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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742324

RESUMO

Prior research has found the differential strength of optimism and pessimism in predicting physical health. However, whether similar findings would be obtained in predicting subjective well-being and the possible underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study examined the relative strength of optimism and pessimism in predicting adolescent life satisfaction and depression, and further explored the possible mediating mechanisms from the perspective of emotion regulation. A sample of 2672 adolescents (Mage = 13.54 years, SD = 1.04; 55.60% boys) completed a survey assessing optimism and pessimism, the habitual use of reappraisal and acceptance strategies, life satisfaction, and depression. The results from dominance analysis revealed that the presence of optimism was more powerful than the absence of pessimism in predicting adolescent life satisfaction, while the absence of pessimism was more powerful than the presence of optimism in predicting adolescent depression. Moreover, mediation models showed that reappraisal and acceptance mediated both the link between optimism and life satisfaction and the link between pessimism and depression. These findings suggest possible avenues for intervening in different aspects of adolescent subjective well-being.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Otimismo/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
An. psicol ; 38(2): 327-335, may. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202893

RESUMO

Las personas con dependencia emocional presentan preocupaciones constantes sobre el posible abandono o traición por parte de la pareja. De esta forma, ponen en marcha un gran abanico de estrategias retentivas dirigidas a cubrir la gran necesidad de controlar la relación. Además, sienten insatisfacción y frustración en la relación ya que sienten que nunca conseguirán lo que quieren o esperan de ella. Por esto, los objetivos del estudio se dirigen a analizar la posible relación entre la dependencia emocional, la intolerancia a la incertidumbre, la tendencia a las preocupaciones y el pesimismo. Asimismo, se comprueba el papel mediador de estos factores en la relación entre la dependencia emocional y la permanencia en relaciones de pareja violentas debido a la elevada prevalencia de darse conjuntamente en una misma relación. Participaron 258 personas, 77.1% mujeres y 22.9% hombres con edades que oscilaron entre los 18 y 67 años (M = 32.63; DT = 11.66). Los resultados reflejaron relaciones positivas entre la dependencia emocional, la intolerancia a la incertidumbre, la tendencia a las preocupaciones y el pesimismo. Igualmente, se comprueba que la dependencia emocional conduce a la permanencia en relaciones violentas a través de los factores mencionados.(AU)


People with emotional dependence present constant concerns about possible abandonment or betrayal by their partner. In this way, they implement a wide range of retention strategies aimed at covering the great need for control in the relationship. In addition, they feel dissatisfaction and frustration in the relationship since they feel they will never get what they want or expect from it. Therefore, the objectives of the study are aimed at analyzing the possible relationship between emotional dependence, intolerance to uncertainty, tendency to worry and pessimism. Also, the mediating role of these factors in the relationship between emotional dependence and permanence in violent relationships is verified due to the high prevalence of occurring jointly in the same relationship. A total of 258 people participated, 77.1% women and 22.9% men with ages ranging from 18 to 67 (M= 32.63; SD= 11.66). The results reflected positive relationships between emotional dependence, intolerance to uncertainty, tendency to worry andpessimism. Likewise, it is proven that emotional dependence leads to permanence in violent relationships through the factors mentioned.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Ciências da Saúde , Violência , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Dependência Psicológica , Incerteza , Pessimismo , Relações Interpessoais , Codependência Psicológica
3.
J Affect Disord ; 311: 446-462, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rumination and worry represent two types of repetitive negative thinking (RNT), and their predictive and maintaining roles are well-established in depression and anxiety, respectively. Furthermore, there is an emerging literature on the link between RNT and psychological wellbeing in the perinatal period. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of studies that have investigated the relationship between RNT and perinatal depression and anxiety. We identified 87 papers eligible for inclusion in the review; they included cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, as well as treatment evaluations (pilot trials and randomised controlled trials). RESULTS: Cross-sectional studies provided evidence of an association between RNT (i.e., rumination and worry) and depression and anxiety, in both pregnancy and postpartum. Longitudinal findings were mixed. Whilst antenatal worry consistently predicted subsequent depression and anxiety (both later in pregnancy and postpartum), rumination did not consistently predict depression. However, there was some evidence that rumination interacted with other processes to predict later psychopathology. Three randomised controlled trials evaluated whether psychological treatments reduce RNT in the perinatal period, only one of which included a clinical sample. LIMITATIONS: No experimental investigations were eligible for inclusion in the review. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are needed to further our understanding of the nature and role of RNT in pregnancy and postpartum, and its consequences for maternal mental health. These include (but are not limited to) experimental investigations, studies with large clinical samples, and RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of psychological interventions targeting RNT to prevent and treat perinatal depression and anxiety.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessimismo/psicologia , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9060, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641600

