Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.632
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671919

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a survey was conducted using the questionnaire method among participants consisting of both ordinary people (n = 325) and frontline anti-epidemic medical staff (n = 310), and physiological data was obtained on the basis of physical examination. This study aimed to scrutinize the influence of Type A personality on the biochemical indicators of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the behavioral indicators of appetite and sleep disorder, and to analyze the mediating effect of depression. Meanwhile, multiple-group path analysis was used to evaluate path differences between the models of two samples. The results of the mediation analysis for both samples demonstrated that depression significantly mediated the relationship between Type A personality and appetite and sleep disorder. The results of multiple-group path analysis showed that the relationship between Type A personality and appetite and sleep disorder seems to be significantly stronger in ordinary people, whereas the relationship between depression and appetite and sleep disorder, as well as with the path towards AST, seems to be significantly stronger in frontline anti-epidemic medical staff. This paper provides ideas for the selection and distribution of medical personnel based on personality characteristics in major public health emergencies, and physical and mental health status should be taken into account to provide relative health assistance.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Personalidade Tipo A , Apetite , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Humanos , Pandemias , Exame Físico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília
2.
Diabetes Metab ; 47(6): 101245, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722768

RESUMO

AIM: Type A personality-characterized by time urgency, strong drive, and a need for achievement and competitiveness-has been shown to be associated with reduced mortality in patients with diabetes. However, it is not known whether a Type A personality might protect against diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). This prompted our present analysis of the association between Type A personality and DFU. METHODS: The Bortner Scale questionnaire was used to assess Type A personality in 386 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), including 104 patients also presenting with, and 282 presenting without, DFU. Additional questionnaires were used to assess perceived stress and depression. RESULTS: Type A Bortner scores were significantly lower in T2D patients with vs without DFU (166.64 ± 38.76 vs 178.79 ± 36.61, respectively; P = 0.005). In patients with DFU, the prevalence of Type A personality traits was significantly lower than in those without DFU (48% vs 64.5%, respectively; P = 0.005) whereas, in contrast, Type B personality traits (the opposite of Type A) were more prevalent (52% vs 35.5%, respectively; P = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, Type A Bortner scores were negatively associated with DFU (P = 0.008) independently of age, gender, BMI, depression scores or perceived stress. CONCLUSION: The Type A personality, characterized by competitiveness and a need for achievement, is significantly less frequently seen in T2D patients with DFU. On the other hand, the Type B personality is much more prevalent in such patients. It may be that the Type B personality, which is characterized by fewer problem-focused coping strategies and a decreased adherence to care, might favour the development of DFU.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pé Diabético , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Pé Diabético/complicações , Pé Diabético/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Personalidade Tipo A
3.
World Neurosurg ; 150: e681-e685, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The busy and demanding work schedule of neurosurgeons suggests that they might have type A behavior patterns (TABPs). TABPs are also associated with multiple diseases; hence, their early identification could lead to behavioral changes and disease prevention. We aimed to determine the presence of TABPs among neurosurgeons and trainees in the Philippines and the association between demographic and clinical factors and TABPs. METHODS: An online survey was sent to neurosurgeons and neurosurgical trainees in the Philippines. Data on age, sex, comorbid conditions, smoking, alcohol use, training institution, level of residency training, and place of practice were obtained. The modified Bortner scale was used to determine TABPs. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 102 individuals (41 neurosurgeons and 61 trainees) completed the survey. Most of the respondents were men (74%), with a mean age of 36 years. The Bortner scores were normally distributed. TABPs were significantly associated with female sex (P = 0.0006) in the entire cohort. However, the trainee cohort also exhibited a significant association between TABPs and training in a public institution (P = 0.0027). CONCLUSION: The presence of TABPs followed a normal distribution among neurosurgeons and neurosurgical trainees in the Philippines. A significant association was found between TABPs and female sex for both neurosurgeons and trainees, and training in a public institution was significantly associated with TABPs only among the trainees.


