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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 38, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593340

RESUMO

Robustness can refer to an animal's ability to overcome perturbations. Intense selection for production traits in livestock has resulted in reduced robustness which has negative implications for livability as well as production. There is increasing emphasis on improving robustness through poultry breeding, which may involve identifying novel phenotypes that could be used in selection strategies. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and associated hormones (e.g., corticosterone) participate in many metabolic processes that are related to robustness. Corticosterone can be measured non-invasively in feathers (FCORT) and reflects the average HPA axis activity over the feather growing period, however measurement is expensive and time consuming. Fault bars are visible feather deformities that may be related to HPA axis activity and may be a more feasible indicator trait. In this study, we estimated variance components for FCORT and fault bars in a population of purebred turkeys as well as their genetic and partial phenotypic correlations with other economically relevant traits including growth and efficiency, carcass yield, and meat quality. The estimated heritability for FCORT was 0.21 ± 0.07 and for the fault bar traits (presence, incidence, severity, and index) estimates ranged from 0.09 to 0.24. The genetic correlation of FCORT with breast weight, breast meat yield, fillet weight, and ultimate pH were estimated at -0.34 ± 0.21, -0.45 ± 0.23, -0.33 ± 0.24, and 0.32 ± 0.24, respectively. The phenotypic correlations of FCORT with breast weight, breast meat yield, fillet weight, drum weight, and walking ability were -0.16, -0.23, -0.18, 0.17, and 0.21, respectively. Some fault bar traits showed similar genetic correlations with breast weight, breast meat yield, and walking ability but the magnitude was lower than those with FCORT. While the dataset is limited and results should be interpreted with caution, this study indicates that selection for traits related to HPA axis activity is possible in domestic turkeys. Further research should focus on investigating the association of these traits with other robustness-related traits and how to potentially implement these traits in turkey breeding.


Assuntos
Plumas , Perus , Animais , Perus/genética , Corticosterona , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Fenótipo
2.
Poult Sci ; 102(1): 102311, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495620

RESUMO

The domestic turkey is a native breed in danger of extinction due to the introduction of new breeds specializing in meat production and yield. Turkeys have lost some prominence in urban areas, and only certain breeds of turkeys are preserved in rural areas. Wild and domestic turkeys are different; rural or indigenous turkeys, with black plumage, were domesticated from Mexican turkeys and have been reproduced throughout Latin America. Some of them were taken to Europe in the 16th century and later arrived in North America, where they crossed with another wild species, from which the bronze turkey emerged: the ancestor of all commercial turkeys. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the genetic diversity in 10 populations of domestic turkeys worldwide by using breeds from Europe: Spain and Italy; America: Mexico, United States and Brazil; and the Near East: Iran and Egypt. A total of 522 blood samples of both sexes were collected from domestic turkey populations. Thirty-four microsatellites were used to obtain genetic parameters, and genetic diversity was evaluated. All microsatellites used were polymorphic, and a total of 427 alleles were detected across the 34 markers investigated. In this study, a mean number of 13.44 alleles was found. The four most diverse breeds were from the Andalusia, Mexico, United States, and wild populations, which had the highest mean heterozygosity expected (0.619, 0.612, 0.650, and 0.773) and heterozygosity observed (0.422, 0.521, 0.429, and 0.627), respectively. The MNT348 marker deviated from the HWE in all populations. Our study has shown that the populations close to the species origin are more diverse than those resulting from posterior expansions. Mexican birds were the most diverse, followed by the Spanish populations because Spain imported a large number of turkeys coming from America. Such information can be complementary to other genotypic data required to validate the evolutionary relationships among turkey populations.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Perus , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Perus/genética , Galinhas/genética , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Codorniz/genética
3.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 34(6): 955-959, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184922

RESUMO

Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) is a member of the Avian coronavirus species with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), which is considered to be the source of TCoV. These 2 viruses are highly similar in all regions of their genomes, except for the spike gene, which is necessary for virus attachment. Although TCoV causes severe enteric disease in turkey poults, it does not cause clinical disease in chickens. However, considering that TCoV can infect chickens, it is important to distinguish TCoV from IBV in chickens. This is particularly true for chickens that are housed near turkeys and thus might be infected with TCoV and serve as a silent source of TCoV for turkeys. We developed and validated a real-time PCR assay to detect the spike gene of TCoV and sequenced a portion of this gene to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of TCoV infections associated with a commercial turkey premises in the United States in 2020-2021. We identified natural infections of TCoV in chickens, and based on the molecular epidemiology of the viruses detected, these chickens may have served as a source of infection for the commercial turkey premises located nearby.


