Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 327
Filtrar
1.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959947

RESUMO

Past-oriented rumination and future-oriented worry are two aspects of perseverative negative thinking related to the neuroticism endophenotype and associated with depression and anxiety. Our present aim was to investigate the genomic background of these two aspects of perseverative negative thinking within separate groups of individuals with suboptimal versus optimal folate intake. We conducted a genome-wide association study in the UK Biobank database (n = 72,621) on the "rumination" and "worry" items of the Eysenck Personality Inventory Neuroticism scale in these separate groups. Optimal folate intake was related to lower worry, but unrelated to rumination. In contrast, genetic associations for worry did not implicate specific biological processes, while past-oriented rumination had a more specific genetic background, emphasizing its endophenotypic nature. Furthermore, biological pathways leading to rumination appeared to differ according to folate intake: purinergic signaling and circadian regulator gene ARNTL emerged in the whole sample, blastocyst development, DNA replication, and C-C chemokines in the suboptimal folate group, and prostaglandin response and K+ channel subunit gene KCNH3 in the optimal folate group. Our results point to possible benefits of folate in anxiety disorders, and to the importance of simultaneously taking into account genetic and environmental factors to determine personalized intervention in polygenic and multifactorial disorders.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/genética , Pessimismo/psicologia , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/genética , Depressão/etiologia , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Neuroticismo , Ruminação Cognitiva , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 198, 2021 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Disorder-specific forms of Repetitive Negative Thinking (RNT) are associated with multiple diagnostic categories, indicating a transdiagnostic nature. Few studies examined content-independent RNT processes across groups of diagnosed mental disorders. Moreover, theory describes RNT processes as critically involved in the etiology of mental disorders, empirical evidence however is scarce. We first tested the transdiagnostic nature by examining levels of RNT across groups of internalizing and externalizing mental disorders compared to healthy individuals and explored RNT levels in a comorbid disorder-group. Second, we examined whether RNT predicts incident psychopathology. METHODS: In a sample of German soldiers (n = 425) scheduled for deployment in Afghanistan, we compared RNT levels between diagnosed groups with alcohol use disorders, anxiety disorders and healthy individuals cross-sectionally. Exploratory analyses were conducted comparing a comorbid disorder-group to healthy individuals and to both single-disorder-groups. Longitudinally, we examined the predictive value of pre-deployment RNT levels for incident psychopathology after deployment (n = 167). RNT was measured using the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ), DSM-IV diagnoses were assessed using the standardized Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). RESULTS: Cross-sectional comparisons revealed that soldiers with alcohol use disorders and anxiety disorders showed significantly higher degrees of RNT compared to healthy soldiers. RNT levels in those with comorbid disorders were significantly higher compared to healthy soldiers but also compared to both single-disorder-groups. Longitudinal analyses revealed that higher levels of RNT prior to deployment were associated with a higher risk to have any incidental mental disorder after deployment. This however is only attributable to individuals with a PTQ score above a cut-off of 15. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide evidence for RNT as a transdiagnostic correlate and a vulnerability factor for the development of mental disorders.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Militares , Pessimismo , Afeganistão , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Soc Sci Med ; 289: 114419, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619631

RESUMO

We consider what might be learned from the unintended, apparently unanticipated, consequences of the use of digital health (including alternatives to face to face consultations, electronic medical records, use of apps and online monitoring) in primary care. We chose a conceptual literature review method, to seek a higher order understanding of the nuanced patterning of unintended consequences of digital health technologies (for people, relationships, organisations and ways of working) which are rarely simply positive or negative. The approach is informed by realist review, which recognises that experiences and outcomes of interventions work (or fail) in different ways in particular contexts. We present three higher order themes to illuminate underpinning mechanisms for unintended consequences in digital health technologies in primary care. These themes are illustrated by case examples, with particular focus on those that have been little discussed in the literature. Following Merton's (1936) differentiation between consequences for the actor(s) and others, which are mediated through the culture and social structure, we discuss consequences that i) disrupt power relations between patients and health professionals or between different groups of health professions, ii) contribute to paradoxical outcomes and iii) result in a potentially corrosive sub-culture of pessimism about digital health. We conclude that when implementing or evaluating digital technologies in primary care, it is wise to consider the 'dark logic' of the intervention (Bonell et al., 2015). Attention to issues of power relations, the potential for paradoxical outcomes, and impacts on the expectations of staff in relation to digital innovation are particularly salient in relation to the dramatic changes in primary care delivery initiated during the Covid-19 pandemic. Fostering a sense of ownership and interest in monitoring the effects that matter to the organisation will likely help counter pessimism and renew interest in deploying those digital innovations that show promise.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessimismo , Humanos , Pandemias , Atenção Primária à Saúde , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Behav Ther ; 52(6): 1339-1350, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656190