Assuntos
Neurocirurgiões/psicologia , Personalidade Tipo A , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Filipinas , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212977

RESUMO

People with acne vulgaris report a lower level of satisfaction with life and are more frequently classified as having Type D personalities than those without acne. This research examined, for the first time, the moderating and mediating role of personality type in the relationship between acne severity and satisfaction with life. Among 300 female nursing and cosmetology students ranging in age from 19 to 24 years (M = 21.28, SD = 1.39), 150 individuals (50%) presented with symptoms of acne vulgaris (AV group), while the other 150 (50%) were categorized as controls without acne vulgaris (WAV sample). A cross-sectional study was conducted using three self-report questionnaires: The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Framingham Type A Scale (FTAS), and the Type D Scale (DS14). Acne vulgaris was clinically diagnosed using the Hellgren-Vincent Scale (HVS). The AV group scored significantly higher on the FTAS and DS14 and lower on the SWLS than the WAV sample. Life satisfaction correlated negatively with both the negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) subscales of the DS14. The moderating role of the Type A behavioral pattern (TABP) and the mediating role of both NA and SI subscales of the DS14 were observed in the relationship between acne severity and satisfaction with life. The type of personality may explain the mechanism of the relationship between acne disease and subjective well-being. Therefore, psychological interventions and strategies focused on managing stress and mood may effectively improve satisfaction with life in people with acne.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Personalidade Tipo A , Personalidade Tipo D , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22780-22786, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868412

RESUMO

Does being disagreeable-that is, behaving in aggressive, selfish, and manipulative ways-help people attain power? This question has long captivated philosophers, scholars, and laypeople alike, and yet prior empirical findings have been inconclusive. In the current research, we conducted two preregistered prospective longitudinal studies in which we measured participants' disagreeableness prior to entering the labor market and then assessed the power they attained in the context of their work organization ∼14 y later when their professional careers had unfolded. Both studies found disagreeable individuals did not attain higher power as opposed to extraverted individuals who did gain higher power in their organizations. Furthermore, the null relationship between disagreeableness and power was not moderated by individual differences, such as gender or ethnicity, or by contextual variables, such as organizational culture. What can account for this null relationship? A close examination of behavior patterns in the workplace found that disagreeable individuals engaged in two distinct patterns of behavior that offset each other's effects on power attainment: They engaged in more dominant-aggressive behavior, which positively predicted attaining higher power, but also engaged in less communal and generous behavior, which predicted attaining less power. These two effects, when combined, appeared to cancel each other out and led to a null correlation between disagreeableness and power.


Assuntos
Personalidade/fisiologia , Poder Psicológico , Adulto , Dissidências e Disputas , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Relações Interpessoais , Liderança , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Ocupações , Estudos Prospectivos , Personalidade Tipo A
6.
Dent Med Probl ; 57(2): 145-148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a major global health problem, associated with various oral diseases, such as oral cancers. Salivary antioxidants may play an important role in fighting against radicals and the oxidative components of cigarettes, which can cause DNA damage. Furthermore, psychological stress, which occurs more often in individuals with type A personality, affects plasma antioxidant levels. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the levels of salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) between smokers and non-smokers according to their personality types. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, saliva samples were collected from 40 male smokers (with ≥0.1 pack-years) and 40 male non-smokers. After centrifugation, the samples were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Pearson's correlation, Welch's t-test and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The TAC of saliva in smokers was significantly lower than in non-smokers (p = 0.019). Type A and type B smokers showed no significant decrease in TAC (p > 0.05 and p = 0.05, respectively) as compared to type A and type B non-smokers, respectively. Type A smokers reported a higher number of cigarettes smoked per day as compared to smokers with type B personality (p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cigarettes was associated with a significant decrease in salivary TAC. However, the personality type did not affect salivary TAC in the present study.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Fumantes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , não Fumantes , Fumar , Personalidade Tipo A
7.
Physiol Behav ; 207: 99-103, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This research aimed to analyse the psychological profile of nursing students and its relationship with the physiological anticipatory anxiety response at the earliest clinical practices; and to analyse the habituation response at the psychophysiological level of nursing students throughout their first clinical practices. METHODS: 18 students of the first year of Nursing degree were studied in their first clinical stays. Their psychophysiological stress response was evaluated throughout the analysis of the autonomic modulation and their subjective perception to stress at the beginning and at the end of the stays. In addition, an inventory of psychological test was carried out to observe its association with the psychophysiological stress response. RESULTS: The results showed that the students presented a large anticipatory anxiety response at the beginning of the stays, as well as an absence of a habituation process during the stay. It was also observed a positive relation between the loneliness perceived and the autonomic stress response. CONCLUSION: The clinical stays in the hospital performed by first year students of the nursing degree, did not produce the expected habituation response at psychophysiological level. Also, a higher perception of social isolation was significantly related with a higher objective (sympathetic modulation) and subjective (perceived stress) stress responses.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Hospitais , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Antecipação Psicológica , Ansiedade/psicologia , Educação em Enfermagem , Feminino , Habituação Psicofisiológica , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Personalidade Tipo A , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(9): e010859, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030598

