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1.
J Med Ethics ; 49(2): 146-147, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693707

RESUMO

Perry Hendricks' 'impairment argument', which he has defended in this journal, is intended to demonstrate that the generally conceded wrongness of giving a fetus fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) shows that abortion must also be immoral, even if we allow that the fetus is not a rights-bearing moral person. The argument fails because the harm of causing FAS is extrinsic but Hendricks needs it to be intrinsic for it to show anything about abortion. Either the subject of the wrong of causing FAS is a person who does not exist in the case of abortion or the wrong is negligible.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Gravidez , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Valor da Vida , Princípios Morais , Feto , Pessoalidade
2.
Nurs Philos ; 23(1): e12373, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623018

RESUMO

The concept of person-centeredness has become in many instances the standard of health care that humanises services and ensures that the patient/client is at the centre of care delivery. Rejecting a purely biomedical explanation of dementia that led to a loss of self, personhood in dementia could be maintained through social interaction and communication. In this article, we use the insights of queer theory to contribute to our current understanding of the care of those with dementia. We critically discuss the concepts of person and personhood that have become the cornerstone values of person-centred care for persons with dementia (PWD). Some critics, using queer theory as a theoretical approach, contend that person-centred care often (unwittingly) reproduces heteronormative roles in trying to sustain life histories. In doing so, they argue, regendering of PWD is sometimes enforced by care providers who try to safeguard this biographical continuity. Cultural theorist Linn Sandberg also mentions that other axes of domination such as race and class are not conceptualised in person-centeredness approaches, and neither are power asymmetries. Thus, in our article, we revisit the concept of person-centred care as a first step in proposing another way to think about 'beings with dementia' (to avoid the term person). Believing that queer theorists have fallen short in questioning the idea of person or personhood as such, we will build on and broaden Sandberg's critique by demonstrating that queer and crip theory can be understood as a fundamental critique of the (Western) subject and processes of subjectivation. We argue that dementia can be conceptualised as a radical break not only with gendered roles and embodiments, but with many of the norms that make us recognisable subjects. Conceptualising dementia in this way turns it into what Sandberg called an 'emancipatory space' and not merely a pathology.


Assuntos
Demência , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Pessoalidade
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(12): e062579, 2022 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526316

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The concept of personhood is particularly important in person-centred dementia care because its overall aim is to maintain the personhood of people living with dementia despite disease progression. In a previous review on autonomy for people with dementia, two different underlying concepts of personhood were identified: a rationalistic and a social constructionist concept of personhood. The present integrative review aims to (1) identify existing theoretical approaches in person-centred dementia care, (2) describe the constitutive components for these theoretical approaches, (3) report the goals and/or outcomes to be achieved by person-centred care for people living with dementia and (4) identify the underlying concepts of personhood. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: For our integrative review the search terms were derived from the research questions and clustered according to the 'PICo' (Population, Interest, Context) framework. A systematic literature search for theoretical approaches of 'person-centred dementia care' will be performed on MEDLINE (via PubMed), CINAHL (via EBSCO) and PsycINFO (via EBSCO). The title/abstract and full-text screening will be performed independently by two researchers according to the inclusion criteria. The data analysis procedure will have two steps: (1) identification and extraction of general information (e.g., type of publication and name of theoretical approaches described) and (2) a qualitative content analysis to analyse the components, goals, outcomes and understanding of the respective underlying conceptions of personhood within the theoretical approaches. The extraction of general information (e.g., authors) will be performed by one researcher and qualitative content analysis will be performed independently by two researchers using MAXQDA software. Any disagreements will be resolved through discussion between the two researchers or, if no consensus can be reached, with all coauthors. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Due to the nature of a review, ethical approval is not required. We will disseminate our results in peer-reviewed journals and at (inter)national conferences.