RESUMO

Rumination is a transdiagnostic risk factor that appears to be reduced through mindfulness interventions. However, mindfulness mobile apps have not been tested for their effects on rumination, especially among adolescents. Thus, we aimed to test the acceptability and effects of a mindfulness mobile intervention among ruminative adolescents using a within-subjects pretest/posttest design. Participants were 80 adolescents ages 12-15, selected for moderate-to-high rumination (M age = 14.01, SD = .99; 46.2% girls; 86.25% White; 3.75% Hispanic). We asked adolescents to use our mindfulness app 3 times per day for 3 weeks. Participants and parents completed questionnaires at baseline, post-intervention, and 6 and 12 weeks later. Acceptability was assessed by tracking app use and asking adolescents and parents to report on their experiences post-intervention. We assessed repetitive negative thinking (i.e., rumination and worry) and internalizing symptoms via self- and parent-report. The intervention demonstrated acceptability, and there were significant reductions in rumination, worry, anxiety and parent-reported internalizing symptoms post-intervention. Effects on rumination, anxiety and internalizing symptoms persisted throughout the 12-week follow-up with large effect sizes using an intention-to-treat approach. Thus, a brief mindfulness mobile app intervention appeared to be both engaging and helpful in reducing negative repetitive thinking and internalizing symptoms among ruminative adolescents. It will be important to test this intervention in a randomized controlled trial to control for effects of time and attention.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Aplicativos Móveis , Pessimismo , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 865-872, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706457

RESUMO

The present study examined the influence of several forms of repetitive negative thinking on antisocial and borderline symptoms to identify underlying mechanisms that may contribute to the presentation and cooccurrence of these symptoms. Participants (N = 403), completed the Personality Assessment Inventory, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4, and several measures of rumination/worry. Path analyses were conducted in which different forms of rumination/worry predicted antisocial and borderline symptoms across two personality disorder measures. Across both models tested, anger rumination emerged as the strongest predictor of both antisocial and borderline symptoms while worry negatively predicted antisocial symptoms. Rumination and worry explained substantially more variance in borderline symptoms compared to antisocial symptoms. This study is the first study to examine antisocial symptoms in relation to forms of rumination/worry and highlights the differential relations of rumination/worry to antisocial and borderline symptoms using a multi-measure approach. Further, this study highlights the importance of examining types of repetitive negative thinking, specifically rumination, as potential transdiagnostic processes.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Pessimismo , Ira , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682390