RESUMO

Background Psychological factors are associated with an increased risk of developing ischemic heart disease ( IHD ). Women more often report psychological factors, and sex and gender differences are present in IHD . In this meta-analysis we examine the risks of psychological factors for IHD incidence in women and men. We hypothesize that a broad range of psychological factors are related to a higher risk for incident IHD , with a higher risk for women. Methods and Results PubMed, EMBASE , and Psyc INFO were searched for studies assessing the risk between psychological factors and incident IHD . Psychological factors included depression, anxiety or panic disorder, social support, hostility, anger, personality (type D), type A behavior pattern, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychological distress. In the primary analyses, 62 studies (77 separate reports) that included 2 145 679 women and 3 119 879 men and reported confounder-adjusted hazard ratios or relative risks were included. Pooled effect confounder-adjusted estimates from random-effects models showed that psychological factors (all combined) were associated with incident IHD in women (hazard ratio: 1.22; 95% CI , 1.14-1.30) and men (hazard ratio: 1.25; 95% CI , 1.19-1.31). No sex and gender differences were found for these pooled effect estimates ( P=0.547). Conclusions Psychological factors are associated with incident IHD in both women and men, but no significant differences were observed between women and men. IHD is predominantly being studied as obstructive coronary artery disease, which is more prevalent in men. Data are needed on psychological predictors and other manifestations of IHD such as coronary microvascular disease, which is more common in women.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Hostilidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Ira , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/psicologia , Transtorno de Pânico/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores Sexuais , Personalidade Tipo A , Personalidade Tipo D
9.
Hosp Top ; 97(1): 32-38, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714873

RESUMO

Nurse leaders must use behaviors that foster effective teams. The purpose of this study was to determine the behavioral style by 3,396 nurse leaders who attended leadership and communication continuing education courses. Sessions included identifying behavioral style preferences using the DiSC® Personal Profile Instrument. Of the four behavioral dimensions, Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Conscientiousness, 73% scored highest in Dominance and Conscientiousness. The remaining 27% scored highest in preferences for Influence and Steadiness. Nursing leaders may benefit from awareness of differences in behavioral style preferences to enhance communication and team effectiveness, as well as improve satisfaction among team members.


Assuntos
Liderança , Enfermeiras Administradoras/psicologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Humanos , Enfermeiras Administradoras/classificação , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Personalidade Tipo A , Personalidade Tipo B , Estados Unidos
10.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 116(3): e12-e26, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771552

RESUMO

We present direct and conceptual replications of the influential taxometric analysis of Type A Behavior (TAB; Strube, 1989), which reported evidence for the latent typology of the construct. Study 1, the direct replication (N = 2,373), duplicated sampling and methodological procedures of the original study, but results showed that the item indicators used in the original study lacked sufficient validity to unambiguously determine latent structure. Using improved factorial subscale indicators to further test the question, multiple taxometric procedures, in combination with parallel analyses of simulated data, failed to replicate the original typological finding. Study 2, the conceptual replication, tested the latent structure of the wider construct of TAB using the sample from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (N = 2,254), which contains responses to the three most widely used self-report measures of TAB: the Jenkins Activity Survey, Bortner scale, and Framingham scale. Factorial subscale indicators were derived from the measures and submitted to multiple taxometric procedures. Results of Study 2 converged with those of Study 1, providing clear evidence of latent dimensional structure. Overall, results suggest there is no evidence for the type in TAB. Findings imply that theoretical models of TAB, assessment practices, and data analytic procedures that assume a typology should be replaced by dimensional models, factorial subscale measures, and corresponding statistical approaches. Specific subscale measures that tap multiple Big Five trait domains, and show evidence of predictive utility, are also recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Determinação da Personalidade , Psicometria/normas , Personalidade Tipo A , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Diabetes Metab ; 45(6): 582-585, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476653