RESUMO

People are overoptimistic about the future of those they like or admire (social optimism bias), expecting significantly more desirable than undesirable outcomes. By contrast, they are pessimistic about those they don't like. To operationalize the (dis)like of social targets, warmth and competence are used as two universal dimensions of social perception. In this pre-registered study, we replicate previous findings while adding two new levels of complexity. First, we make the distinction between the sociality of future outcomes: "alone" outcomes (e.g., enjoying a quiet afternoon by oneself) and "social" outcomes (e.g., enjoying a vacation with the significant other). Second, we investigate the effect of attachment styles on one's expectations for alone and social outcomes toward the social targets. In line with our hypotheses, the sociality of outcomes moderates both the additive and the multiplicative effects of the perceived warmth and competence of social targets on social optimism bias. Diverging from our hypotheses, we find that attachment anxiety and avoidance do not influence the effects of warmth and competence on social optimism bias. However, exploratory analyses reveal that attachment dimensions buffer the magnitude of social optimism bias for highly self-relevant social targets but do not impact social pessimism bias for irrelevant targets.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Comportamento Social , Ansiedade , Humanos , Otimismo , Percepção Social
5.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2057700, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432784

RESUMO

Background: Childhood adversity has been associated with greater risk of developing psychopathology, altered processing of emotional stimuli, and changes in neural functioning. Although the neural correlates of rumination have been previously described, little is known about how adverse childhood experiences are related to brain functioning during rumination. Objective: This study explored differences in neural functional connectivity between participants with and without histories of childhood adversity, controlling for tendency to ruminate, during resting-state and induction of rumination. Method: A total of 86 adults (51 women) took part. Based on a diagnostic clinical interview, participants were divided into groups with and without adverse childhood experiences. All participants underwent resting-state imaging and a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan where they performed a rumination induction task. Results: Individuals with childhood adversities differed from those without adverse experiences in seed-based functional connectivity from right angular gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus during the rumination task. There were also group differences during resting-state in seed-based functional connectivity from the right angular gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and left superior frontal gyrus. Conclusions: Childhood adversity is associated with altered brain functioning during rumination and resting-state, even after controlling for tendency to ruminate. Our results shed light on the consequences of early adversity. People who experienced childhood adversities differ from those with no adverse experiences in brain functional connectivity when engaged in negative repetitive self-referential thinking.


