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1.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9472

RESUMO

A Comissão de Diversidade do INCA apresenta a palestra “ Diversidade, Equidade e Inclusão na Pesquisa do INCA" no dia 26/11/2021, como parte do Ciclo Remoto de Palestras da Coordenação de Pesquisa e do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oncologia do INCA.


Assuntos
Pesquisa , Institutos de Câncer , Educação de Pós-Graduação
2.
Rev Infirm ; 70(275): 27, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752355

RESUMO

The deployment of adapted physical activity (APA) teaching within universities has enabled the development of research work in this field. The challenge is to demonstrate the effectiveness of APA interventions on health with scientific evidence. Close collaborations are thus established with health institutions and organisations.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa
5.
Occup Ther Int ; 2021: 9970566, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729058

RESUMO

In Trinidad and Tobago, occupational therapy is an emerging profession with limitations in the number of practitioners and the scope of practice. With the development of a new Master of Science Occupational Therapy programme in the country, the profession is continuously growing. There has been an increased demand for culturally relevant research to build the occupational therapy evidence base locally. However, the narrow range of occupational therapy literature in the country makes it difficult to highlight research gaps and decipher what research areas should be prioritised to best impact occupational therapy practice at present. This group concept mapping study is aimed at identifying priority areas for occupational therapy research in Trinidad and Tobago from the perspectives of occupational therapy students and practitioners. Participants brainstormed and contributed specific research ideas they would like to see developed in the country. Individually, participants sorted these ideas into themes and rated each idea based on perceived importance and feasibility. Using the GroupWisdom™ software, multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to the sort data to create idea clusters within a concept map. Rating values were analysed to determine priority research themes within the concept map. The resulting concept map illustrated seven research priorities: Contextualising Practitioner Development, The Realities of Emerging OT Practice, Localising Mental Health OT, Occupation and Participation of Children and Youth, School-based OT in the Local Context, OT with Special Populations, and OT Contributions to the Public Health Sector. These findings represent the research needs of the occupational therapy profession in Trinidad and Tobago and will help to focus future researchers' efforts to expand the local evidence base.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Adolescente , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Ocupações , Pesquisa , Trinidad e Tobago
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769879

RESUMO

Chronic disease places an enormous economic burden on both individuals and the healthcare system, and existing fee-for-service models of healthcare prioritize symptom management, medications, and procedures over treating the root causes of disease through changing health behaviors. Value-based care is gaining traction, and there is a need for value-based care models that achieve the quadruple aim of (1) improved population health, (2) enhanced patient experience, (3) reduced healthcare costs, and (4) improved work life and decreased burnout of healthcare providers. Lifestyle medicine (LM) has the potential to achieve these four aims, including promoting health and wellness and reducing healthcare costs; however, the economic outcomes of LM approaches need to be better quantified in research. This paper demonstrates proof of concept by detailing four cases that utilized an intensive, therapeutic lifestyle intervention change (ITLC) to dramatically reverse disease and reduce healthcare costs. In addition, priorities for lifestyle medicine economic research related to the components of quadruple aim are proposed, including conducting rigorously designed research studies to adequately measure the effects of ITLC interventions, modeling the potential economic cost savings enabled by health improvements following lifestyle interventions as compared to usual disease progression and management, and examining the effects of lifestyle medicine implementation upon different payment models.


Assuntos
Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Cuidados Paliativos , Pesquisa
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769530

RESUMO

Few studies to date have evaluated dementia care in Malaysia, and the focus of studies has primarily been on epidemiological and laboratory research. In this study, we aimed to identify potential challenges for the delivery of dementia care in Malaysia and priorities for research and enhancing existing dementia care. This study used thematic analysis to evaluate the open and focus group workshop discussions guided by semi-structured questions. Triangulation of the collected data (sticky notes, collated field notes, and transcripts of discussions) was achieved through stakeholder consensus agreement during a workshop held in 2017. Five main themes as priorities for dementia care were identified: (1) availability of a valued multi-disciplinary care service, (2) accessibility of training to provide awareness, (3) the functionality of the governance in establishing regulation and policy to empower care services, (4) perceived availability and accessibility of research data, and (5) influence of cultural uniqueness. The findings of this study seek to enhance existing dementia care in Malaysia but have potential application for other low and middle-income countries with a similar social and health care set up. The constructed relationship between themes also tries to tackle the challenges in a more efficient and effective manner, as none of these aforementioned issues are standalone challenges. In addition, we demonstrated how a carefully constructed workshop with defined aims and objectives can provide a useful analysis tool to evaluate health and social care challenges in a multidisciplinary forum.