Assuntos
Coronavirus do Peru , Enterite Transmissível dos Perus , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Coronavirus do Peru/genética , Perus/genética , Enterite Transmissível dos Perus/epidemiologia , Galinhas , Epidemiologia Molecular , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
4.
Poult Sci ; 101(12): 102195, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257075

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of the Arginine/Lysine (Arg/Lys) ratio in low- and high-methionine (Met) diets on the sarcoplasmic protein profile of breast muscles from turkeys reared under optimal or challenge (Clostridium perfringens infection) conditions were determined. One-day-old Hybrid Converter female turkey poults (216 in total) obtained from a commercial hatchery on hatching day, and on the basis of their average initial body weight were randomly allocated to 12 pens (4 m2 each; 2.0 m × 2.0 m) containing litter bedding and were reared over a 42-day experimental period. Diets with high levels of Lys contained approximately 1.80% and 1.65% Lys and were offered in two successive feeding periods (days 1-28 and days 29-42). The supplemental levels of Lys were consistent with the nutritional specifications for birds at their respective ages as established in the Management Guidelines for Raising Commercial Turkeys. The experiment was based on a completely randomized 3 × 2 × 2 factorial design with three levels of Arg (90%, 100% and 110%) relative to the content of dietary Met (30 or 45%) and without (-) or with (+) C. perfringens challenge at 34, 36, or 37 d of age. Meat samples were investigated in terms of pH, color, and sarcoplasmic protein profile. The experimental factors did not influence meat quality but the dietary Arg content affected meat color. The sarcoplasmic protein profile was influenced by all studied factors, and glycolytic enzymes were the most abundant. This study evidenced strong association between the challenge conditions and the involvement of glycolytic enzymes in cell metabolism, particularly in inflammatory processes, and DNA replication and maintenance in turkeys. The results showed an effect of C. perfringens infection and feeding with different doses of Arg and Met may lead to significant consequences in cell metabolism.


Assuntos
Clostridium perfringens , Perus , Animais , Feminino , Perus/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Aminoácidos , Lisina/metabolismo , Arginina/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Metionina/farmacologia , Metionina/metabolismo , Músculos Peitorais/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária
5.
Avian Dis ; 66(3): 1-7, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36214406

RESUMO

Infections with Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale are causing respiratory diseases that require antibiotic treatment in poultry worldwide. In the field, this agent is known to often be resistant to many antimicrobials, complicating therapeutic interventions. Therefore, there is a clear need to monitor trends in resistance development. In the present study, antibiotic resistance profiles of 64 O. rhinotracheale strains isolated from diseased turkeys from 2002 to 2021 were investigated against 19 antimicrobial substances by the microdilution method. Susceptibility toward chloramphenicol, carbapenem, and sulfamethozaxole combination was found for all strains. Most isolates were also susceptible to penicillins (98%-100%), with the exception of oxacillin, cephalosporins (84%-100%), tetracycline (89%), and tylosin (88%). In the case of quinolones, 89% of isolates showed intermediate resistance to enrofloxacin, whereas 90% showed full resistance to nalidixic acid. Full resistance to the tested aminoglycosides and colistin was revealed for all strains. Eighteen different AMR profiles were elucidated; more than half of the isolates (53%) shared the same AMR profile. Similar susceptibility profiles of O. rhinotracheale isolates were found on the different farms, proving some stability over the years. All isolates were classified as multidrug resistant. Multiple outbreaks within a flock or in successive flocks within a farm comprised 46 O. rhinotracheale isolates. Here, occasional changes in susceptibility for some antimicrobial substances were observed. In general, most of the changes occurred in quinolones, followed by tetracycline switching mainly from intermediate resistance to full resistance and vice versa. The present surveillance provides actual data on effective antibiotic treatments in case of disease outbreaks and contributes to the One Health concept acknowledging the important link between animal and human health.