Antecedentes: La adversidad en la infancia se ha asociado con un mayor riesgo de desarrollar psicopatología, alteración del procesamiento de estímulos emocionales y cambios en el funcionamiento neuronal. Aunque los correlatos neuronales de la rumiación se han descrito previamente, se sabe poco acerca de cómo las experiencias adversas en la infancia se relacionan con el funcionamiento del cerebro durante la rumiación.Objetivo: Este estudio exploró las diferencias en la conectividad neuro funcional entre participantes con y sin antecedentes de adversidad en la infancia, controlando la tendencia a rumiar, durante el estado de reposo y la inducción de la rumiación.Método: Participaron un total de 86 adultos (51 mujeres). Basado en una entrevista clínica de diagnóstico, los participantes se dividieron en grupos con y sin experiencias adversas en infancia. Todos los participantes se sometieron a imágenes en estado de reposo y a una resonancia magnética funcional en la que realizaron una tarea de inducción de la rumiación.Resultados: Los individuos con adversidades en la infancia diferían de aquellos sin experiencias adversas en la conectividad funcional basada en semillas de la circunvolución angular derecha y la circunvolución frontal superior izquierda durante la tarea de rumiación. También hubo diferencias de grupo durante el estado de reposo en la conectividad funcional basada en semillas de la circunvolución angular derecha, la circunvolución temporal media izquierda y la circunvolución frontal superior izquierda.Conclusiones: La adversidad en la infancia se asocia con un funcionamiento cerebral alterado durante la rumiación y el estado de reposo, incluso después de controlar la tendencia a rumiar. Nuestros resultados aclaran las consecuencias de la adversidad temprana. Las personas que experimentaron adversidades en la infancia difieren de aquellas que no tuvieron experiencias adversas en la conectividad funcional del cerebro cuando se dedican al pensamiento autorreferencial repetitivo negativo.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Pessimismo , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
6.
J Affect Disord ; 308: 473-483, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using the Self-Regulatory Executive Function model as a basis, this study explored whether, in both general population and clinical samples, metacognitive beliefs and repetitive negative thinking (i.e., rumination and worry) are associated with higher levels of emotion dysregulation. METHODS: 395 participants from the general population and 388 outpatients seeking psychological treatment were recruited. Emotion dysregulation, metacognitive beliefs, rumination, worry, anxiety, depression, personality disorders were assessed. ANOVA and Welch's tests, correlation and path analyses were run. RESULTS: Repetitive negative thinking was found to play a mediating role in the relationship between metacognitive beliefs and emotion dysregulation in both general population and clinical samples. Moreover, metacognitive beliefs were found to be directly associated to emotion dysregulation. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design. CONCLUSIONS: Emotion dysregulation appears to be associated with the tendency to engage in repetitive negative thinking and metacognitive beliefs. Repetitive negative thinking and metacognitive beliefs could be a suitable therapeutic target to reduce difficulties in emotion regulation.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Metacognição , Pessimismo , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
7.
J Affect Disord ; 308: 554-561, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with depressive psychopathology in survivors. Negative thinking styles are a core feature of major depression, fostering the experience of negative emotions and affects and hampering recovery. This cognitive vulnerability has been observed in medical conditions associated with depression, but never explored in post-COVID depression. METHODS: We studied 729 participants: 362 COVID-19 survivors, 73 inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and 294 healthy participants (HC). Severity of depression was self-rated on the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Neuropsychological bias toward negative emotional stimuli and the negative outlook on the self were tested in a self-description task, yielding latencies and frequencies of attribution of morally tuned elements. Dimensions of negative thinking and depressive cognitive style in evaluation of hypothetical events were measured on the Cognition Questionnaire (CQ). RESULTS: 22.4% COVID survivors self-rated depression above the clinical threshold. Frequencies and latencies of attribution of morally negative elements, and CQ scores, correlated between themselves and predicted ZSDS scores, with post-COVID depressed patients showing intermediate scores between the more severe MDD patients, and non-depressed post-COVID participants and HC. LIMITATIONS: Recruitment was in a single center, thus raising the possibility of population stratification. CONCLUSIONS: The breadth of self-reproach and depressive cognitive style in evaluating events showed the same association with severity of depression in MDD and in post-COVID depressed patients, distributing along a gradient of severity, thus suggesting that individual features of negative thinking styles are shared in these conditions, and should be addressed as treatment targets in depressed COVID-19 survivors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Pessimismo , Cognição , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Humanos , Sobreviventes
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 311: 114478, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35287044

RESUMO

Distress is a characteristic of various mental disorders. The transdiagnostic construct repetitive negative thinking (RNT) has been suggested to contribute to distress. However, there is little evidence that this association can actually be found across diagnostic categories. We analyzed this association for phobias, other anxiety disorders, stress disorders, depressive disorders and substance use disorders in 194 treatment-seeking individuals. RNT was associated with distress across all diagnostic categories with high effect sizes. Except for phobias, these associations were not attributable to general emotion regulation abilities. RNT might contribute to distress in several mental disorders which underlines its potential for transdiagnostic interventions.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pessimismo/psicologia , Percepção Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35250415

RESUMO

Research suggests that the way individuals are oriented towards the future is deeply embedded in their psychology, shaping how they perceive and react to opportunities and threats, even at unconscious levels. We argue that exposures to opportunities and threats over the life course can shape future orientation at a deep level, and that word-valence effects to survey questions indicate optimistic and pessimistic "perceptual-response reflexes" that are manifestations of unconscious dispositions. Using data collected over 25 years in the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) study we analyze variation in word-valence effects by age, birth cohort, gender, and race. The broad adult age-range of the sample and the length of follow-up permits the examination of birth cohorts ranging from the "First Children of the 20th Century" (born before 1917) to "Baby Boomers" (born 1947-1962). We find notable differences in age-graded trends across two overarching birth cohort groups: those who reached high school age before the Supreme Court's landmark Brown vs Board of Education decision in 1954 (i.e., born before 1932) and after (i.e., born in 1932 and later). Age-related trends in optimistic perceptual response diverge notably for women versus men, and for Black versus White Americans. Trends in pessimistic perceptual response differ from trends in optimistic response. For example, in early adulthood Black Americans score higher on both optimistic and pessimistic response patterns than White Americans. Birth-cohort differences in both outcomes vary by gender and race. Those differences are interpreted in terms of changes in political, demographic, and sociocultural contexts.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Cognição , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pessimismo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
11.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 22(1): 21-32, mar. 1, 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-204036

