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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769898

RESUMO

Each year in the United States, 7000 to 30,000 children experience their parent's suicide. Due to the stigma associated with suicide, feelings of guilt, and intense grief, surviving family members avoid talking about suicide. Over time, children struggle with confusion and intense emotions associated with their parent's suicide. In this study, seven adults, who reported being younger than six years old at the time of their father's suicide, participated in individual semi-structured interviews. Participants' responses highlight the challenges that young children face due to limited memories of their deceased parent. Interviews concluded with an opportunity for participants to review and express their impressions of 10 children's picture books. Participants offered impressions about how these books may or may not be helpful in supporting young child survivors. Implications for applied practice include considering how children's literature may open communication and assist children in navigating Worden's tasks of grief: (a) accepting the reality of their parent's death; (b) facing the grief and pain; (c) adapting to life changes due to their father's suicide, in particular adapting to altered family relationships; and (d) building memories of the deceased loved one, when possible, to ensure healthy attachment to the deceased parent. Participants' insights provide considerations for selecting children's literature for bibliotherapy. Due to young child survivors' increased risk for attempting and completing suicide, supporting child survivors of parent suicide not only addresses postvention needs but aligns with suicide prevention.


Assuntos
Biblioterapia , Suicídio , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pai , Pesar , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Sobreviventes , Estados Unidos
2.
Psychiatr Hung ; 36(3): 401-416, 2021.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738532

RESUMO

While examining art psychology, it is often experienced that heavy traumas have a highly incentive role on work of arts. It is an exceptional precedent, when a work is born with the intention of processing a trauma, what is also documented by the author himself. Mourning, which is known to be "the most perfect" work of Németh, was written with this intention, when László Németh and his wife lost their three and a half years old daughter, Pocó, in 1930. The period around the experience of loss has never been studied with a focus on processing trauma. This study will research this topic. Examining the novel, Mourning and the relevant work- and biographical documents with the method of psychobiography it can be stated, that László Németh experiencing an acute loss, the unmet needs of his own grief while being in the creative writing process, his unprocessed previous traumas coming to the front, and extreme character portrayal of the novel were presumably obstructive, while the support of his wife and his cousin's similar experience of loss through its role in encouraging the creative process were supporting in processing the trauma. The novel Mourning offers a genuine portrayal of the emotional ups and downs and the looming isolation, as well as of the role of the community experienced during bereavement. In 1931, it is through the words of a peasant woman that László Németh conveys his message, which is still relevant today. The message of the uniqueness of bereavement helps to prevent the grief from becoming the "disease of pride".


Assuntos
Luto , Pesar , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Redação
4.
Trials ; 22(1): 751, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family caregivers of dying cancer patients are affected by grief experiences and bereavement complications. Several approaches such as psycho-emotional care and an increase in spirituality have been suggested to diminish these complications. However, the knowledge about the effects of family-based dignity intervention and expressive writing on anticipatory grief in family caregivers of dying cancer patients is limited. This is a study protocol describing a hospital-based mixed-methods study on the effects of family-based dignity intervention and expressive writing on anticipatory grief in family caregivers of dying cancer patients. METHODS: This mixed-methods study will be done in an embedded explanatory design with two quantitative and qualitative phases. In the first phase (quantitative), a randomized clinical trial will be done, in which 200 family caregivers of dying cancer patients will be randomly assigned to one of the four groups: family-based single dignity intervention (group 1), expressive writing intervention (group 2), combined family-based single dignity intervention and expressive writing (group 3), and control (group 4). At baseline, 1 week and 2 weeks after the interventions, anticipatory grief will be assessed by a 13-item anticipatory grief scale. After the quantitative phase, the qualitative phase will be conducted through the conventional content analysis approach of Granheim and Lundman, in which an individual semi-structured interview will be taken from participants in the first phase to collect data on their experiences on interventions. Finally, data from the quantitative and qualitative phases will be analyzed and discussed. DISCUSSION: Family caregivers of dying cancer patients usually experience depression, anxiety, and psychological distress due to isolation and inadequate social support. Psychological interventions such as dignity and expressive writing interventions may help caregivers to obtain a better understanding of themselves and to increase their abilities to cope with caregiving difficulties. Therefore, there is a need for a comprehensive study confirming the effects of mentioned interventions on family caregivers of dying cancer patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials ( www.irct.ir ) identifier: IRCT20210111050010N1. Date of trial registration: Feb 6, 2021. This is the first version of this protocol.