Los Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale aislados de pavos durante un período de 20 años albergan perfiles similares de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos y resistencia a múltiples fármacos. Las infecciones por Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale están causando enfermedades respiratorias que requieren tratamiento antibiótico en la avicultura en todo el mundo. En el campo, se sabe que este agente a menudo es resistente a muchos antimicrobianos, lo que complica las intervenciones terapéuticas. Por lo tanto, existe una clara necesidad de monitorear las tendencias en el desarrollo de resistencia. En el presente estudio, se investigaron los perfiles de resistencia a antibióticos de 64 cepas de O. rhinotracheale aisladas de pavos enfermos entre 2002 y 2021 frente a 19 sustancias antimicrobianas mediante el método de microdilución. Se encontró susceptibilidad a la combinación de cloranfenicol, carbapenem y sulfametozaxol para todas las cepas. La mayoría de los aislamientos también fueron susceptibles a las penicilinas (98 %­100 %), con la excepción de oxacilina, cefalosporinas (84 %­100 %), tetraciclina (89 %) y tilosina (88 %). En el caso de las quinolonas, el 89% de los aislados resultaron con susceptibilidad intermedia a la enrofloxacina, mientras que el 90% fueron resistentes al ácido nalidíxico. Todas las cepas revelaron resistencia a los aminoglucósidos y a la colistina probados. Se dilucidaron dieciocho perfiles diferentes de resistencia antimicrobiana; más de la mitad de los aislamientos (53%) compartían el mismo perfil antimicrobiano. Se encontraron perfiles de susceptibilidad similares de aislamientos de O. rhinotracheale en las diferentes granjas, lo que demuestra cierta estabilidad a lo largo de los años. Todos los aislamientos fueron clasificados como resistentes a múltiples fármacos. Los brotes múltiples dentro de una parvada o en parvadas sucesivas dentro de una granja comprendieron 46 aislamientos de O. rhinotracheale. Aquí, se observaron cambios ocasionales en la susceptibilidad a algunas sustancias antimicrobianas. En general, la mayoría de los cambios ocurrieron en las quinolonas, seguido por el cambio de tetraciclina principalmente de resistencia intermedia a resistente y viceversa. La vigilancia actual proporciona datos reales sobre tratamientos antibióticos efectivos en caso de brotes de enfermedades y contribuye al concepto de Una Salud que reconoce el vínculo importante entre la salud humana y animal.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae , Ornithobacterium , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Cloranfenicol/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Enrofloxacina/farmacologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Ácido Nalidíxico/farmacologia , Oxacilina/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia , Perus/microbiologia , Tilosina/farmacologia
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292741

RESUMO

Early muscle development involves the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells (satellite cells, SCs) in the mesoderm to form multinucleated myotubes that mature into muscle fibers and fiber bundles. Proliferation of SCs increases the number of cells available for muscle formation while simultaneously maintaining a population of cells for future response. Differentiation dramatically changes properties of the SCs and environmental stressors can have long lasting effects on muscle growth and physiology. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey SCs undergoing differentiation under thermal challenge. Satellite cells from the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle of 1-wk old commercial fast-growing birds (Nicholas turkey, NCT) and from a slower-growing research line (Randombred Control Line 2, RBC2) were proliferated for 72 h at 38 °C and then differentiated for 48 h at 33 °C (cold), 43 °C (hot) or 38 °C (control). Gene expression among thermal treatments and between turkey lines was examined by RNAseq to detect significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Cold treatment resulted in significant gene expression changes in the SCs from both turkey lines, with the primary effect being down regulation of the DEGs with overrepresentation of genes involved in regulation of skeletal muscle tissue regeneration and sarcomere organization. Heat stress increased expression of genes reported to regulate myoblast differentiation and survival and to promote cell adhesion particularly in the NCT line. Results suggest that growth selection in turkeys has altered the developmental potential of SCs in commercial birds to increase hypertrophic potential of the p. major muscle and sarcomere assembly. The biology of SCs may account for the distinctly different outcomes in response to thermal challenge on breast muscle growth, development, and structure of the turkey.