RESUMO

The Fatalism Scale is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring fatalistic beliefs about health. However, no previous studies have been conducted to verify its psychometric properties across different populations and, most importantly, during a public health emergency. Hence, this study aimed to examine the factorial structure, reliability, construct validity, and accuracy of measurement of the Fatalism Scale during the COVID-19 pandemic among Italian-speaking people. The total sample was comprised of 300 participants. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Construct validity was estimated by comparing fatalism scores with two theoretically-related constructs (i.e., optimism, locus of control). The test information function was analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of measurement based on item response theory (IRT). Differences in fatalism scores across gender were examined by performing MANOVAs. Results show a four-factor model: Luck, Powerlessness, Predetermination, and Pessimism with adequate fit indices and satisfactory internal consistency. Data support the expected relationships between fatalism subscales and related measures. The test information function and standard error curve provide the largest amount of information around = zero and two standard deviations above the mean in the latent trait. Significant differences across gender are observed in Luck and Pessimism subscales. Our study suggests that the Fatalism Scale is a valuable tool for assessing fatalism during an acute health crisis among Italian-speaking people. This instrument might be useful for assessing fatalism during future waves of the COVID-19 pandemic and other public health crises (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Inquéritos e Questionários , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pandemias , Otimismo/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Características Culturais , Traduções , Itália
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e050088, 2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35110309

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Infertility and its treatment bring a considerable emotional burden. Increasing evidence demonstrates the effectiveness of smartphone-delivered mindfulness apps for reducing symptoms of emotional distress in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Evidence on this topic in women, men and couples experiencing infertility is currently under-represented. The aim of the MoMiFer study is, therefore, to investigate the efficacy of a stand-alone mobile mindfulness app on symptoms of emotional distress and fertility-related quality of life in people experiencing infertility. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is an exploratory randomised controlled trial (RCT) with open enrollment. The primary outcomes are symptoms of emotional distress and fertility-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes are mindfulness skills, repetitive negative thinking, self-compassion, user-rated quality of the stand-alone mobile mindfulness app and use of the app. Experience sampling method and standardised self-report questionnaires are combined within a repeated measures design to measure the effects of the stand-alone mobile mindfulness app on the primary and secondary outcomes, apart from the use of the app. The latter will be evaluated through app tracking. People, including women, men and couples, experiencing infertility (n=60) will be randomised to an intervention group receiving the stand-alone mobile mindfulness app for 3 months or a wait-list control group. The app follows the format and content of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Data will be collected at baseline, at 1.5 months and 3 months after randomisation. Analysis will be according to intention to treat and based on general linear modelling and multilevel mixed-effects modelling. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study received approval from the Medical Ethical Committee of the Leuven University Hospital (Belgium). The findings of this exploratory RCT will be disseminated through presentations at public lectures, scientific institutions and meetings, and through peer-reviewed scientific articles. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04143828.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Atenção Plena , Aplicativos Móveis , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/terapia , Masculino , Atenção Plena/métodos , Pessimismo , Angústia Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(1): e1009634, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020718

RESUMO

The replay of task-relevant trajectories is known to contribute to memory consolidation and improved task performance. A wide variety of experimental data show that the content of replayed sequences is highly specific and can be modulated by reward as well as other prominent task variables. However, the rules governing the choice of sequences to be replayed still remain poorly understood. One recent theoretical suggestion is that the prioritization of replay experiences in decision-making problems is based on their effect on the choice of action. We show that this implies that subjects should replay sub-optimal actions that they dysfunctionally choose rather than optimal ones, when, by being forgetful, they experience large amounts of uncertainty in their internal models of the world. We use this to account for recent experimental data demonstrating exactly pessimal replay, fitting model parameters to the individual subjects' choices.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Biologia Computacional , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Incerteza
14.
Aggress Behav ; 48(1): 75-84, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724225