Assuntos
Luto , Neoplasias , Cuidadores , Pesar , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Neoplasias/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respeito , Redação
5.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 167, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711291

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The psychological and social issues experienced by family members of missing persons are different from normal grief following the death of a loved one. The term "Ambiguous loss" describes this psychological phenomenon. Ambiguous loss acts as a barrier to adjusting to grief, leading to symptoms of depression and intra and interpersonal relational conflicts. An in-depth phenomenological understanding of this subjective experience is important. METHOD: A qualitative study was conducted among close family members of persons who had gone missing during the civil conflict and the 2004 tsunami in southern Sri Lanka following formal ethical approval from an university ethics review committee. Purposive and snowballing sampling methods were used to recruit the participants. Theoretical sample saturation was achieved with 24 family members of missing persons. Responders were mothers, fathers, wives, husbands, and siblings of missing individuals. In-depth interviews were recorded with the help of a semi-structured guide, after informed consent. The recordings were transcribed and coded by three independent investigators. The investigators through consensus arrived at the phenomenological themes and grounded them through reflexivity. The triangulation process involved cross-checking observational notes made by the interviewers and consulting the interviewees. RESULTS: We interviewed 24 first degree relatives of missing individuals. Twenty-one of the interviewees were unsure about the fate of the missing individual, while three of them believed the missing individual to be dead. Of the 24 missing individuals, 20 were males and 18 had gone missing in civil conflicts and 6 in the Indian Ocean Tsunami. Six predominant phenomenological themes were identified. Those were lack of closure, hope, guilt, helplessness, perpetual suffering, and an emotional vacuum. These phenomenological experiences are highlighted by the interviewees through a range of utterances that hold profound cultural, social and emotional significance of unresolved and vacillating grief. CONCLUSION: The highlighted phenomenology of grief in surviving family members of those who go missing following traumatic events demands a response from health and social services in every country that experiences disaster. The surviving loved one is 'locked in grief' indefinitely and future research on evidence-based interventions to overcome this predicament is warranted.


Assuntos
Família , Pesar , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sri Lanka
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699700

RESUMO

Grief is a process provoked as a response to different losses, such as death, loss of job, relationship breakdown, some unexpected life events and changes, etc. The experiences of loss and bereavement are very individual. Even though loss is expected, the person feels traumatized, especially if death is provoked by violence, natural disasters, or war. This pandemic, like other disasters (wars, tsunami, earthquakes, floods, etc.) has provoked intensive reactions of grief, reactions that could persist for years. The core symptoms of grief are described in the ICD-11 and DSM-5 manuals. The term "complicated grief" in the medical sense refers to a superimposed process that alters grief and modifies its course for the worse. Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) is characterized by normal grief symptoms, but these are symptoms that remain too intense for too long of a period. This article is a review of the manifestations and duration of grief in different occasions, and it is based on over 50 published papers, and discoveries in the Medline and Psych-Net databases. Commonly described reactions to grief are: shock, disbelief or denial, a high level of anxiety, distress, anger, sadness, insomnia, and a loss of appetite. As predictors for a high/slow decreasing trajectory of grief process are: female gender, reported symptoms of depression before the traumatic event, and higher scores on avoidance. However, grief is transient, even as we are is in the midst of its clutches. People should expect to fluctuate between moments of sadness and mourning, and moments of acceptance, or even happiness for being alive. Researchers suppose that when a crisis passes; most people will be able to bounce back and move on with their lives.