Assuntos
Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético , Perus , Animais , Perus/genética , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Músculos Peitorais/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética
7.
Avian Pathol ; 51(6): 601-612, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102057

RESUMO

Since the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) to North America in 1999, WNV is estimated to have contributed to population-level declines in numerous avian species. However, the potential impacts of this virus on many free-ranging upland game bird species, including the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), which is undergoing regional population declines, remain unknown. Herein, two age groups (∼5 to 6 weeks and ∼15 to 16 weeks post-hatch) of juvenile wild turkeys were subcutaneously inoculated with WNV, sampled daily from 1 to 7 days post-inoculation (dpi), and euthanized on 14 dpi. No clinical signs and minimal gross lesions were attributable to WNV infection. Peak viraemia titres were similar between age groups (<101.7 to 104.6 plaque-forming units [PFU]/ml), but the duration of viraemia was longer in the old group (3-4 days) than in the young group (0-3 days). Intermittent oral and/or cloacal viral shedding from 2 to 7 dpi was detected in both age groups. No infectious virus was detected in the heart, brain, kidney, skeletal muscle, spleen, and feathers from WNV-inoculated turkeys euthanized on 14 dpi. All WNV-inoculated birds seroconverted by 14 dpi, as well as two co-housed sham-inoculated birds. The most consistent microscopic lesions among all WNV-inoculated birds were mild lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis and encephalitis. Minimal immunohistochemical labelling was detected in tissues in addition to scant macrophages within the blood, spleen, and bone marrow. These data suggest WNV is unlikely to pose a significant risk to wild turkey populations, although the possibility remains that WNV may indirectly decrease fitness or predispose wild turkeys to other health stressors.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Clinical disease was not observed in wild turkeys experimentally infected with WNV.Pathology attributed to WNV was mild and included brain and heart inflammation.Viraemias suggest WNV-infected wild turkeys do not play a role in WNV transmission.No age-associated differences in WNV clinical disease or pathology were observed.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/patologia , Viremia/veterinária , Perus , Aves
8.
Poult Sci ; 101(11): 102137, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116351

RESUMO

The present study investigated the prevalence and co-occurrence of integument injuries in Canadian turkeys. Participating farmers scored 30 birds in their flock for integument injuries to the head/neck (HN), back/tail (BT), and footpad (FP) using a simplified scoring system (0: no sign of injury, 1: mild injury, 2: severe injury). Information from 62 flocks was used to calculate the prevalence of any (score ≥1) and severe (score 2) injuries on a flock- and individual-level. Chi-square analyses were performed to determine the likelihood of integument injury co-occurrence. The prevalence of each type of injury varied between flocks. While the majority of flocks reported injuries, the within-flock prevalence was relatively low and largely comprised of mild cases (score 1). Given their higher prevalence, the data indicate that FP injuries are overall more widespread and more severe among Canadian turkey flocks than HN and BT injuries. Co-occurrence of different integument injuries was observed in 7% of birds and 58.1% of flocks reported at least one bird with co-occurring injury types. Despite the low prevalence of multiple injury types, birds with one type of injury were more likely to present with other injury types. Indeed, birds with HN injuries were 4 times more likely to have BT injuries, and birds with FP injuries were 1.5 times more likely to have BT injuries compared to birds that do not have these respective injuries. The data increase our understanding of the co-occurrence of these common integument injuries which can help inform a holistic management approach to rear turkeys with healthy skin and feather cover.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Galinhas , Canadá , Perus , Plumas
9.
Poult Sci ; 101(11): 102046, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130451

RESUMO

The global turkey industry is confronted with emerging challenges regarding health and welfare. Performance and disease resilience are directly linked to gut health. A clear definition of a healthy gut is a prerequisite to developing new strategies for improved gut health and, thus, general health, welfare and productivity. To date, detailed knowledge about gut health characteristics, especially during the critical fattening period, is still lacking for turkeys. Therefore, the goal of this study was to describe the morphology, microbiota, and metabolome along the intestinal tract of clinically healthy Salmonella- and Campylobacter-free commercial turkey hens throughout the fattening period from 7 to 10 wk posthatch, and obtain information on the stability of the investigated values over time. Feed changes were avoided directly preceding and during the investigation period. Investigation methods included histomorphometric measurement of intestinal villi and crypts, Illumina-sequencing for microbiota analysis, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for metabolite identification and quantification. Overall, the study demonstrated a high repeatability across all 3 experiments and gut section differences observed coincided with their functions. It was demonstrated that gut maturation, defined by gut microbiota stability, is reached earlier in the ceca than any other intestinal section where morphological changes are ongoing throughout the fattening period. Therefore, the present study provides valuable information necessary to advise future studies on the development and implementation of measures to support gut maturation and establish a protective microbiota in commercial turkeys.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Feminino , Animais , Perus , Galinhas , Metaboloma
10.
J Food Prot ; 85(11): 1594-1603, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084112