Assuntos
Demência , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Demência/terapia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Malásia , Pesquisa
8.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(10): 984-992, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766324

RESUMO

Background: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory, multisystem disease affecting the populations of the Mediterranean basin. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the research input of Arab countries on FMF between 2004 and 2019. Methods: The Medline database (PubMed) was accessed for FMF-related publications. The number of publications was normalized to average: population size, GDP and number of physicians for every country. VOSViewer was used to create a co-occurrence bibliographic map. Results: Between 2004 and 2019, 69 articles relating to FMF were published in the Arab world, accounting for 0.03% of the total number of publications originating in Arab countries, and 3.60% of all articles relating to FMF worldwide. After normalizing to average population size, GDP and number of physicians, Lebanon ranked first with 4.44, 0.64 and 1.99 publications per million persons respectively. Moderate positive correlations were found between number of publications and average population size (r = 0.385) and average number of physicians (r = 0.513). Half of the articles were published in journals ranked Q1 and Q2. An abundance of keywords relating to genetics hint at a main focus on the genetic aspect of the disease. Conclusion: The low number of publications could be a result of the absence of research funding and the political and military instability in the Arab world. Given that many articles were published in high quality journals, Arab countries should focus on providing a clinical aspect to their studies and working on regional and international collaborations.


Assuntos
Mundo Árabe , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo , Bibliometria , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Pesquisa
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e050202, 2021 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764169

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a dysregulated immune response. Inflammatory monocytes and macrophages are crucial, promoting injurious, proinflammatory sequelae. Immunomodulation is, therefore, an attractive therapeutic strategy and we sought to test licensed and novel candidate drugs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The CATALYST trial is a multiarm, open-label, multicentre, phase II platform trial designed to identify candidate novel treatments to improve outcomes of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 compared with usual care. Treatments with evidence of biomarker improvements will be put forward for larger-scale testing by current national phase III platform trials. Hospitalised patients >16 years with a clinical picture strongly suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (confirmed by chest X-ray or CT scan, with or without a positive reverse transcription PCR assay) and a C reactive protein (CRP) ≥40 mg/L are eligible. The primary outcome measure is CRP, measured serially from admission to day 14, hospital discharge or death. Secondary outcomes include the WHO Clinical Progression Improvement Scale as a principal efficacy assessment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol was approved by the East Midlands-Nottingham 2 Research Ethics Committee (20/EM/0115) and given urgent public health status; initial approval was received on 5 May 2020, current protocol version (V.6.0) approval on 12 October 2020. The MHRA also approved all protocol versions. The results of this trial will be disseminated through national and international presentations and peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT2020-001684-89, ISRCTN40580903.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 75(11): 957-966, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798918