RESUMO

Peer victimization (PV) is a serious concern for youth and is associated with subsequent suicide ideation in young adulthood. The interpersonal theory of suicide may provide a framework for understanding suicide ideation in this population. Specifically, thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB) have been significantly associated with suicide ideation among young adults with a history of peer victimization. Additionally, the personality trait of pessimism is associated with elevated suicide ideation. Thus, this study tested the association between self-reported frequency of retrospective relational (i.e., verbal and indirect) PV in primary and secondary school, thwarted interpersonal needs (TB and PB), and current suicide ideation, as well as how these relations may vary based on current pessimism. Participants were 330 undergraduate students. Nonparametric bootstrap moderated mediation procedures were used to test hypotheses. Results indicated significant indirect effects of frequency of retrospective relational PV and suicide ideation through PB and TB. Contrary to predictions, results did not indicate significant moderated mediation; however, the association between PB and suicide ideation was stronger at lower pessimism levels. We also provide supplemental analysis with optimism as the moderator. These findings suggest that clinicians may consider targeting TB, PB, as well as pessimism and optimism among those with a history of relational PV when assessing and intervening on current suicide ideation. Implications, limitations, and future directions are further discussed.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Pessimismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Teoria Psicológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Med Humanit ; 43(1): 117-128, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984453

RESUMO

Tragedy is a founding theme in disability studies. Critical disability studies have, since their inception, argued that understandings of disability as tragedy obscure the political dimensions of disability and are a barrier facing disabled persons in society. In this paper, we propose an affirmative understanding of tragedy, employing the philosophical works of Nietzsche, Spinoza and Hasana Sharp. Tragedy is not, we argue, something to be opposed by disability politics; we can affirm life within it. To make our case, we look to an ongoing ethnography of two Canadian children's rehabilitation clinics. Looking to the clinical experience of Canadian boys and young men diagnosed with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and those of their families, we show how this affirmative understanding of tragedy allows us to pursue the themes of disability politics within tragedy. Contrary to an optimism that would eschew tragedy at all costs or a pessimistic approach that declines to act in the face of tragic circumstance, we argue that a revised understanding of tragedy allows us to situate the occasionally-tragic clinical experience of disability in a philosophy of life. Both disability and tragedy point us to the shared entanglements that make life what it is.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Pessimismo , Canadá , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Otimismo , Filosofia
16.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 77(2): 315-322, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research documents the adverse health effects of systemic inflammation. Overall, older Black Americans tend to have higher inflammation than older non-Hispanic White adults. Given that inflammation is related to a range of chronic health problems that disproportionately affect Blacks compared to Whites, this racial disparity in inflammation may contribute to racial disparities in particular chronic health problems. Thus, a better understanding of its determinants in the older Black population is of critical importance. This analysis examined the association between neighborhood characteristics and inflammation in a national sample of older non-Hispanic Black Americans. An additional aim of this study was to determine whether hopelessness and pessimism moderate the association between neighborhood characteristics and inflammation. METHODS: A sample of older non-Hispanic Black Americans aged 60+ were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 1004). Neighborhood characteristics included neighborhood physical disadvantage and neighborhood social cohesion. Inflammation was assessed by C-reactive protein. RESULTS: The analyses indicated that neighborhood physical disadvantage and social cohesion were not associated with C-reactive protein. Hopelessness and pessimism moderated the association between neighborhood physical disadvantage and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge regarding the role of hopelessness and pessimism as moderator in the neighborhood-inflammation association can inform cognitive-behavioral interventions targeted at changes in cognition patterns.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Pessimismo , Proteína C-Reativa , Humanos , Inflamação , Características de Residência
17.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 29(2): 706-717, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431580

RESUMO

The metacognitive formulation of addictive behaviours considers repetitive negative thinking (RNT) and metacognitive beliefs as two important processes involved in the development and maintenance of addictive behaviours. To date, very limited research has investigated the implication of these processes in problematic cannabis use. The present study was aimed at exploring the association between RNT, metacognitive beliefs, and cannabis use in a sample of 157 problematic cannabis users. Participants were administered measures of cannabis use severity, RNT, metacognitive beliefs, anxiety, and depression. Multiple regression analysis showed that metacognitive beliefs (cognitive confidence, beliefs about the need to control thought, and cognitive self-consciousness) were independent predictors of problematic cannabis use and related problem severity when controlling for RNT and negative affect (anxiety and depression). Furthermore, RNT predicted problematic cannabis use severity only for users with low levels of negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger. These data suggest that metacognitive beliefs and RNT may be two relevant cognitive processes for understanding problematic cannabis use. More generally, it enables the consideration of cannabis use from the perspective of self-regulation theories, and more specifically cognitive regulation, thus offering several theoretical and clinical implications.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Metacognição , Pessimismo , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 61(2): 242-254, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617301

