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1.
Theor Appl Genet ; 135(9): 3073-3086, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902398

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Eight soybean genomic regions, including six never before reported, were found to be associated with resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in the southeastern USA. Soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi is one of the most important foliar diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Although seven Rpp resistance gene loci have been reported, extensive pathotype variation in and among fungal populations increases the importance of identifying additional genes and loci associated with rust resistance. One hundred and ninety-one soybean plant introductions from Japan, Indonesia and Vietnam, and 65 plant introductions from other countries were screened for resistance to P. pachyrhizi under field conditions in the southeastern USA between 2008 and 2015. The results indicated that 84, 69, and 49% of the accessions from southern Japan, Vietnam or central Indonesia, respectively, had negative BLUP values, indicating less disease than the panel mean. A genome-wide association analysis using SoySNP50K Infinium BeadChip data identified eight genomic regions on seven chromosomes associated with SBR resistance, including previously unreported regions of Chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 9, 13, and 15, in addition to the locations of the Rpp3 and Rpp6 loci. The six unreported genomic regions might contain novel Rpp loci. The identification of additional sources of rust resistance and associated genomic regions will further efforts to develop soybean cultivars with broad and durable resistance to soybean rust in the southern USA.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Genes de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Genótipo , Indonésia , Japão , Phakopsora pachyrhizi/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/genética , Soja/microbiologia , Vietnã
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2523: 79-91, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759192

RESUMO

To obtain direct evidence for the influence of an effector on the virulence or pathogenicity of a pathogen, it is necessary to knock out, knock down, or silence the respective gene. Since genetic transformation is not yet possible for rust fungi, silencing the gene is the only option. Posttranscriptional gene silencing uses RNAi. RNAi in plant pathogens can be accomplished by introducing dsRNA either by direct application of in vitro synthesized dsRNA or through positive-strand or double-strand RNA plant viruses. For studying effectors in Phakopsora pachyrhizi, we have implemented a host-induced silencing procedure based on virus-induced gene silencing using the bean pod mottle virus system. Here, procedures and interpretations of results are described and limitations of the system are discussed.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Basidiomycota/genética , Inativação Gênica , Phakopsora pachyrhizi/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/genética
3.
Phytopathology ; 112(7): 1413-1421, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35080435

RESUMO

Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) fungicides are used to control Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi), and the SdhC-I86F mutation is related to pathogen resistance. The objective of this study was to determine whether fitness penalties are associated with SDHI resistance (SdhC-I86F mutation) in P. pachyrhizi populations. Moreover, the study investigated whether the SdhC-I86F mutation remained stable after the fungus propagation both in the absence and presence of fungicide. The populations used in this study presented mutations for all genes analyzed (Cyp51, Cytb, and SdhC), except for a wild-type population (WTSdhC) found with no SdhC-I86F mutation. The frequencies of the SdhC-I86F mutant populations were stable after 36 generations in the absence of fungicide. However, in the case of the WTSdhC population, the SdhC-I86F mutation was further detected after one generation of the fungus in the presence of the SDHI fungicide, according to the results of a detached leaf assay. Three tests were performed to evaluate fitness components and sensitivity to fungicides (half maximal effective concentration). SdhC-I86F mutant populations were more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stress than the WTSdhC population; however, the sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation was similar for both populations. All mutated populations were less sensitive than the WTSdhC when using SDHI (azoxystrobin + benzovindiflupyr), but more sensitive to mancozeb. The presence of fitness penalties, the mutation stability, and the sensitivity to mancozeb presented by the SdhC-I86F mutant populations can be relevant to the management of the disease in the field.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Mutação , Phakopsora pachyrhizi/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raios Ultravioleta
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(2)2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062631

RESUMO

Mato Grosso, Brazil, is the largest soy producer in the country. Asian Soy Rust is a disease that has already caused a lot of damage to Brazilian agribusiness. The plant matures prematurely, hindering the filling of the pod, drastically reducing productivity. It is caused by the Phakopsora pachyrhizi fungus. For a plant disease to establish itself, the presence of a pathogen, a susceptible plant, and favorable environmental conditions are necessary. This research developed a fuzzy system gathering these three variables as inputs, having as an output the vulnerability of the region to the disease. The presence of the pathogen was measured using a diffusion-advection equation appropriate to the problem. Some coefficients were based on the literature, others were measured by a fuzzy system and others were obtained by real data. From the mapping of producing properties, the locations where there are susceptible plants were established. And the favorable environmental conditions were also obtained from a fuzzy system, whose inputs were temperature and leaf wetness. Data provided by IBGE, INMET, and Antirust Consortium were used to fuel the model, and all treatments, tests, and simulations were carried out within the Matlab® environment. Although Asian Soybean Rust was the chosen disease here, the model was general in nature, so could be reproduced for any disease of plants with the same profile.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Doenças das Plantas , Folhas de Planta , Soja
5.
Phytopathology ; 112(4): 862-871, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622696