RESUMO

Collaborations between academia and industry are vital for modern industrial research and development projects, combining the best of both worlds to develop sustainable chemical processes. Herein we summarize a number of successful cooperations between DSM Nutritional Products and Swiss academic institutions that have been carried out over approximately the past decade. A wide variety of reactions and processes have been investigated with experts located in Switzerland. New synthetic routes, chemical transformations and reactor concepts have been developed to produce industrially relevant compounds. Additionally the scope of known catalytic systems has been probed and new catalysts showing improved selectivity have been designed, synthesized and tested. We describe how the research was supported by DSM, the parallel in-house investigations and also how the projects were continued and further developed.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Pesquisa , Catálise , Suíça , Universidades
11.
J Wound Care ; 30(11): 904-914, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The response of different critical acute and hard-to-heal wounds to an innovative wound care modality-direct application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP)-was investigated in this clinical case series. METHOD: Over an observation period of two years, acute wounds with at least one risk factor for chronification, as well as hard-to-heal wounds were treated for 180 seconds three times per week with CAP. CAP treatment was additional to standard wound care. Photographs were taken for wound documentation. The wound sizes before the first CAP treatment, after four weeks, after 12 weeks and at wound closure/end of observation time were determined using image processing software, and analysed longitudinally for the development of wound size. RESULTS: A total of 27 wounds (19 hard-to-heal and eight acute wounds) with a mean wound area of 15cm2 and a mean wound age of 49 months were treated with CAP and analysed. All (100%) of the acute wounds and 68% of the hard-to-heal wounds healed after an average treatment duration of 14.2 weeks. At the end of the observation period, 21% of hard-to-heal wounds were not yet closed but were reduced in size by >80%. In 11% of the hard-to-heal wounds (n=2) therapy failed. CONCLUSION: The results suggested a beneficial effect of additional CAP therapy on wound healing. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: This work was carried out within the research projects 'Plasma for Life' (funding reference no. 13FH6I04IA) with financial support from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). In the past seven years AFS has provided consulting services to Evonik and has received institutional support by Heraeus, Johnson & Johnson and Evonik. There are no royalties to disclose. The Department for Trauma Surgery, Orthopaedics and Plastic Surgery received charitable donations by CINOGY GmbH. CINOGY GmbH released the di_CAP devices and electrodes for the study. WV and AH were involved in the development of the used di_CAP device (Plasmaderm, CINOGY GmbH). WV is shareholder of the outsourced start-up company CINOGY GmbH.


Assuntos
Gases em Plasma , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Gases em Plasma/uso terapêutico , Pesquisa , Cicatrização
12.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021421, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738557

RESUMO

Nepal's second wave of COVID-19 has become the worst the world has seen so far. For a population of 29 million people, Nepal currently has only 1127 ICU beds and 453 ventilators for the entire population. The fragile healthcare system is already overwhelmed with every emergency room full of patients. Due to the unavailability of ICU beds, ventilators, oxygen, and other vital resources, sick patients are forced to stay at home with home isolation and treatment. The situation is dire, and resources are saturated. Only humanitarian aid from foreign countries can help mitigate the unprecedented disaster.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(Suppl 5)(8): S99-S102, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634027

RESUMO

Implant reconstruction following scapulectomy in children is a challenging task. Dual suspension reconstruction may offer an alternative but there is a dearth of literature on functional outcomes following this procedure for malignant tumours in children. A retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, a tertiary care centre in Karachi, Pakistan. Children with malignant tumours of the scapula who underwent total scapulectomy with dual suspension reconstruction (n=5) between Jan 2009 and June 2015 were included. Mean follow up was 50±13.39 months. There were four boys and one girl having mean age of 11±3.57 years. All patients were Enneking Stage IIB with 4 patients diagnosed as Ewing's Sarcoma and 1 as osteosarcoma. The MSTS scores ranged from 20-25 points, with a median of 23. One patient developed postoperative surgical site infection requiring surgical debridement whereas all patients remained disease-free till last follow up. Our findings suggest that scapulectomy with dual suspension reconstruction achieves satisfactory functional results with low rate of complications.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos Periféricos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640916

RESUMO

Approximately 4% of the world's population suffers from rare diseases. A vast majority of these disorders have a genetic background. The number of genes that have been linked to human diseases is constantly growing, but there are still genetic syndromes that remain to be discovered. The diagnostic yield of genetic testing is continuously developing, and the need for testing is becoming more significant. Due to limited resources, including trained clinical geneticists, patients referred to clinical genetics units must be accurately selected. Around 30-40% of genetic disorders are associated with specific facial characteristics called dysmorphic features. As part of our research, we analyzed the performance of classifiers based on deep learning face recognition models in detecting dysmorphic features. We tested two classification problems: a multiclass problem (15 genetic disorders vs. controls) and a two-class problem (disease vs. controls). In the multiclass task, the best result reached an accuracy level of 84%. The best accuracy result in the two-class problem reached 96%. More importantly, the binary classifier detected disease features in patients with diseases that were not previously present in the training dataset. The classifier was able to generalize differences between patients and controls, and to detect abnormalities without information about the specific disorder. This indicates that a screening tool based on deep learning and facial recognition could not only detect known diseases, but also detect patients with diseases that were not previously known. In the future, this tool could help in screening patients before they are referred to the genetic unit.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Pesquisa , Síndrome
16.
Neuron ; 109(19): 3015-3017, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619080

RESUMO

Indira Raman reflects on what science has offered through the pandemic and social upheaval of last year. In this Neuron Q&A, she highlights how the scientific method can enrich all aspects of our lives and inform our worldview.