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: It is estimated that one in five cases of foodborne illnesses is acquired in the home. However, how pathogens move throughout a kitchen environment when consumers are preparing food is not well characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and degree of cross-contamination across a variety of kitchen surfaces during a consumer meal preparation event. Consumers (n = 371) prepared a meal consisting of turkey patties containing the bacteriophage MS2 as a tracer organism and a ready-to-eat lettuce salad. Half were shown a video on proper thermometer use before the trial. After meal preparation, environmental sampling and detection were performed to assess cross-contamination with MS2. For most surfaces, positivity did not exceed 20%, with the exception of spice containers, for which 48% of the samples showed evidence of MS2 cross-contamination. Spice containers also had the highest MS2 concentrations, at a mean exceeding 6 log viral genome equivalent copies per surface. The high level of MS2 on spice containers drove the significant differences between surfaces, suggesting the significance of spice containers as a vehicle for cross-contamination, despite the absence of previous reports to this effect. The thermometer safety intervention did not affect cross-contamination. The efficiency of MS2 transfer, when expressed as a percentage, was relatively low, ranging from an average of 0.002 to 0.07%. Quantitative risk assessment work using these data would aid in further understanding the significance of cross-contamination frequency and efficiency. Overall, these data will help create more targeted consumer messaging to better influence consumer cross-contamination behaviors.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Animais , Perus , Alface , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
11.
Poult Sci ; 101(11): 102098, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087440

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of early and short-term administration of an antibiotic or feeding a diet containing a coccidiostat on gastrointestinal function and the blood levels of selected hormones in young turkeys. A total of 1540 Hybrid Converter turkeys were allocated to 4 groups on the day of hatch. Each group consisted of 7 pens with 55 birds per pen. Group ENR was treated with enrofloxacin for the first 5 d of life, group DOX received doxycycline for 5 d and group MON was administered monensin for 84 d. CON birds served as a control group without any antibiotic treatment or MON administration. An analysis of the activity of bacterial enzymes revealed that the cecal microbiota of turkeys were less sensitive to MON than to the other 2 antibiotics. Turkeys subjected to ENR and DOX treatments were characterized by lower (P < 0.05) extracellular activity of cecal bacterial ß-glucosidase, compared with groups CON and MON. The extracellular activity of cecal bacterial α-galactosidase and ß-galactosidase decreased significantly in response to the experimental treatment with DOX (P < 0.05 vs. CON). Turkeys treated with ENR had higher total activity of bacterial ß-galactosidase than those administered DOX or MON. Despite the differences in the enzymatic activity of microbiota, the use of antibiotics did not affect the concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids or ammonia in the cecal digesta of turkeys. A diet containing MON and the early administration of ENR or DOX induced an increase in blood noradrenaline levels (P = 0.004) in 56-day-old turkeys. Early DOX use increased plasma cortisol concentrations (P < 0.001) and decreased plasma serotonin levels (P = 0.006) in 56-day-old turkeys. Over the entire experiment (up to 12 wk of age), the use of MON improved the BW gain of turkeys (P = 0.055) and feed conversion (P = 0.016), compared with the DOX treatment.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Perus/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal , Sistemas Neurossecretores , beta-Galactosidase
12.
Microb Pathog ; 173(Pt A): 105790, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170950