Assuntos
Demência , Humanos , Demência/terapia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Pessoalidade
4.
Med (N Y) ; 3(12): 820-823, 2022 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495862

RESUMO

Stem cells are increasingly being used to model human development and disease in the form of self-organizing embryo models, brain organoids, and neurological chimeras. These new research directions are resurrecting old embryo debates around moral status and personhood. Hyun considers how these old questions are tackled in these new contexts.


Assuntos
Início da Vida Humana , Pesquisas com Embriões , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Pessoalidade , Células-Tronco
6.
J Med Ethics ; 48(12): 974, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347602
8.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (56): 107-124, Nov. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-210240

RESUMO

El autor vuelve a insistir, a propósito de una reciente sentencia del Tribunal Supremo español, en tres tesis sobre la gestación por sustitución que ya había defendido en otras ocasiones: no se trata de una práctica prohibida en nuestro Derecho (la nulidad no es lo mismo que la ilicitud); no atenta, en sí misma considerada, contra la dignidad humana, de la mujer gestante o del niño; y su regulación no tiene por qué exigir la gratuidad por parte de la mujer gestante, si bien la remuneración que esta pudiera recibir no debe quedar librada a las leyes del mercado.(AU)


L'autor torna a insistir, a propòsit d'una recent sentència del TribunalSuprem espanyol, en tres tesis sobre la gestació per substitució que ja havia defensat en altres ocasions: no es tracta d'una pràctica prohibida en el nostre Dret (la nul·litat no és el mateix que la il·licitud); no atempta, en si mateixa considerada, contra la dignitat humana, de la dona gestant o del nen; i la seva regulació no té per què exigir la gratuïtat per part de la dona gestant, si bé la remuneració que aquesta pogués rebre no ha de quedar lliurada a les lleis del mercat.(AU)


The author insists, with regard to a recent Spanish Supreme Court ruling, on three theses on surrogacy that he has already defended: it is not a practice prohibited in our law (nullity is not the same as illegality); it is not, in itself considered, against the human dignity of the pregnant woman or the child; and its regulation does not necessarily have to require the pregnant woman to do it for free, although the remuneration that she may receive should not be left to the laws of the market.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Gravidez , Jurisprudência , Pessoalidade , Técnicas Reprodutivas , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Mães Substitutas , Bioética , Direitos Humanos , Ética , Espanha , Princípios Morais
9.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (56): 145-161, Nov. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-210241

RESUMO

Las corrientes intelectuales e ideológicas posthumanistasabogan por la superación de diferentes límites biológicos de la especie humana. La ruptura incluye los asuntos reproductivos, como estrategias para la supervivencia y como cuidado de una dignidad posthumana. En este trabajo, quiero esbozar cuestiones del trans y posthumanismo reproductivo interesado en la gestación subrogada (GS) en sus diferentes modalidades. La GS es relevante para reconducir la reproducción siguiendo criterios promotores de la elección individual. Comienzo subrayando la herencia liberalen el movimiento por la mejora humana y la elección procreativa. Después, sugiero que el posthumanismo reproductivo se apoya en los estudios de género y en la permisividad del comercio sexual para redefinir la GS como probable reproducción posthumana. Así, los objetivos del posthumanismo reproductivo ambicionan una agenda distinta a la feminista. Las perspectivas posthumanas y feministas proponen horizontes de justicia reproductiva que deberán criticarse en contexto antes de que los estados-nación procedancon reformas.(AU)


Els corrents intel·lectuals i ideològics posthumanistes advoquen per la superació de diferents límits biològics de l'espècie humana. La ruptura inclou els assumptes reproductius, com a estratègies per a la supervivència i com a cura d'una dignitat posthumana. En aquest treball, vull esbossar qüestions del trans i posthumanisme reproductiu interessat en la gestació subrogada (GS) en les diferents modalitats. La GS és rellevant per reconduir la reproducció seguint criteris promotors de lelecció individual. Començo subratllant l'herència liberal en el moviment per la millora humana i l'elecció procreativa. Després, suggereixo que el posthumanisme reproductiu es recolza en els estudis de gènere i en la permissivitat del comerç sexual per redefinir la GS com a probable reproducció posthumana. Així, els objectius del posthumanisme reproductiu ambicionen una agenda diferent de la feminista. Les perspectives posthumanes i feministes proposen horitzons de justícia reproductiva que s'hauran de criticar en context abans que els estats nació procedeixin amb reformes.(AU)


