'ward' group compared with the placebo group following the intervention and the follow up (p < 0.05).Discussion and conclusions: The findings suggest the 'ward' vaginal tablet could ameliorate vulvovaginal candidiasis. Future larger studies are recommended due to compare the therapeutic effect of the 'ward' vaginal tablet with common treatments.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/diagnóstico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pérsia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vagina/microbiologia , Cremes, Espumas e Géis Vaginais/administração & dosagem , Cremes, Espumas e Géis Vaginais/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Complement Integr Med ; 18(1): 29-36, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554835

RESUMO

As time goes on, a greater number of people experience an age of more than 60 years old and subsequently geriatric syndromes are increasingly more common. Despite recent improvements in modern healthy living, literature on traditional Persian medicine (TPM) about the prevention and treatment of such syndromes and healthy living of the elderly is hardly known. We aimed, in this study, to explore some traditional Persian sources and briefly explain their writers' beliefs on keeping healthy living for old people. We used several TPM sources and literature, and then based on these texts, we collected issues about geriatric temperament and syndromes and classified the results including exercise, nutrition, massage, bathing, aromatherapy, and sleeping. Our search yielded some recommendations about a healthy lifestyle for the elderly, which are in fact equivalent to primary, secondary, and tertiary preventive measures in modern medicine. Our results also showed that they believed such modifications would help the elderly to improve their geriatric conditions. In general, TPM provides some pieces of advice to prevent and treat geriatric syndromes that may be helpful in practice although the scope of their effectiveness remains to be examined in carefully designed randomized controlled trials.


Assuntos
Geriatria/métodos , Envelhecimento Saudável , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pérsia
16.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109834, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498006

RESUMO

The eye contains serotonin, and possesses serotonergic receptors and modulators. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may impair ocular function, while other serotonin receptor-binding drugs might improve it. A putative vision-improving drug must be safe at therapeutic doses, most preferably with long-lasting benefits from a single or very few administration(s). One drug potentially satisfying these criteria is the common, botanically-occurring indole alkaloid and "major hallucinogen," harmine. Harmine is prominent in the leaves of the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) Passiflora, and in Peganum and Banisteriopsis, the two preeminent "sacred" medicinal plants of India/pre-Islamic Persia/modern Iran and the Amazon respectively. Though the possibility of drug-drug or herb-drug interactions exists, especially with SSRIs, at correct patient-individualized dosages, these plants, used alone, are minimally hallucinogenic, well tolerated, potentially exerting profound therapeutic effects on vision from a single or few administration(s) lasting months or years. The hypothesized mechanism for this extraordinary action is tuning of the serotonergic receptors in the eye in their binding affinity for serotonin, a putative neurochemical "ocudelic" homologue to the psychedelic phenomenon, likely potentiated, according to clinical experience with classical hallucinogens, by therapeutic music, positive psychological "set," and conducive environmental "setting." Blinded research with harmala alkaloid-containing plants in ocular patients using psychedelic therapy accoutrements, viz. eyeshades, high fidelity classical music, headphones, two guides, pre-dosing preparation, and post-dosing integration, could non-invasively assess visual acuity in presbyopia. Significant results would stimulate further exploration of this novel approach to ocular disorders. Deeper benefit, particularly when the retina is compromised, might follow co-ingestion of the harmala alkaloid-containing plants with plants containing dimethyltryptamine.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos , Peganum , Harmina , Humanos , Índia , Irã (Geográfico) , Pérsia
20.
J Altern Complement Med ; 26(5): 376-383, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109133

RESUMO

Objectives: The major problem in maintenance treatment of opioid use disorder is craving and relapse. The utilization of herbal compounds and complementary therapy for treatment of disease and addiction has been widely expanding. Considering the significant effect of Hab-o Shefa in detoxification phase, this clinical trial has explored the influence of this compound on maintenance treatment of opioid-dependent patients. This product is made of four herbs, including Datura stramonium L., Rheum palmatum L., Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and Acacia senegal L. Design: The authors conducted a two-group parallel randomized double-blind clinical trial on 81 opioid-dependent patients within 12 weeks. After medically assisted detoxification, participants were assigned randomly to Hab-o Shefa (n = 41) and placebo (n = 40). Outcome measures included craving assessed by craving beliefs questionnaire, self-reported opioid use, and lapse (any opioid-positive urine test) according to urinalysis and addiction severity index-lite questionnaire, retention in treatment, and depression and anxiety scores on the Hamilton's anxiety and depression scales. Results: Forty-one participants completed the study for 12 weeks, 21 subjects in the drug group and 20 subjects in the placebo group. The rates of opioid-positive urine tests and self-reported opioid use were significantly lower in Hab-o Shefa group (f = 8.41, p = 0.001). Hab-o Shefa also indicated a significant superiority over placebo in the effect of treatment by time interaction for craving (f = 5.91, p = 0.001), depression (f = 3.40, p = 0.01), and anxiety (f = 2.58, p = 0.035). The retention time was 66.6 days for drug group and 59.6 days for placebo one. Although the causes for dropping out in two groups were different, there was no significant difference (p = 0.623). The side effects of the two groups were not significantly different. Conclusion: Results indicated that Hab-o Shefa could be useful for opioid maintenance treatment, and it can also be considered as a new promising drug for prevention of craving and relapse.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Cápsulas , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pérsia , Plantas Medicinais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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