RESUMO

AIM: Type A personality has been associated with increased survival in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Systemic low-grade inflammation may play a critical role, as suggested in recent reports, although the links between the inflammatory circulating transcriptome and Type A remain unknown. This prompted our exploration of the potential associations between Type A personality and c-Fos gene expression, a candidate gene closely linked to inflammatory processes, in T1D. METHODS: Type A personality was assessed by Bortner questionnaire in patients with T1D, and two subscales - 'speed' and 'competitiveness' - were used to measure these specific dimensions of Type A. Expression of the c-Fos gene was assessed by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. RESULTS: This pilot study included 20 men with T1D. Multivariable analyses showed an independent inverse association between Type A competitiveness score and c-Fos expression, while a regression model adjusted for age, body mass index and HbA1c levels revealed a significant inverse relationship between c-Fos transcripts and Type A competitiveness (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: This strong association between Type A competitiveness and reduced c-Fos expression is in line with recent data suggesting a psychobiological influence of the Type A profile in T1D via inflammatory pathways.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Personalidade Tipo A , Adulto , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Angiopatias Diabéticas/psicologia , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/sangue
12.
Am J Med ; 132(3): 374-381.e1, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe type A behavior pattern and trait anger in patients with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) and compare them with patients with coronary heart disease and healthy controls. Type A behavior pattern and anger have been linked to coronary heart disease in previous studies. This is the first study to assess type A behavior pattern and trait anger in MINOCA patients. METHODS: One hundred MINOCA patients, consecutively recruited during 2007-2011 at 5 coronary care units in Stockholm, were matched for sex and age to 100 coronary heart disease patients and 100 healthy controls. All participants completed the Bortner Rating Scale to quantify type A behavior pattern and the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale to quantify anger 3 months after the acute event. RESULTS: MINOCA patients' Bortner Rating Scale score was 70.9 ± 10.8 (mean ± SD) and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale score was 14 (12-17) (median; interquartile range). Coronary heart disease patients' Bortner Rating Scale score was 70.5 ± 10.2 and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale score was 14 (12-17). Healthy controls' Bortner Rating Scale score was 71.9 ± 9.1 and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale score was 13 (11-16). CONCLUSION: We found no significant differences in Bortner Rating Scale score and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale score among MINOCA, coronary heart disease patients, and healthy controls, regardless of whether total scores, subscales, or cutoffs were used to classify type A behavior pattern and trait anger. However, we cannot exclude the existence of an occasional episode of anger or mental stress in relation to the coronary event. This is the first study to assess type A behavior pattern and trait anger in patients with MINOCA, and future studies need to confirm the current findings before any firm conclusions can be made.


Assuntos
Ira , Doença das Coronárias/psicologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/psicologia , Personalidade , Personalidade Tipo A , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Angiografia Coronária , Oclusão Coronária , Estenose Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 24: 3832-3839, 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Stress and psychological factors can induce dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to assess selected elements of the clinical presentation of COPD in the context of the severity of type A pattern of behavior, impulsiveness, and tendency for empathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 179 men with COPD and the control group consisted of 31 healthy male smokers. In all patients, the number of infectious exacerbations over the past year, the result on the dyspnea scale (MRC), and the FEV1-to- predicted FEV1 ratio was assessed. The A pattern of behavior was measured using the Type A scale. To measure impulsivity, risk propensity, and empathy, the IVE impulsivity questionnaire was used. RESULTS An increase in the number of infectious exacerbations was associated with an increased score on the Type A scale, an increase in risk propensity, and a decrease in impulsivity score. Increased severity of dyspnea was associated with an increase in Type A behavior pattern score and an increase in the risk propensity score. CONCLUSIONS Type A behavior pattern and risk propensity are independent predictors of the number of infections in the last year and of the subjective severity of dyspnea among men with COPD and healthy male smokers.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dispneia/complicações , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Personalidade Tipo A
14.
Cancer Med ; 7(2): 515-524, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277970

RESUMO

The potential benefit of breast cancer screening is mitigated by the risk of false positives and overdiagnosis, thus advocating for a more personalized approach, based on the individual benefit-harm balance. Since personality might influence the women's appraisal of this balance, this prospective observational cohort study examined whether it could influence mammography use. A total of 2691 postmenopausal women of the GAZEL Cohort Study completed the Bortner Type A Rating Scale and the Buss and Durkee Hostility Inventory in 1993. Associations between personality scores and subsequent mammography use, self-reported through up to five triennial follow-up questionnaires, were estimated with Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) with logistic mixed model regressions, adjusting for age, occupational grade, marital status, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, age at first delivery, gynecological follow-up, hormone therapy use, and depressive symptoms. Individual propensity scores were used to weight the analyses to control for potential selection biases. More than 90% of the participants completed at least two follow-up questionnaires. Type A personality, but not hostility, was associated with mammography use in both univariate (crude OR [95% CI]: 1.62 [1.24-2.11], P < 0.001) and multivariate analyses (OR [95% CI]: 1.46 [1.13-1.90], P < 0.01). Type A personality traits (i.e., sense of time urgency, high job involvement, competitiveness) independently predicted mammography use among postmenopausal women. While paying more attention to the adherence of women with low levels of these traits, clinicians may help those with higher levels to better consider the risks of false positives and overdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Personalidade Tipo A , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França , Humanos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Psychol Health Med ; 23(2): 216-223, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28635311