Assuntos
Luto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Ansiedade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Pesar , Humanos
7.
Br J Gen Pract ; 71(711): 460-461, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593396
8.
Enferm Clin ; 31: S112-S116, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629857

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this review was to synthesize the possible evidence to establish recommendations on the approach of mourning and death in relatives of COVID-19 patients, as well as offering substitute resources for the necessary rituals and procedures in order to build up functional griefs and prevent complicated bereavements. Method: A bibliographic research was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCIENCEDIRECT, WOS, CINAHL and CUIDEN databases, using MeSH terms, (family, patient, isolation hospitals, grief, death, ceremonial behavior, self-care, affects and social networks) with its corresponding boolean equation. The selected articles have been published in a critical reading through the Critical Assessment Skills Program in Spanish (CASPe). Results: A total of 560 articles were initially found, after applying the selection criteria, 13 studies were included in the analysis, of which 8 were systematic reviews, 3 qualitative studies, 1 cross-sectional prospective pilot study and 1 clinical guide, which allowed identifying strategies for the approach grief and death attending to this moment of exceptionality covid19, influencing the competence management of health professionals in emotional support and accompaniment as well as the monitoring throughout the process, as well as in the communication with the family. Conclusion: In the final process of life in COVID-19's time, health professionals must work farewells, alternative funeral rites, spiritual care and early coping that will allow the prevention of complicated grief.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Família , Pesar , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 159, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood bereavement is common, and is associated with elevated symptoms of grief with distress and impairment. However, few developmentally appropriate interventions to support grieving children are available to date. In Toulouse, France we developed an innovative four-session group intervention to support grieving families and evaluated its feasibility and acceptability. METHODS: The workshop consists of four sessions over 4 months, open to children bereaved of a sibling or parent, and co-facilitated by two mental health professionals. After an intake assessment, children were placed into closed groups according to age and relation to the deceased. The session content was balanced between creative activities and grief-related discussions. Overall satisfaction was evaluated in March-April of 2020 by an 8-question online survey of children and parents having participated between 2011 and 2019. Freeform commentaries were analysed using the thematic synthesis process. RESULTS: Of the 230 emails sent in March 2020, 46 children and 81 parents agreed to participate (55% response rate). The families reported an overall high level of satisfaction regarding the intervention that was rated as good to excellent. A majority of respondents considered their participation in the workshop helpful and in accordance with their expectations. Most would recommend the workshop to a friend, and would participate again in the group if needed. The group intervention helped reduce social isolation, facilitated grief expression, and supported the creation of a sense of community among bereaved families. CONCLUSIONS: Encouraging community and mutual support among grieving families is fundamental in bereavement care. Our four-session workshop held over 4 months and led by mental health professionals aimed to help reduce social isolation and foster coping skills through artistic creation and group discussion. Our results highlight the potential need for family bereavement support over a longer period and a provision of a variety of services. Our intervention model is feasible for families, and further studies examining its efficacy are warranted.


Assuntos
Luto , Irmãos , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , Pesar , Humanos , Pais
10.
Med J Aust ; 215(10): 456-457, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704276
11.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 16(1): 1996872, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714218

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted thousands of individuals' experience of caregiving and grief. This qualitative study aimed to gain in-dept understanding of family caregivers' lived experiences of caregiving and bereavement in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in Quebec, Canada. The study also aimed at providing new insight about caregiving and bereavement by analysing the metaphors family caregivers use to report their experiences. METHODS: The design of this study was guided by an interpretative phenomenological approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty bereaved family caregivers who had lost a loved one during the first waves of the pandemic. RESULTS: Results indicate that bereaved family caregivers lived and understood their experience in terms of metaphoric cut-offs, obstructions and shockwaves. These three metaphors represented the grief process and the bereaved's quest for social connection, narrative coherence and recognition. CONCLUSION: By identifying the meaning of the bereaved's metaphors and the quest they reveal, our study underlines the singularity of pandemic grief and points to the value and meaning of caregiving with regard to the grieving process.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Cuidadores , Família , Pesar , Humanos , Metáfora , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 9): 102-107, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559787

RESUMO

Deaths caused by the virus Covid-19 expose survivors to a high risk of developing a mourning pathology, a state of suffering that presents traumatic aspects similar to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The characteristics with which the death process took place, during the period following the Coronavirus infection, are configured as important risk factors due to the inability to give the last farewell to the deceased during the period of the lockdown, to see and accompany their loved ones in the last moments of their life. The absence of the deceased body to cry for, the lack of a funeral and any other type of social and personal ritual, are to be considered as obstacles and aggravation factors with respect to the usual elaborative dynamics of mourning. The functional role of some brain areas such as the amygdala in mediating both the responses to stress and the learning of emotions implicitly identifies its importance in the pathophysiology of major trauma such as in pathological bereavement and in PTSD. Behavioral and environmental psychology studies have highlighted the therapeutic value of open contexts, in particular green areas, such as in forest bathing, in the processing of traumas, in which the narration can take place in a way that is independent from traditional therapy, with encouraging results, as demonstrated from the clinical case of Sofia.