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the relationships between sports participation, optimism/pessimism, self-regulation, and coronavirus-related stress in Korean adolescents during the pandemic situation. Specifically, we attempted to offer valuable information that could help to alleviate coronavirus-related stress in adolescents by promoting participation in sports and the development of optimism and self-regulation. To achieve this aim, we conducted an online survey of 836 Korean adolescents in the pilot and main studies. Confirmatory factor, frequency, path, reliability, descriptive statistical, and multimedia analyses were performed. Our findings indicated several differences for each variable according to demographic characteristics. Sports participation exerted a positive effect on optimism (p < 0.001) and self-regulation (p < 0.01) and negative effects on coronavirus-related stress (p < 0.05) and pessimism (p < 0.001). In addition, optimism exerted a positive effect on self-regulation (p < 0.001) and a negative effect on coronavirus-related stress (p < 0.001), while pessimism exerted a negative effect on self-regulation (p < 0.01) and a positive effect on coronavirus-related stress (p < 0.001). Further analysis indicated that self-regulation had a negative effect on coronavirus-related stress (p < 0.05). These findings highlight the need for youth educational institutions to encourage adolescents to participate in sports and for organizing bodies to suggest various policies and provide education that can assist them in properly coping with and overcoming coronavirus-related stress by strengthening their optimistic attitude and self-regulation ability.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Humanos , Otimismo , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 519, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Promoting well-being and preventing poor mental health in young people is a major global priority. Building emotional competence skills via a mobile app may be an effective, scalable and acceptable way to do this. A particular risk factor for anxiety and depression is elevated worry and rumination (repetitive negative thinking, RNT). An app designed to reduce RNT may prevent future incidence of depression and anxiety. METHOD/DESIGN: The Emotional Competence for Well-Being in Young Adults study developed an emotional competence app to be tested via randomised controlled trials in a longitudinal prospective cohort. This off-shoot study adapts the app to focus on targeting RNT (worry, rumination), known risk factors for poor mental health. In this study, 16-24 year olds in the UK, who report elevated worry and rumination on standardised questionnaires are randomised to (i) receive the RNT-targeting app immediately for 6 weeks (ii) a waiting list control who receive the app after 6 weeks. In total, the study will aim to recruit 204 participants, with no current diagnosis of major depression, bipolar disorder or psychosis, across the UK. Assessments take place at baseline (pre-randomisation), 6 and 12 weeks post-randomisation. Primary endpoint and outcome for the study is level of rumination assessed on the Rumination Response Styles Questionnaire at 6 weeks. Worry, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and well-being are secondary outcomes. Compliance, adverse events and potentially mediating variables will be carefully monitored. DISCUSSION: This trial aims to better understand the benefits of tackling RNT via an mobile phone app intervention in young people. This prevention mechanism trial will establish whether targeting worry and rumination directly via an app provides a feasible approach to prevent depression and anxiety, with scope to become a widescale public health strategy for preventing poor mental health and promoting well-being in young people. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04950257 . Registered 6 July 2021 - Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Aplicativos Móveis , Pessimismo , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1042, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC) instrument is commonly used worldwide by professionals of oncology, but the scale has not, up to date, been validated in Arabic and Moroccan context, and there is an absence of data in the Moroccan population. This study aims to validate the Mini-MAC, translated and adapted to the Arabic language and Moroccan culture, in women with breast cancer. METHODS: Data were analyzed in two successive phases. First, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to assess the factor structure in the pilot sample (N = 158). Then, this structure was confirmed in the validation sample (N = 203) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed Watson's original structure underlying the Mini-MAC items: Helpless/Hopeless, Anxious Preoccupation, Fighting Spirit, Cognitive Avoidance, and Fatalism. Absolute, incremental, and parsimonious fit indices showed a highly significant level of acceptance confirming a good performance of the measurement model. The instrument showed sufficient reliability and convergent validity demonstrated by acceptable values of composite reliability (CR =0.93-0.97), and average variance extracted (AVE = 0.66-0.93), respectively. The square roots of AVE were higher than factor-factor pairs correlations, and the Heterotrait-Monotrait ratio of correlations values were lesser than 0.85, indicating acceptable discriminant validity. CONCLUSIONS: reliability; and both convergent and discriminant validity tests indicated that the Arabic version of the Mini-MAC had a good performance and may serve as a valid tool measuring psychological responses to cancer diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Emoções , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Pessimismo , Testes Psicológicos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Traduções
9.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1013, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When children and young people (CYP) are diagnosed with a brain tumour, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is key to the clinical management of this condition. This can produce hundreds, and often thousands, of Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs). METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 14 families (15 parents and 8 patients), and analysed using Grounded Theory. Analysis was supported by the Framework Method. RESULTS: Although the focus of the research was whether paediatric patients and their families find viewing MRIs beneficial, all patients and parents discussed difficult times during the illness and using various strategies to cope. This article explores the identified coping strategies that involved MRIs, and the role that MRIs can play in coping. Coping strategies were classified under the aim of the strategy when used: 'Normalising'; 'Maintaining hope and a sense of the future'; 'Dealing with an uncertain future'; and 'Seeking Support'. CONCLUSIONS: Coping and finding ways to cope are clearly used by patients and their families and are something that they wish to discuss, as they were raised in conversations that were not necessarily about coping. This suggests clinicians should always allow time and space (in appointments, consultations, or impromptu conversations on the ward) for patient families to discuss ways of coping. MRIs were found to be used in various ways: to maintain or adapt normal; maintain hope and a sense of the future; deal with an uncertain future; and seek support from others. Clinicians should recognise the potential for MRIs to aid coping and if appropriate, suggest that families take copies of scans (MRIs) home. Professional coaches or counsellors may also find MRIs beneficial as a way to remind families that the child is in a more stable or 'better' place than they have been previously.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/classificação , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Conselheiros , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Previsões , Teoria Fundamentada , Esperança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessimismo , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto
10.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 130: 240-251, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454913

RESUMO

Humans express stable differences in pessimism that render some individuals more vulnerable to stressors and mood disorders. We explored whether non-human animals express stable individual differences in expectations (assessed via judgment bias tests) and whether these differences relate to susceptibility to stressors. Judgment bias tests do not distinguish pessimism from sensitivity to reinforcers; negative expectations are likely driven by a combination of these two elements. The available evidence suggests that animals express stable individual differences in expectations such that some persistently perceive ambiguous situations in a more negative way. A lack of research prevents drawing firm conclusions on how negative expectations affect responses to stressors, but current evidence suggests a link between negative expectations and the adoption of avoidance coping strategies, stronger responses to uncontrollable stressors and risk of mood-related disorders. We explore implications for animals living in captivity and for research using animals as models for human disorders.