RESUMO

Personality traits are associated with major adverse coronary events (MACE) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the link between personality traits and intravascular morphology in CAD patients is poorly understood. This study investigated the relationship between personality traits, specifically Type A behavior pattern and Type D personality, and plaque vulnerability. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, multivariable regression analysis showed no association between Type A and optical coherence tomography indices. However, Type D personality was independently associated with lipid plaque, thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), and fibrous cap thickness. More specifically, negative affectivity of Type D was related to lipid plaque, TCFA and fibrous cap thickness, and social inhibition was associated with plaque rupture. Our results show that Type D personality was associated with plaque vulnerability, independent of clinical factors. Measurement of negative affectivity and social inhibition will increase our understanding of the progressive phase of the plaque vulnerability, which can contribute to the early identification of high risk patients and reduce the incidence of MACE.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Placa Aterosclerótica , Personalidade Tipo A , Personalidade Tipo D , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0189793, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253004

RESUMO

The present study examined the types of situations that caused Chinese professional and non-professional drivers to become angry and investigated the differences in driving-elicited anger, considering the influences of type A behavior pattern and trait anger between the two groups. The 20-item revised Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to assess a sample of 232 drivers (57% professional, 43% non-professional). The non-professional drivers reported significantly higher levels of anger than the professional drivers on the overall Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the traffic obstructions and discourtesy subscales. In both groups, the preferred driving speeds were positively related to driving anger. Furthermore, drivers with a type A personality exhibited higher overall driving anger scores and higher anger scores in response to traffic obstructions and slow driving than drivers with a type B personality. Trait anger was significantly related to driving anger in both groups. In the non-professional group, type A behavior patterns (TABPs) and time hurry (TH) were positively correlated with anger evoked by slow driving. In the professional group, TABPs, TH and competitive hostility (CH) were positively related to driving anger, and the TABPs exerted an indirect effect on driving anger by mediating the influence of trait anger. Overall, these findings provide a theoretical basis for implementing targeted interventions for driving anger in both professional and non-professional drivers.


Assuntos
Ira , Condução de Veículo , Personalidade Tipo A , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adulto , Agressão , China , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Análise de Regressão , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 32(9): 1423-1430, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28776336

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional labor and burnout, and whether the levels of self-efficacy and type A personality characteristics increase the risk of burnout in a sample of Korean female dental hygienists. Participants were 807 female dental hygienists with experience in performing customer service for one year or more in dental clinics, dental hospitals, or general hospitals in Korea. Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the effects of emotional labor on burnout, and to elucidate the additive effects of self-efficacy and type A personality on burnout. The results showed that "overload and conflict in customer service," "emotional disharmony and hurt," and "lack of a supportive and protective system in the organization" were positively associated with burnout. With reference to the relationship between personality traits and burnout, we found that personal traits such as self-efficacy and type A personality were significantly related to burnout, which confirmed the additive effects of self-efficacy and type A personality on burnout. These results indicate that engaging in excessive and prolonged emotional work in customer service roles is more likely to increase burnout. Additionally, an insufficient organizational supportive and protective system toward the negative consequences of emotional labor was found to accelerate burnout. The present findings also revealed that personality traits such as self-efficacy and type A personality are also important in understanding the relationship between emotional labor and burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Higienistas Dentários/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Personalidade Tipo A , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Atherosclerosis ; 262: 19-24, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28478195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Type A behavior pattern (TABP) is a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, existing evidence is conflicting, also because studies did not examine underlying traits separately. In this study, we investigated whether all-cause and CVD mortality were associated with the Bortner Scale, a measure of TABP, in particular with its subscales competitiveness and speed. METHODS: Information on Bortner Scale and covariates of 9921 participants was collected at baseline in two cross-sectional studies that were linked with mortality information, yielding a follow-up of up to 37 years. We analyzed the Bortner Scale and its two subscales competitiveness and speed. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, CVD, and specific CVD type mortality. RESULTS: During follow-up, 3469 deaths were observed (1118 CVD deaths). The total Bortner Scale was not associated with mortality, only its subscales. In women, competitiveness was positively associated with all-cause mortality (highest category vs. the lowest, HR 1.25 [95% CI 1.08,1.44]), CVD mortality (1.39 [1.07,1.81]), and ischemic heart disease mortality (intermediate category vs. the lowest, 1.46 [1.02,2.10]). In men, CVD mortality was inversely associated with speed (highest category vs. the lowest, 0.74 [0.59,0.93]). CONCLUSIONS: The subscales of the Bortner Scale may be associated with CVD in an opposed manner and may therefore have to be analyzed separately. More studies are needed to further investigate this association, also considering differences by sex. Persons scoring high in the competitiveness subscale ought to be screened and counselled in order to reduce their CVD risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Comportamento Competitivo , Personalidade Tipo A , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 33(8): 625-628, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28347200