RESUMO

With the progressive loss of fungicide efficacy against Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of Asian soybean rust (ASR), alternative methods to protect soybean crops are needed. Resistance induction is a low impact alternative and/or supplement to fungicide applications that fortifies innate plant defenses against pathogens. Here, we show that a microbial fermentation product (MFP) induces plant defenses in soybean, and transcriptional induction is enhanced with the introduction of ASR. MFP-treated plants exhibited 1,011 and 1,877 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) 12 and 60 h after treatment, respectively, compared with water controls. MFP plants exposed to the pathogen 48 h after application and sampled 12 h later (for a total of 60 h) had 2,401 DEGs compared with control. The plant defense genes PR1, PR2, IPER, PAL, and CHS were induced with MFP application, and induction was enhanced with ASR. Enriched pathways associated with pathogen defense included plant-pathogen interactions, MAPK signaling pathways, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, flavonoid metabolism, and isoflavonoid metabolism. In field conditions, elevated antioxidant peroxidase activities and phenolic accumulation were measured with MFP treatment; however, improved ASR control or enhanced crop yield were not observed. MFP elicitation differences between field and laboratory grown plants necessitates further testing to identify best practices for effective disease management with MFP-treated soybean.


Assuntos
Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Soja , Fermentação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Soja/genética
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24453, 2021 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961779

RESUMO

Soybean is one of the most important legume crops worldwide. However, soybean yield is dramatically affected by fungal diseases, leading to economic losses of billions of dollars yearly. Here, we integrated publicly available genome-wide association studies and transcriptomic data to prioritize candidate genes associated with resistance to Cadophora gregata, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium virguliforme, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Phakopsora pachyrhizi. We identified 188, 56, 11, 8, and 3 high-confidence candidates for resistance to F. virguliforme, F. graminearum, C. gregata, M. phaseolina and P. pachyrhizi, respectively. The prioritized candidate genes are highly conserved in the pangenome of cultivated soybeans and are heavily biased towards fungal species-specific defense responses. The vast majority of the prioritized candidate resistance genes are related to plant immunity processes, such as recognition, signaling, oxidative stress, systemic acquired resistance, and physical defense. Based on the number of resistance alleles, we selected the five most resistant accessions against each fungal species in the soybean USDA germplasm. Interestingly, the most resistant accessions do not reach the maximum theoretical resistance potential. Hence, they can be further improved to increase resistance in breeding programs or through genetic engineering. Finally, the coexpression network generated here is available in a user-friendly web application ( https://soyfungigcn.venanciogroup.uenf.br/ ) and an R/Shiny package ( https://github.com/almeidasilvaf/SoyFungiGCN ) that serve as a public resource to explore soybean-pathogenic fungi interactions at the transcriptional level.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/genética , Fusarium/fisiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Phakopsora pachyrhizi/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/microbiologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6424, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741028