RESUMO

Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV) has been established as a cause of lameness in meat type turkeys in the past decade. However, no information is available on the age susceptibility of TARV or its transmission dynamics. We conducted this study to determine the age at which turkey poults are susceptible to TARV infection and whether infected birds can horizontally transmit the virus to their non-infected pen mates (sentinels). Five groups of turkeys were orally inoculated with TARV (∼106 TCID50/ml) at 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of age (DOA). Two days after each challenge, four uninfected sentinel turkeys of equal age were added to the virus-inoculated groups. At one- and two-weeks post infection, turkeys from each group, including two sentinels, were euthanized followed by necropsy. Inoculated birds in all age groups had TARV replication in the intestine and gastrocnemius tendon with no statistically significant variation at p < 0.5. Furthermore, the inoculated birds at different age groups showed consistently high gastrocnemius tendon histologic lesion scores while birds in the 28-days-old age group had numerically lower lesion scores at 14 days post inoculation (dpi). The sentinels, in turn, also showed virus replication in their intestines and tendons and histologic lesions in gastrocnemius tendons. The findings indicate that turkeys at the age of 28 days or less are susceptible to infection with TARV following oral challenge. It was also found that TARV-infected birds could transmit the infection to naïve sentinel turkeys of the same age.


Assuntos
Artrite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Infecções por Reoviridae , Reoviridae , Animais , Perus , Anticorpos Antivirais
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14884, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050430

RESUMO

Bacterial communities in the reproductive tract of avian species play an important role in keeping birds healthy and encouraging growth. Infection can occur during egg formation with pathogens that can be transmitted to the embryo. In this study, we investigated the bacterial composition in the turkey reproductive tract using a taxa identification based on the amplicon sequence of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbial composition and relative abundance of bacteria differed between individual birds. Among the 19 phyla detected in turkey oviduct were unique taxa like Planctomycetes or Petescibacteria. Differences in composition of bacterial diversity were found at the family and genus level. Oviducts contained also several genus with well-recognized avian pathogens like Escherichia-Shigella, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Ornithobacterium. Some of the bacteria described in this study have not been so far identified in turkeys. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial communities in the turkey oviduct and compared the composition of the oviduct with that in chickens broadening the knowledge of the microbial composition in the reproductive tract of poultry.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Perus , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Oviductos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Perus/microbiologia
14.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0099422, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35993736

RESUMO

Wild birds are the reservoir for all avian influenza viruses (AIV). In poultry, the transition from low pathogenic (LP) AIV of H5 and H7 subtypes to highly pathogenic (HP) AIV is accompanied mainly by changing the hemagglutinin (HA) monobasic cleavage site (CS) to a polybasic motif (pCS). Galliformes, including turkeys and chickens, succumb with high morbidity and mortality to HPAIV infections, although turkeys appear more vulnerable than chickens. Surprisingly, the genetic determinants for virulence and pathogenesis of HPAIV in turkeys are largely unknown. Here, we determined the genetic markers for virulence and transmission of HPAIV H7N1 in turkeys, and we explored the host responses in this species compared to those of chickens. We found that recombinant LPAIV H7N1 carrying pCS was avirulent in chickens but exhibited high virulence in turkeys, indicating that virulence determinants vary in these two galliform species. A transcriptome analysis indicated that turkeys mount a different host response than do chickens, particularly from genes involved in RNA metabolism and the immune response. Furthermore, we found that the HA glycosylation at residue 123, acquired by LP viruses shortly after transmission from wild birds and preceding the transition from LP to HP, had a role in virus fitness and virulence in chickens, though it was not a prerequisite for high virulence in turkeys. Together, these findings indicate variable virulence determinants and host responses in two closely related galliformes, turkeys and chickens, after infection with HPAIV H7N1. These results could explain the higher vulnerability to HPAIV of turkeys compared to chickens. IMPORTANCE Infection with HPAIV in chickens and turkeys, two closely related galliform species, results in severe disease and death. Although the presence of a polybasic cleavage site (pCS) in the hemagglutinin of AIV is a major virulence determinant for the transition of LPAIV to HPAIV, there are knowledge gaps on the genetic determinants (including pCS) and the host responses in turkeys compared to chickens. Here, we found that the pCS alone was sufficient for the transformation of a LP H7N1 into a HPAIV in turkeys but not in chickens. We also noticed that turkeys exhibited a different host response to an HPAIV infection, namely, a widespread downregulation of host gene expression associated with protein synthesis and the immune response. These results are important for a better understanding of the evolution of HPAIV from LPAIV and of the different outcomes and the pathomechanisms of HPAIV infections in chickens and turkeys.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N1 , Influenza Aviária , Perus , Fatores de Virulência , Virulência , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/química , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/mortalidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Perus/virologia , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/química , Fatores de Virulência/genética
15.
J Avian Med Surg ; 36(2): 153-172, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972868