RESUMO

Pregnancy is frequently followed by the development of obesity. Aside from psychological factors, hormonal changes influence weight gain in pregnant women. We attempted to assess the potential association between personality type and the extent of gestational weight gain. The study group involved 773 women after term delivery (age 26.3 ± 3.9 years, body mass before pregnancy 61.2 ± 11.1 kg). Weight gain during pregnancy was calculated by using self-reported body mass prior to and during the 38th week of pregnancy. Personality type was assessed using the Polish version of the Framingham Type A Behavior Patterns Questionnaire (adapted by Juczynski). Two hundred forty-six (31.8%) study subjects represented type A personalities, 272 (35.2%) type B and 255 (33.0%) an indirect type. Gestational weight gain was related to the behavior patterns questionnaire score and age. In women <30 years with type A personality, the weight gain was higher than in women with type B behavior of the same age. In women >30, the gestational weight gain was larger for type B personalities. Type A personality and increased urgency in younger pregnant women increases the risk of developing obesity during pregnancy in women below 30 years old. A higher level of competitiveness demonstrates a risk factor of excessive weight gain during pregnancy regardless of age.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Materno , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Personalidade Tipo A , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Materno/etnologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Determinação da Personalidade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Personalidade Tipo B , Ganho de Peso/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Behav Med ; 24(4): 593-601, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28127708

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Type A personality, characterized by action-oriented tendencies, has been linked to cardiovascular disease in middle-aged and elderly adults. Alternatively, limited research has tested whether personality type A/B and cardiovascular (CVD) risk are linked prior to adulthood. Therefore, we used the Hunter-Wolf A/B personality score to determine whether personality type A/B is associated with traditional CVD risk factors during adolescence, and more importantly if personality type, or its individual type A components, are associated with cardiovascular risk through young adulthood. This study is the first to assess personality type A/B on a continuous spectrum with regard to its relationship with cardiovascular disease risk, as well as the first to examine this association in a biracial, adolescent population. METHODS: Subjects (3396) from the Bogalusa Heart Study were surveyed from 1984 to 1986, and multivariable regression was used to test adjusted, cross-sectional associations between personality type A/B, as determined by Hunter-Wolf A/B personality questionnaire, and CVD risk factors during adolescence. To test whether associations existed longitudinally, subjects were followed through 2007, and general estimating equation (GEE) models were used to examine the associations of personality type A/B with CVD risk factors, as well as with Framingham risk score as a global score of CVD risk. The component traits of type A personality (leadership, hard-driving, eagerness-energy, and impatience-aggression) were tested individually to determine their independent, longitudinal associations with global CVD risk. RESULTS: Baseline mean (SD) age was 15.9(5.2). Mean( SD) Hunter-Wolf score in was 96.9 (11.6). After adjustment, more type A Hunter-Wolf scores were cross-sectionally associated with lower alcohol consumption (p = 0.03), female gender (p < 0.0001), and black race (p < 0.0001) in adolescence. After follow-up (median = 11 years), personality type A/B as the continuous Hunter-Wolf score was non-linearly associated with young adult BMI (p = 0.01), fasting blood glucose (p < 0.01), and Framingham score (p = 0.05). Of the type A components, leadership and hard-driving were non-linearly associated with Framingham risk at follow-up (both p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent personality type A is associated with female gender and black race. Generally, type A children have higher CVD risk during young adulthood, though this relationship is non-linear. Additionally, adolescents exhibiting strong leadership-oriented personality traits have worse cardiovascular risk profiles in early adulthood, whereas hard-driving adolescent personalities are protective of young adult CVD risk. Our results warrant consideration of personality as a continuous, non-categorical, trait in studies of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Personalidade Tipo A , Personalidade Tipo B , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...