Assuntos
Neurociências/educação , Neurociências/tendências , COVID-19 , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Pandemias , Pesquisa , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
17.
Neuron ; 109(19): 3018-3021, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619081

RESUMO

In an interview with Neuron, Bart De Strooper charts how support from unconventional leaders has informed his inclusive mentorship style. He discusses the need for science literacy and advocacy to combat existential crises, and his optimism around the ongoing revolution in dementia research.


Assuntos
Neurociências/tendências , COVID-19 , Escolha da Profissão , Diversidade Cultural , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Mentores , Pandemias , Pesquisa , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto
18.
Rofo ; 193(11): 1356, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710928
19.
J Prim Health Care ; 13(2): 124-131, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620294

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION te Tiriti o Waitangi guarantees Maori the right to: self-determination, equitable health outcomes, be well informed, health care options, including kaupapa Maori and culturally safe mainstream services, and partnership in the health care journey. Despite integration of these principles into policy, there remains a lack of application in health service development, and health inequities remain. AIM We aimed to use te Tiriti o Waitangi to structure the development of a culturally safe health intervention, using as an exemplar pharmacist-facilitated medicines review for Maori older adults. METHODS Previous research undertaken by our group (a systematic review, and interviews with stakeholders including Maori older adults) was used to inform the aspects to include in the intervention. Kaupapa Maori theory was used to underpin the approach. Intended outcomes, requirements for change, and outcome measures to assess change were mapped to te Tiriti o Waitangi principles as a way to structure the pharmacist-facilitated medicines review intervention and research processes. RESULTS Findings from our previous research identified 12 intended intervention outcomes, including that the intervention be flexible to adapt to diverse needs in a way that is acceptable and culturally safe for Maori and that it supports Maori older adults to control and have confidence in their medicine treatment and wellbeing. DISCUSSION We present an approach to the development of a pharmacist-facilitated medicines review intervention for Maori older adults, structured around the principles of te Tiriti o Waitangi, to support the implementation of a culturally safe, pro-equity intervention.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Farmacêuticos , Idoso , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Pesquisa
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e26890, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ClinicalTrials.gov (CT.gov) is the most comprehensive internet-based register of different types of clinical studies. Expanded access is the use of unapproved drugs, biologics, or medical devices outside of clinical trials. One of the key problems in expanded access is the availability to both health care providers and patients of information about unapproved treatments. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate CT.gov as a potential source of information about expanded access programs. METHODS: We assessed the completeness of information in the records of 228 expanded access programs registered with CT.gov from February 2017 through May 2020. Moreover, we examined what percentage of published expanded access studies has been registered with CT.gov. Logistic regression (univariate and multivariate) and mediation analyses were used to identify the predictors of the absence of some information and a study's nonregistration. RESULTS: We found that some important data were missing from the records of many programs. Information that was missing most often included a detailed study description, facility information, central contact person, and eligibility criteria (55.3%, 54.0%, 41.7%, and 17.5% of the programs, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that information about central contact person was more likely to be missing from records of studies registered in 2017 (adjusted OR 21.93; 95% CI 4.42-172.29; P<.001). This finding was confirmed by mediation analysis (P=.02). Furthermore, 14% of the programs were registered retrospectively. We also showed that only 33 of 77 (42.9%) expanded access studies performed in the United States and published from 2014 through 2019 were registered with CT.gov. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between any of the variables related to the studies and the odds of study nonregistration (P>.01). CONCLUSIONS: Currently, CT.gov is a quite fragmentary source of data on expanded access programs. This problem is important because CT.gov is the only publicly available primary source of information about specific programs. We suggest the actions that should be taken by different stakeholders to fully exploit this register as a source of information about expanded access.


Assuntos
Publicações , Pesquisa , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
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