Posthumanist intellectual and ideological currents advocate the overcoming of several biological limits of humankind. The rupture includes reproductive issues to care for posthuman dignity. In this work, I want to outline questions of trans and reproductive posthumanism interested in surrogacy in its different modalities. Gestational surrogacy is relevant to redirect reproduction following criteria that enhance individual choice. I begin by underliningthe liberal heritage in the social movement for human enhancement and procreative choice. Next, I suggest that surrogacy could be considered as likely posthuman reproduction by drawing on gender studies and the permissiveness of commercial sex. Thus, the reproductive posthumanist goals envision an agenda different from the feminist one. Posthuman and feminist perspectives propose horizons of reproductive justice that will need to be critiqued in context before nation-states proceed with reforms.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Sobrevivência , Pessoalidade , Técnicas Reprodutivas , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Pais , Mães Substitutas , Família , Reprodução , Humanismo , Bioética , Temas Bioéticos , Direitos Humanos , Poder Familiar , Espanha , Feminismo , Gravidez
10.
New Bioeth ; 28(4): 315-326, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121890

RESUMO

Many people believe the morality of abortion stands or falls on the moral status of the fetus, with abortion opponents arguing fetuses are persons with a right to life. Judith Jarvis Thomson bypasses this debate, arguing that even if we assume fetuses have a right to life, this is not a right to use other people's bodies. Recently Perry Hendricks attempts to bypass discussion of rights, assuming that if he can show that some people have a right to use other's bodies, then we ought to restrict abortion (and perhaps compel organ donation, charity, etc.). Hendricks attempts to illustrate this by way of a Feinberg-style cabin case. I argue Hendricks' restrictivist argument fails.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Gravidez , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Valor da Vida , Dissidências e Disputas , Feto , Pessoalidade
11.
J Aging Stud ; 62: 101040, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008023

RESUMO

Personhood is a complex concept in gerontological research. It is often used to explore the maintenance or reconstruction of self-identity. Narrative analysis has commonly explored how the stories that older individuals living with cognitive impairment(s) produce preserve the personhood that is perceived to be threatened by cognitive decline. This article moves beyond this exploration by focusing on the experiences of aging more generally to better understand how non-cognitively impaired older adults construct personhood through narrative writing. This article uses thematic narrative analysis and argues that older adults articulate personhood through written narratives by creating coherent constructions of self. Importantly, it demonstrates that older adults are concerned with maintaining a sense of self rather than embracing changed aspects of identity in accordance with popularized conceptualizations of personhood as well as ideals of coherence and consistency promoted in successful and active aging discourses.


Assuntos
Geriatria , Pessoalidade , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Humanos , Narração , Redação
13.
Perspect Biol Med ; 65(2): 171-178, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938424

RESUMO

This article uses multiple interwoven personal narratives to explicate the relationships among several concepts crucial to bioethics brought into focus by Robert Perske's 1972 article on "The Dignity of Risk," including dignity, risk, paradox, disability, autonomy, uncertainty, diagnosis, and prognosis. The use of personal narrative as a form of evidence and a knowledge-making method allows for the exploration of the meaning-making work of language and story and the introduction of humanities and social science concepts such as stigma management and dignity maintenance into Perske's concept of the dignity of risk. The personal narratives the article draws include Mark, a character in Perske's article; W. E. B. Du Bois; Frantz Fanon; and myself. Finally, the article calls for humility in medical science's predictive narratives for all patients, but particularly for people with disabilities.