Assuntos
Motivação , Pessimismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Viés , Julgamento
11.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 316: 111353, 2021 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390952

RESUMO

Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a cognitive process characterised by intrusive, repetitive, and difficult-to-disengage-from negative thoughts. Heightened RNT levels are prevalent across clinical disorders and have been associated with ill-health (e.g. cardiovascular disease), even at lower, non-clinical levels. Identifying the neuroanatomical correlates of RNT could help characterise structural alterations that transcend diagnostic boundaries and further understanding of the pathogenesis of clinical disorders. We therefore conducted a systematic review to investigate associations between RNT and brain morphology. Following title/abstract and full-text screening, 24 studies were included. We found evidence that RNT severity is associated with grey and white matter volumes/microstructure, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and superior longitudinal fasciculus, regions heavily implicated in cognitive control, and emotional processing and regulation. However, inconsistent associations, potentially due to the heterogeneity of included studies (e.g. methodological differences, type of RNT assessed), preclude specific conclusions being reached regarding any one region's association with RNT. Further, given the defuse nature of thoughts, it may be that RNT is associated with distributed brain regions operating within large-scale networks, rather than with a single structure. High quality longitudinal studies, investigating structural networks, are required to confirm the neuroanatomical basis of RNT and elucidate the direction of relationships.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 939-948, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attentional control refers to the ability to direct, focus, and shift attention voluntarily, and poor attentional control may confer risk for various affective disorders by increasing repetitive negative thinking. Although attentional control has been described as a trait, it is unclear if it is a time-varying (TV) or state-like factor versus a time-invariant (TI) or trait-like personality characteristic. METHODS: In a 6-wave, 5-month longitudinal study, community participants (n = 1,251) completed the Attentional Control Scale (Derryberry & Reed, 2002), the most commonly used measure of attentional control that includes two components: Focusing and Shifting. A latent variable (trait-state-occasion) model was applied to the two components. RESULTS: The results showed that although estimates of TI factor variance and TV factor variance were both significant for Focusing and Shifting, the proportion of TI factor variance (0.81, 0.77) was significantly greater than the amount of TV factor variance (0.18, 0.22). Furthermore, although TV factor stability was statistically significant for Focusing and Shifting, the size of the coefficients was small to moderate in magnitude. In predicting latent repetitive negative thinking at each of the six time points, regression weights for the attentional control TI factor were significant and larger than those for the TV factor (which were generally not significant). LIMITATIONS: Relatively short timeframe of 5 months and exclusive reliance on self-report measures. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that self-reported attentional control is largely TI and that it is this TI component that predicts repetitive negative thinking.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Atenção , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade
13.
Health Psychol ; 40(6): 408-417, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uveal melanoma, a rare eye cancer, presents potential vision loss and life threat. This prospective, longitudinal study interrogated the predictive utility of visual impairment, as moderated by optimism/pessimism, on depressive symptoms in 299 adults undergoing diagnostic evaluation. METHOD: Depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), subjective (Measure of Outcome in Ocular Disease vision subscale) and objective (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) visual impairment, and optimism/pessimism (Life Orientation Test-Revised) were assessed before diagnostic evaluation and 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months after diagnosis. Multilevel modeling, with repeated measures (Level 1) nested within individuals (Level 2) and imputation of missing data (Blimp software), was performed. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms were significantly more elevated 1 week after diagnosis in cancer patients (n = 107) versus patients not diagnosed with cancer (n = 192). Higher subjective (but not objective) visual impairment predicted greater depressive symptoms (p < .001). Across the entire sample, the two-way (Optimism/Pessimism × Subjective Visual Impairment) interactions were statistically significant (ps < .05), but not the three-way interaction (with diagnosis). The positive association between subjective visual impairment and depressive symptoms was significant at low and moderate levels of optimism (ps < .001), but not at high optimism (p > .05). The association was significant at high and moderate levels (ps < .001), but not low (p > .05) levels of pessimism. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated depressive symptoms are evident in adults who do (vs. do not) receive a diagnosis of uveal melanoma but appear to remit within 3 months. Perceived impaired vision, especially coupled with low optimism or high pessimism, predicts depressive symptoms over time, with implications for intervention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Depressão , Melanoma , Otimismo , Pessimismo , Neoplasias Uveais , Transtornos da Visão , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/psicologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Uveais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Uveais/psicologia , Transtornos da Visão/psicologia
14.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 483-490, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rumination and worry, both forms of repetitive negative thinking (RNT), have been implicated in the onset, maintenance, severity, and relapse risk of depression and anxiety disorders. Despite promising initial findings for internet-delivered interventions targeting both rumination and worry simultaneously, no studies have investigated treatment effects in an adult population or when delivered in a brief, unguided format. We developed a 3-lesson unguided online treatment program targeting both rumination and worry and evaluated the adherence and effectiveness in Australian adults using an open pilot trial. METHODS: Adult participants (N=26) experiencing elevated levels of RNT completed the online program over 6-weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 1-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat linear mixed models were used to examine effects on RNT, anxiety, depression, and general psychological distress. RESULTS: Of the 26 participants who started the program, 18 completed all three lessons (69.2% completion rate). Large within-subject effect sizes were found between pre- and post-treatment for RNT (Hedges' g= 2.26) and symptoms of depression (g = 1.04), generalised anxiety (g = 1.82) and distress (g = 0.93). Treatment effects were maintained at 1-month follow-up. LIMITATIONS: No long-term follow-up, exclusion of severely depressed individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate a brief, unguided internet intervention targeting both rumination and worry in adults. The results provide promising preliminary evidence for the feasibility and acceptability of the online program. Randomised controlled trials are needed to evaluate treatment efficacy compared to a control group and to investigate long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Pessimismo , Adulto , Ansiedade/terapia , Austrália , Humanos , Internet , Projetos Piloto
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209218