RESUMO

The appropriate recognition and assessment of pain in animals is an essential tool that can be used by veterinary professionals, rehabilitators, household caregivers, and others to provide supportive care and analgesia to patients. Although the use of behavioral, postural, and facial changes to recognize pain have been studied in popular domestic species such as dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), cats (Felis catus), and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), very little is known relative to avian species. The purpose of this article is to provide a literature review comprising structured searches on the topic of avian pain recognition. The emphasis of the searches were based on the behavioral and postural alterations that have thus far been explored. The literature review was performed in the months of August-September 2020 over 5 online databases: MEDLINE/ PubMed, CAB Direct, Biosis, Zoological Record, and Scopus. Additional "snowballing" was incorporated by looking at the references and articles that cited the 126 articles from the initial abstract and full-text screening. Of the 194 full-text articles reviewed, 132 sources of literature were included in the final analysis. From these 132 sources of literature, 31.8% were general review articles in which avian pain behaviors were described irrespective of species, with others being specific to a particular species (chickens 47.8%, turkeys 7.6%, parrots 3.8%, pigeons [Columba livia] 3%, raptors 3%, and "other" 3%-2 on ducks, 1 on emus [Dromaius novaehollandiae], and 1 on Eurasian blue tits [Cyanistes caeruleus]). Pain stimulus varied depending on species, although the vast majority of the pain stimuli involved welfare issues such as beak trimming, limb abnormalities, and keel bone fractures in chickens. Although information regarding this topic remains limited for many avian species, this review provides a more thorough understanding of behavioral indicators of pain in species such as chickens, turkeys, psittacines, pigeons, raptors, and select others. It is the hope that this review will motivate further interest and future analgesia research for the improvement of avian welfare.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Columbidae , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Patos , Humanos , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/veterinária , Medição da Dor , Coelhos , Perus
16.
Poult Sci ; 101(10): 102055, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973350

RESUMO

The presence of meat quality defects is increasing in the turkey industry. While the main strategy for mitigating these issues is through improved housing, management, and slaughter conditions, it may be possible to incorporate meat quality into a turkey breeding strategy with the intent to improve meat quality. Before this can occur, it is important to describe the current state of turkey meat quality as well as the correlations among the different meat quality traits and important production traits. The main objective of the present study was to provide a descriptive analysis of 8 different meat quality traits for turkey breast meat from 3 different purebred lines (A, B, and C), and their correlation with a selection of production traits. Using a total of 7,781 images, the breast meat (N = 590-3,892 birds depending on trait) was evaluated at 24 h postmortem for color (L*, a*, b*), pH, and physiochemical characteristics (drip loss, cooking loss, shear force). Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and Pearson correlations were computed to describe the relationships among traits within each genetic line. A one-factor ANOVA and post hoc t-test were conducted for each trait and between each of the genetic lines. We found significant differences between genetic lines for some color traits (L* and a*), pHinitial, drip loss, and cooking loss. The lightest line in weight (line B) had meat that was the lightest (L*) in color. The heaviest line (line C) had meat that was less red (a*) with a higher pHinitial and greater cooking loss. Unfavorable correlations between production traits and meat quality were also found for each of the genetic lines where increases in production (e.g., body weight, growth rate) resulted in meat that was lighter and redder in color and in some cases (line B and C), with an increased moisture loss. The results of this study provide an important benchmark for turkey meat quality in purebred lines and provide an updated account of the relationships between key production traits and meat quality. Although the magnitude of these correlations is low, their cumulative effect on meat quality can be more significant especially with continued selection pressure on growth and yield.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Carne , Animais , Culinária , Fenótipo , Perus/genética
17.
Poult Sci ; 101(10): 102009, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952599