Assuntos
Bioética , Pessoalidade , Humanos , Respeito
14.
Perspect Biol Med ; 65(2): 242-251, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938432

RESUMO

Managing risk is a necessary component of living a full moral life. Evaluating which risks are acceptable, for what reasons, in what conditions, and then taking actions based on those evaluations, are exercises of moral agency-of intentionally actualizing values that shape an embodied personhood. Health-care institutions in the United States are risk averse, designed to manage risk in ways that can impede the full exercise of patients' moral agency. Home hospice care, conceived as an alternative to institutionally based end-of-life care and driven explicitly by patient goals and values, would seem to be an environment in which patients are empowered to express the full spectrum of their personhood-including making decisions about risk consistent with their values. While home hospice patients have more discretion over risk than patients receiving care in institutions like hospitals and nursing homes, efforts to limit that discretion abound. Such limits can be experienced by patients as failures to recognize their dignity as persons, even while those limits are perceived by others as necessary to preserve that very dignity by keeping them safe. This article uses a running case study to reconceptualize "risk" in home hospice care by (1) challenging the clinical assumption that physical harm is the most important lens through which to view risk, and (2) presenting and applying the concept of positive risk-taking as one way to develop the concept and assessment of risk more fully.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pessoalidade , Respeito , Estados Unidos
16.
Am J Bioeth ; 22(9): 37-39, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040892
17.
BMC Palliat Care ; 21(1): 118, 2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A socioculturally appropriate appreciation of dignity is pivotal to the effective provision of care for dying patients. Yet concepts of dignity remain poorly defined. To address this gap in understanding and enhance dignity conserving end-of-life care, a review of current concepts of dignity is proposed. METHODS: To address its primary research question "How do patients conceive the concept of dignity at the end of life?", this review appraises regnant concepts and influences of dignity, and evaluates current dignity conserving practices. To enhance accountability, transparency and reproducibility, this review employs the Ring Theory of Personhood (RToP) as its theoretical lens to guide a Systematic Evidence Based Approach guided Systematic Scoping Review (SSR in SEBA) of patient perspectives of dignity. Three independent teams of reviewers independently analysed included articles from a structured search of PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, CINAHL and Cochrane Databases using thematic and content analyses. The themes and categories identified were compared and combined using the Funnelling Process to create domains that guide the discussion that follows. RESULTS: Seventy-eight thousand five hundred seventy-five abstracts were identified, 645 articles were reviewed, and 127 articles were included. The three domains identified were definitions of dignity, influences upon perceptions of dignity, and dignity conserving care. CONCLUSIONS: This SSR in SEBA affirms the notion that dignity is intimately entwined with self-concepts of personhood and that effective dignity conserving measures at the end of life must be guided by the patient's concept of dignity. This SSR in SEBA posits that such personalised culturally sensitive, and timely support of patients, their family and loved ones may be possible through the early and longitudinal application of a RToP based tool.


Assuntos
Respeito , Assistência Terminal , Morte , Humanos , Pessoalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Lancet ; 400(10348): 266-267, 2022 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35871807
19.
AMA J Ethics ; 24(7): E622-633, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838391

RESUMO

This article considers ethical questions raised during development of an online art exhibit for and with people with dementia and their care partners. This article also describes a participant engagement process emphasizing patient autonomy as a means of dismantling stigma, promoting personhood, and stimulating community engagement. This co-creative project suggests the potential for patients' art to spark attitude change and promote reciprocal, regenerative care practices.


Assuntos
Demência , Demência/terapia , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Pessoalidade
20.
J Law Med ; 29(2): 489-508, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819388

RESUMO

This article explores the intersex experience in Australian law and society through the lens of hermeneutical (in)justice - a form of injustice in knowing that prevents a person from making sense of their own lived experience due to a lacuna in social understanding. It makes an original contribution to legal scholarship first by tracking the advances towards understanding reflected in recent legal and social reform; second by highlighting the shortcomings of these advances; and third by examining new questions and possibilities for moving forward, including through the deliberate creation of a stronger sense of shared identity between different intersex community sub-groups.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência , Pessoalidade , Austrália , Humanos , Justiça Social
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