RESUMO

This paper sought to provide the first validation of a transdiagnostic measure of repetitive negative thinking - the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire-Child version (PTQ-C) - in young people diagnosed with anxiety and depressive disorders. Participants (N = 114) were 11- to 17-year-olds with complex and comorbid presentations seeking treatment through Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. Confirmatory factor analyses best supported a three-factor model for the PTQ-C; however, hypotheses of both perfect and close fit were rejected, and a subsequent bifactor model suggested minimal unique variance for each subscale. Results demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity and divergent validity for the total score and three PTQ-S subscales: core characteristics, perceived unproductiveness, and consumed mental capacity of negative repetitive thinking. PTQ-C scores did not account for additional variance in anxiety symptoms once worry was considered, indicating that retention of a content-specific measure may be warranted in clinical samples. Findings emphasize the importance of validating clinically relevant measures which were developed with subclinical populations in samples with diagnosed mental health disorders. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Validates Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire in anxious and depressed youth. Support for convergent and divergent validity, and internal consistency. Results suggest measure is appropriate for complex and comorbid presentations.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Pessimismo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Scand J Pain ; 22(2): 374-384, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Past work has found that optimism reduces a person's responsiveness to pain, but the effects of pessimism are not clear. Therefore, we gave pessimistic forecasts of participants' future social life and measured changes in their pain responsiveness. In particular, some participants were told that they would end up alone in life. METHODS: Seventy-five subjects were investigated in three conditions (negative forecast, positive forecast, no forecast) for changes in pain threshold and pain tolerance threshold. Pressure pain induction was accomplished by either human- or machine-driven algometers. A randomly assigned bogus forecast promising either a lonely or a socially satisfying future was ostensibly based on a personality questionnaire and an emotional dot-probe task. As potential covariates, questionnaires assessing dispositional optimism (LOT-R), pain catastrophizing (PCS), and self-esteem (SISE) were given. RESULTS: Pain thresholds suggested a change toward unresponsiveness only in the negative forecast condition, with only small differences between the modes of pain induction (i.e., human or machine). The results for pain tolerance thresholds were less clear also because of limiting stimulation intensity for safety reasons. The covariates were not associated with these changes. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, people expecting a lonely future became moderately less responsive to pain. This numbing effect was not modulated by personality measures, neither in a protective fashion via dispositional optimism and self-esteem nor in a risk-enhancing fashion via trait pain catastrophizing. Alternative mechanisms of action should be explored in future studies.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Catastrofização/psicologia , Humanos , Otimismo , Dor/psicologia , Personalidade
20.
J Sleep Res ; 31(1): e13452, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350657

RESUMO

Circadian dysregulation and depressed mood commonly co-occur in young people, yet mechanisms linking Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase disorder (DSWPD) with depression are poorly understood. The present study aimed to examine the role of repetitive negative thinking (RNT), by comparing sleep, RNT and depressive symptomology between 40 'good' sleeping young people and 63 with DSWPD, with (n = 30) and without (n = 33) self-reported doctor-diagnosed depression. Secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial was also undertaken to observe changes in depressive symptoms and RNT as a result of treatment for DSWPD. The 60 young people with DSWPD (mean [SD] age of 15.9 [2.2] years, 63% female) received either short (green) or long (red) wavelength bright light therapy (BLT) over 3 weeks. Cross-sectional baseline comparisons revealed an escalating pattern of worse sleep, more RNT and higher depressed mood scores in the DSWPD young people compared to good sleepers. Across all participants, RNT accounted for the associations between sleep-onset difficulties and depressed mood at baseline. Symptoms of depression, RNT and sleep onset difficulties in DSWPD individuals significantly improved after treatment (d = 0.47-0.65) and at the 1- (d = 0.43-1.00) and 3-month follow-up (d = 0.39-1.38), yet there were no differences between short- and long-wavelength BLT. Results provide preliminary evidence that RNT may link delayed sleep phase with depression. BLT conferred sleep benefits, but also improvements in depressed mood and RNT, and thus represents a potentially cost-effective strategy for young people experiencing delayed sleep phase and low mood.


Assuntos
Pessimismo , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sono , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/terapia
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