RESUMO

Colibacillosis in poultry is a unique disease manifestation of Escherichia coli in the animal world, as one of the primary routes of entry is via the respiratory tract of birds. Because of this, a novel extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) subpathotype coined avian pathogenic E. coli (or APEC) has been described. Like other ExPEC, this pathotype has been challenging to clearly define, and in the case of APEC, its role as an opportunistic pathogen has further complicated these challenges. Using 3,479 temporally matched genomes of poultry-source isolates, we show that the APEC plasmid, previously considered a defining trait of APEC, is highly prevalent in clinical isolates from diseased turkeys. However, the plasmid is also quite prevalent among cecal E. coli isolates from healthy birds, including both turkeys and broilers. In contrast, we identify distinct differences in clonal backgrounds of turkey clinical versus cecal strains, with a subset of sequence types (STs) dominating the clinical landscape (ST23, ST117, ST131, ST355, and ST428), which are rare within the cecal landscape. Because the same clinical STs have also dominated the broiler landscape, we performed lethality assays using strains from dominant STs from clinical or cecal landscapes in embryonated turkey and chicken eggs. We show that, irrespective of plasmid carriage, dominant clinical STs are significantly more virulent than dominant cecal STs. We present a revised APEC screening tool that incorporates APEC plasmid carriage plus markers for dominant clinical STs. This revised APEC pathotyping tool improves the ability to identify high-risk APEC clones within poultry production systems, and identifies STs of interest for mitigation targets.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Perus , Virulência
18.
Meat Sci ; 193: 108943, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961125

RESUMO

Meat is an essential element of contemporary Mexican culture. Its consumption is linked to ancestral elements as well as to agri-food globalization. Currently, the three types of meat most consumed by Mexicans are chicken (35 kg/person/year), pork (20 kg/person/year) and beef (15 kg/person/year). The consumption of these types of meats is highly influenced by price, regional preferences and emerging trends related to health, environmental and animal welfare concerns. The Mexican diet also includes other types of meats such as turkey, horse, sheep, goat and rabbit; their consumption is related to factors associated with health, tradition and availability. Mexico is the Latin American country with the highest number of people who follow plant-based diets, with 19% being vegetarian, 15% flexitarian and 9% vegan. This overview shows that the persistence of meat consumption in the country is not a uniform phenomenon, where deep-rooted culinary traditions coexist with changes in the horizon influenced by globalization, health and environmental concerns, animal welfare and household income.


Assuntos
Dieta , Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta/veterinária , Cavalos , Humanos , México , Coelhos , Ovinos , Perus
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35887003

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts not translated into proteins with a length of more than 200 bp. LncRNAs are considered an important factor in the regulation of countless biological processes, mainly through the regulation of gene expression and interactions with proteins. However, the detailed mechanism of interaction as well as functions of lncRNAs are still unclear and therefore constitute a serious research challenge. In this study, for the first time, potential mechanisms of lncRNA regulation of processes related to sperm motility in turkey were investigated and described. Customized bioinformatics analysis was used to detect and identify lncRNAs, and their correlations with differentially expressed genes and proteins were also investigated. Results revealed the expression of 863 new/unknown lncRNAs in ductus deferens, testes and epididymis of turkeys. Moreover, potential relationships of the lncRNAs with the coding mRNAs and their products were identified in turkey reproductive tissues. The results obtained from the OMICS study may be useful in describing and characterizing the way that lncRNAs regulate genes and proteins as well as signaling pathways related to sperm motility.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Motilidade Espermática/genética , Testículo/metabolismo , Perus/genética , Perus/metabolismo
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(14)2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35890870

RESUMO

Injurious pecking against conspecifics is a serious problem in turkey husbandry. Bloody injuries act as a trigger mechanism to induce further pecking, and timely detection and intervention can prevent massive animal welfare impairments and costly losses. Thus, the overarching aim is to develop a camera-based system to monitor the flock and detect injuries using neural networks. In a preliminary study, images of turkeys were annotated by labelling potential injuries. These were used to train a network for injury detection. Here, we applied a keypoint detection model to provide more information on animal position and indicate injury location. Therefore, seven turkey keypoints were defined, and 244 images (showing 7660 birds) were manually annotated. Two state-of-the-art approaches for pose estimation were adjusted, and their results were compared. Subsequently, a better keypoint detection model (HRNet-W48) was combined with the segmentation model for injury detection. For example, individual injuries were classified using "near tail" or "near head" labels. Summarizing, the keypoint detection showed good results and could clearly differentiate between individual animals even in crowded situations.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Perus , Animais , Redes Neurais de Computação
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