Assuntos
Luto , COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Pesar , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
13.
Prev Med ; 152(Pt 1): 106583, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538373

RESUMO

Suicide bereavement is frequent in the general population and it can have deleterious consequences on the mental health and social functioning of the bereaved individuals. However, those bereaved can face substantial barriers to receive support, and online resources may improve the accessibility of support. This systematic review aimed at examining the use and benefits of online resources dedicated to people bereaved by suicide and appraising the quality of the research in this field. Systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines, involving searches in Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, conducted in August 2020. The integrative systematic review involved extracting and merging qualitative and quantitative data. Quality assessment was conducted with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The review included 12 studies, mostly of moderate quality. Online resources are predominantly used by middle-aged women, parents who lost their child by suicide, and recently bereaved individuals. Online resources offer a way for help-seeking around the clock for less educated, more disadvantaged and isolated people. People bereaved by suicide use online resources to seek and share support, share and find information, memorialize their loved one and for meaning-making. Negative effects of online resources are rare. The evidence on the use and benefits of online resources for people bereaved by suicide remains scarce but show encouraging results regarding their positive impact on the mental and psychosocial health of the users.


Assuntos
Luto , Suicídio , Criança , Família , Feminino , Pesar , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
J Occup Health Psychol ; 26(5): 405-420, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472904

RESUMO

Virtually every employee will experience bereavement and grief at some point in their careers, but organizations are often ill-prepared to support grieving employees. Little empirical work has been conducted on the experience of grief in the workplace, and this study answers calls for research on the subject. We interviewed bereaved employees (N = 14) who continued to work full-time. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis conducted by three independent coders. The results suggested four key themes that characterized effective bereavement support in the workplace and that together comprise the C.A.R.E. model of bereavement support-vis: (1) communication, (2) accommodation, (3) recognition of the loss, and (4) emotional support. The results provide insight into critical ways that employers, leaders, and coworkers can support grieving employees. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Luto , Comunicação , Emprego , Pesar , Humanos , Local de Trabalho
15.
J Pediatr Oncol Nurs ; 38(6): 364-374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494927

RESUMO

Background: Childhood cancer is the leading cause of illness-related death, leaving thousands of parents to experience bereavement. This article presents select findings about the nature of the continued parenting relationship, which is an essential theme of the parental bereavement experience. Method: Heideggerian phenomenology provided the philosophical underpinnings of this study, which aimed to describe the lived experience of bereaved parents who experienced the death of a child due to cancer. Van Manen's (1997) method guided data collection and analysis. Six parents participated in interviews to share what it has been like for them since their child's death. The researcher wrote analytic memos, documented detailed field notes, and used a member checking process to ensure trustworthiness of findings. Results: A structure of the lived experience of parental bereavement emerged, which included the essential theme of the continued parenting relationship. The parenting relationship continues throughout a parent's lifetime in spite of the child's physical absence, albeit in a different manner. This different nature of parenting is known as parenting beyond the veil. Bereaved parents continue to parent beyond the veil by engaging in meaningful activities, seeking activities that strengthen a deep connection with the child, and being open to comforting signs that enhance their continued relationship. Discussion: Parents believe sharing their experience can help nurses and other professionals understand the importance of their continued parenting relationship and their need to parent beyond the veil so that they can provide high quality care to bereaved parents in the future.