RESUMO

Entrepreneurial failure is prevalent, and particularly when the COVID-19 crisis exacerbates the economic recession, it becomes even more prevalent. Entrepreneurs experience an intensive emotional crisis when their ventures fail, and this deleterious impact, including stress and emotional pain, may prevent failed entrepreneurs (FEs) from restarting; hence, how they cope with failure has received increased attention in recent years. However, most of the extant literature focuses on success rather than failure, and there is very limited literature on how FEs cope with the psychological and emotional crisis caused by failure. This study focuses on FEs' use of optimism and defensive pessimism as coping strategies within the mental simulation theory with respect to their re-entry intentions. It examines the impact of career ambition and public self-awareness on optimism, of the fear of failure (FoF) and self-doubt, on defensive pessimism, and of coping humor as a moderator. We used structural equation modeling to analyze the data of 277 Korean FEs who have actual entrepreneurial failure experiences and actively prepared for their re-entry. The results show that career ambitions and public self-awareness have an impact on optimism, and FoF and self-doubt lead to defensive pessimism. Coping humor also has a moderating effect on the path from defensive pessimism to the intention to re-enter. This study advances the literature on coping mechanisms that FEs employ to manage the negative impact of failure and prepare for their subsequent re-entry. Its theoretical model, based on the mental simulation theory combined with social comparison theory, provides a possible integrative framework that includes both the pervasively held view of entrepreneurs' optimism related to overconfidence and their defensive pessimism related to their vulnerability due to their ventures' failure. Thus, this study makes theoretical contributions to the literature of entrepreneurial failure, as well as practical implications for policymakers and educators who assist FEs in successfully coping with entrepreneurial failure and re-entry.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessimismo , Adaptação Psicológica , Empreendedorismo , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(12): 7703-7714, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146165

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although spiritual well-being (SWB) is gaining increasing attention within the international palliative care (PC) guidelines, a lack of insight exists into the correlates and course of SWB among cancer patients. We therefore conducted a prospective observational study to capture trend of SWB and to identify their predictors in Chinese inpatients with terminal cancer receiving short-term PC. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted of terminal cancer inpatients in the hospice ward, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University. A total of 108 patients completed self-report questionnaires on Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Numerical Rating Scales, and Life Orientation Scale-Revised anonymously at baseline; SWB, depression, anxiety, and pain were subsequently assessed at 1-week interval. Multilevel regression was used to analyze the temporal course and predictors of SWB. RESULTS: Patients' existential well-being (B = - 0.99, p = 0.008; 95%CI = - 1.72 to - 0.26) and meaning dimension (B = - 0.87, p < 0.001; 95% CI = - 1.29 to - 0.43) significantly decreased after admission to the PC unit, but peace and faith did not change over time. Increases in depression and pain were related to lower existential well-being, particularly in the meaning dimension. Optimism-pessimism moderated the linear trend of existential well-being and meaning domain, such that those with higher optimism and lower pessimism paired with a decrease in outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Terminal cancer patients experienced worsening existential well-being, particularly in the meaning facet while hospitalized, indicating that PC should include content that targets the existential concerns of spirituality in China. These findings also supported the need for an integrated PC to address personality traits and emotional and physical distress in this population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Pessimismo , Angústia Psicológica , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Dor , Cuidados Paliativos , Qualidade de Vida , Espiritualidade
17.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 88: 102050, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144296

RESUMO

Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) and executive functioning (EF) deficits are each characteristic of many forms of youth psychopathology. Extensive work has examined the relationship between rumination, a form of RNT, and EF in adults. However, less is known about the relationship between RNT more broadly and EF in youth, for whom these constructs are developing and emerging. Here, we systematically and qualitatively reviewed 27 studies on the associations between EF (e.g., shifting, inhibition, working memory) and RNT (e.g., rumination, worry, obsessions) in youth. All forms of RNT were more commonly positively associated with questionnaire-reported EF problems in daily life, most frequently in the domain of shifting. Task-based assessments of EF were less consistently associated with RNT in youth, with no strong pattern of presence vs. absence of associations. Further, limited longitudinal work has been conducted on this topic to date. This review integrates initial work with regard to RNT and EF deficits in a still-developing population, and discusses clear future need for longitudinal, multi-method assessments of the relationship between RNT and EF subtypes in youth.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Função Executiva , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo
18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252195, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081714

RESUMO

This study examines multi-stakeholders' perceptions of vandalism at tourist attractions in two Asian cities: Bangkok and Singapore. It provides an opportunity to explore the differences and similarities in stakeholder attitudes towards attraction management and reveals desired levels of participation of community in managing vandalism in tourism. This mixed method research employs community survey and interviews of site managers and government officials as its main data collection approach. It also offers an innovative approach to data analysis using the severity and optimist/pessimist psychographic variables coupled with quantitative analytical techniques. The results reveal complex relationship between psychographic profiles, future and current time dimensions, and location. In conclusion, the study offers several recommendations to city managers and policymakers on methods of vandalism control. It also highlights the importance of cultural context and its influence on community involvement. While this study is limited to tourism attractions, it provides a solid foundation for future research, one that can extend into urban planning and public policy design.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Criminoso , Otimismo/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Participação dos Interessados , Turismo , Planejamento de Cidades , Humanos , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3166, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039978

RESUMO

Stress is a significant risk factor for the development of major depressive disorder (MDD), yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Preclinically, adaptive and maladaptive stress-induced changes in glutamatergic function have been observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we examine stress-induced changes in human mPFC glutamate using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in two healthy control samples and a third sample of unmedicated participants with MDD who completed the Maastricht acute stress task, and one sample of healthy control participants who completed a no-stress control manipulation. In healthy controls, we find that the magnitude of mPFC glutamate response to the acute stressor decreases as individual levels of perceived stress increase. This adaptative glutamate response is absent in individuals with MDD and is associated with pessimistic expectations during a 1-month follow-up period. Together, this work shows evidence for glutamatergic adaptation to stress that is significantly disrupted in MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Pessimismo/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Anedonia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Behav Res Ther ; 142: 103871, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004447

RESUMO

Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a proximal risk factor implicated in the onset and maintenance of common mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Adolescence may be a key developmental window in which to target RNT and prevent the emergence of such disorders. Impairments in updating the contents of working memory are hypothesised to causally contribute to RNT, and some theorists have suggested these difficulties may be specific to the manipulation of negative information. The present study compared the effects of computerised adaptive working memory updating training (in which the task becomes more difficult as performance improves) to a non-adaptive control task in reducing levels of RNT. 124 healthy young people were randomised to 20 sessions of (i) working memory updating training using neutral stimuli, (ii) working memory updating training using negative stimuli, or (iii) non-adaptive working memory updating training. Adaptive working memory updating training using neutral, but not negative, stimuli resulted in significant improvements to working memory updating for negative material, as assessed using an unpractised task, and significant reductions in susceptibility to state RNT. These findings demonstrate proof-of-concept that working memory updating training has the potential to reduce susceptibility to episodes of state RNT.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Adolescente , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...