Assuntos
Luto , Neoplasias , Criança , Pesar , Humanos , Poder Familiar , Pais
17.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 136, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Losing a child tragically impacts the well-being and functioning of parents. With these effects extending beyond emotional, physical morbidity and compromising self-perceptions, appropriate, longitudinal, timely and personalised support is key to effective care of bereaved parents. However, in the absence of a comprehensive understanding of parental bereavement, effective support of bereaved parents remains suboptimal. To address this gap, we scrutinise prevailing data on the effects of a child's death, aged 0-12 years, through the lens of the Ring Theory of Personhood (RToP). METHODS: To study prevailing accounts of bereaved parents following the death of a child, we adopt Krishna's Systematic Evidence Based Approach (SEBA) to structure our Systematic Scoping Review (SSR in SEBA). RESULTS: Three thousand seventy-four abstracts were reviewed, 160 full text articles were evaluated, and 111 articles were included and analysed using thematic and content analysis. Four themes/categories were identified relating to the four rings of the RToP. Findings reveal that static concepts of protective and risk factors for grief are misplaced and that the support of healthcare professionals is key to assisting bereaved parents. CONCLUSION: In the absence of consistent support of bereaved parents, this study highlights the need for effective training of healthcare professionals, beginning with an appreciation that every aspect of an individual parent's personhood is impacted by the loss of their child. Acknowledging grief as a complex, evolving and personalised process subjected to parental characteristics, settings, context and available support, this SSR in SEBA calls attention to effective nurturing of the relationship between parents and healthcare professionals, and suggests use of the RToP to assess and direct personalised, timely, specific support of parents in evolving conditions. We believe the findings of this review also call for further studies to support healthcare professionals as they journey with bereaved parents.


Assuntos
Luto , Pessoalidade , Criança , Pesar , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pais
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501650

RESUMO

COVID-19 has caused nearly 4.3 million deaths all around the world. People who have experienced loss during this special period may find it difficult to adapt to life after loss, and may even suffer from prolonged grief disorder or other mental health problems. However, there is a huge gap of grief research in China, with almost no comprehensive grief intervention training system or very few professional grief consultants. Considering the large number of bereaved individuals who are suffering from grief and other mental health problems, it is significant to develop a suitable and effective intervention protocol immediately. This article illustrates a study protocol initiated by a Chinese university to investigate the mental health of bereaved individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic and train grief counselors to provide grief counseling to the bereaved, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of the grief counseling. The method is as follows: (1) 300 psychological counselors will be recruited to attend the grief counseling training. Assessments will be conducted at three time points: baseline (T0), after the basic training (T1), and after the advanced training (T2); (2) 500 bereaved Chinese will be recruit to join the online survey and will be assessed at two time points with a six-month interval; and (3) a two-armed (grief counseling versus wait-list controls) RCT (random control trials) will be conducted with 160 bereaved individuals. Assessments will be conducted at three time points: before randomization (baseline, T0), at the post-counseling (T1), and three months after the post-counseling (T2). Primary outcomes will be assessed by the Prolonged Grief Questionnaire (PG-13), the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). This research will help develop grief research and grief counseling in China, as well as provide professional mental health services for individuals who may suffer from grief-related disorders in the future.


Assuntos
Luto , COVID-19 , China , Aconselhamento , Pesar , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 67(3): 329-350, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524058

RESUMO

Objective: To review and synthesize existing psychoanalytic literature on the psychological impact of stillbirth on mothers and fathers. Method: This qualitative systematic review followed, as far as possible, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing Archive, the Single Case Archive, and PsycINFO (1999-2019) were searched to identify relevant articles published between 1999-2019 that report clinical material or theoretical considerations concerning the psychological effects of stillbirth on parents, as emerging during classical analytic or psychoanalytic therapy session/journey. A thematic synthesis was performed. Results: 46 articles were identified, providing data on the parents' experiences of grief and gender differences, the detrimental effects on the parental couple's relationship, the mother's identification with the dead baby, the importance for mothers to meet and care the stillborn baby, the mothers' drive for another pregnancy and the fear of further loss, the mothers' ambivalence toward subsequent pregnancy and child, the potential negative effects of unresolved bereavement on subsequent baby, and the replacement of a stillborn child. Conclusion: Our findings reveal there is some psychoanalytic literature providing insight into the psychological dynamics of parents after a stillbirth, with observations that could be used to improve psychological health care practices. One of the main therapeutic tasks was to facilitate parents to create a psychic space where they can bring to life, psychically, their lost and never- really-known stillborn baby, and to let him or her to be part of the on-going family narrative.


Assuntos
Luto , Pais/psicologia , Natimorto , Pai , Feminino , Pesar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez
20.
BMJ ; 374: n2372, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588164

Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pesar , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
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