RESUMO

Medicines and agricultural biocides are often discovered using large phenotypic screens across hundreds of compounds, where visible effects of whole organisms are compared to gauge efficacy and possible modes of action. However, such analysis is often limited to human-defined and static features. Here, we introduce a novel framework that can characterize shape changes (morphodynamics) for cell-drug interactions directly from images, and use it to interpret perturbed development of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the Asian soybean rust crop pathogen. We describe population development over a 2D space of shapes (morphospace) using two models with condition-dependent parameters: a top-down Fokker-Planck model of diffusive development over Waddington-type landscapes, and a bottom-up model of tip growth. We discover a variety of landscapes, describing phenotype transitions during growth, and identify possible perturbations in the tip growth machinery that cause this variation. This demonstrates a widely-applicable integration of unsupervised learning and biophysical modeling.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Soja/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Phakopsora pachyrhizi/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/virologia
8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(10): 4331-4339, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fungicides of the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) group have been used in soybean to control Asian soybean rust (ASR) caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Fungal populations with less sensitivity to SDHI fungicides have been reported since 2015. RESULTS: In this study, fungal sensitivity to benzovindiflupyr (BZV) and fluxapyroxad (FXD) was assessed using a total of 770 P. pachyrhizi populations sampled over four soybean growing seasons. Cross-resistance, intrinsic activity, and frequency of SDHC-I86F mutation were also analyzed. The average effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50 ) and SDHC-I86F frequency increased over the 2015/2016, 2016/2017, 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 soybean-seasons. Fourteen P. pachyrhizi populations had the EC50 value above 10 mg L-1 for both carboxamides. No difference was found in intrinsic active to BZV and FXD fungicides for sensitive P. pachyrhizi populations. For P. pachyrhizi classified as less sensitive BZV showed the highest fungitoxicity effect. High frequency of the C-I86F mutation was observed in samples collected in volunteer soybean plants. The maximum frequency of SDHC-I86F mutation in the population was 50% and resulting in ASR populations with low sensitivity to SDHIs. A low correlation between bioassay and SDHC-I86F mutation was observed possible due to the dikaryotic nature of rust fungi or other mutations in the other succinate dehydrogenase subunits. CONCLUSION: The present work provides an overview of a large sampling size of P. pachyrhizi populations and their performance over the four crop seasons. The high frequency of SDHC-I86F mutation and low sensitivity to SDHIs are widely distributed in the main soybean growing regions in Brazil and present in volunteer plants in the soybean-free period. Further detailed studies are needed to identify novel point mutations affecting the effectiveness of SDHIs. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética , Amidas , Brasil , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Taxa de Mutação , Norbornanos , Phakopsora pachyrhizi/genética , Doenças das Plantas , Pirazóis
9.
BMC Biotechnol ; 21(1): 27, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungal pathogen responsible for the Asian soybean rust disease causing important yield losses in tropical and subtropical soybean-producing countries. P. pachyrhizi triggers important transcriptional changes in soybean plants during infection, with several hundreds of genes being either up- or downregulated. RESULTS: Based on published transcriptomic data, we identified a predicted chitinase gene, referred to as GmCHIT1, that was upregulated in the first hours of infection. We first confirmed this early induction and showed that this gene was expressed as early as 8 h after P. pachyrhizi inoculation. To investigate the promoter of GmCHIT1, transgenic soybean plants expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) under the control of the GmCHIT1 promoter were generated. Following inoculation of these transgenic plants with P. pachyrhizi, GFP fluorescence was detected in a limited area located around appressoria, the fungal penetration structures. Fluorescence was also observed after mechanical wounding whereas no variation in fluorescence of pGmCHIT1:GFP transgenic plants was detected after a treatment with an ethylene precursor or a methyl jasmonate analogue. CONCLUSION: We identified a soybean chitinase promoter exhibiting an early induction by P. pachyrhizi located in the first infected soybean leaf cells. Our results on the induction of GmCHIT1 promoter by P. pachyrhizi contribute to the identification of a new pathogen inducible promoter in soybean and beyond to the development of a strategy for the Asian soybean rust disease control using biotechnological approaches.


Assuntos
Quitinases/genética , Phakopsora pachyrhizi/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Soja/enzimologia , Soja/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Phakopsora pachyrhizi/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia
10.
Physiol Plant ; 170(4): 592-606, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918487

RESUMO

Nickel (Ni) and glyphosate (Gl) are able to reduce the symptoms of Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, in soybean. However, their combined effects on the energy balance and ethylene metabolism of soybean plants infected with this fungus has not been elucidated. Therefore, the effects of Ni, Gl, and the combination of Ni + Gl on ASR development, photosynthetic capacity, sugar concentrations, and ethylene concentrations in plants of a Gl-resistant cultivar, uninfected or infected with P. pachyrhizi, were investigated. Inoculated plants supplied with Ni had the highest foliar Ni concentration in all the treatments. Gl had a negative effect on the foliar Ni concentration in Ni-sprayed plants. The ASR severity was reduced in plants sprayed with Ni and Gl. Carotenoid and chlorophyll concentrations were higher in inoculated Ni, Gl, and Ni + Gl plants than in control plants. Based on the chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, the photosynthetic apparatus of the control inoculated plants was damaged, and the least amount of energy was directed to the photochemistry process in these plants. The reduced capacity of the photosynthetic mechanism to capture light and use the energy absorbed by photosystem II in inoculated plants was reflected in their reduced capacity to process CO2 , as indicated by the high internal CO2 concentrations and low rates of net carbon assimilation. The low sugar concentrations in inoculated plants from the control treatment were linked to their reduced photosynthetic capacity due to the high ASR severity. In uninfected plants, the ethylene concentration was not affected by Ni or Gl, while the ethylene concentration decreased in inoculated plants; this decrease was more pronounced in plants from the control treatment than in treated inoculated plants. In conclusion, this study sheds light on the role played by both Ni and Gl in ASR control from a physiological perspective. Soybean plants exposed to Ni and Gl were able to maintain high ethylene concentrations and photosynthetic capacity during the P. pachyrhizi infection process; as a result, these plants consumed less of their reserves than inoculated plants not treated with Ni or Gl.


Assuntos
Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Clorofila A , Etilenos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Níquel , Fotossíntese , Soja
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13270, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764613

RESUMO

Asian soybean rust caused by the fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi is the most devastating disease of soybean. The host cultivar specificity of the pathogen shows considerable differentiation depending on the area and season of its emergence. Although resistance genes for P. pachyrhizi (Rpp) have been reported in several soybean varieties, the genetic background of these varieties is highly differentiated. Furthermore, some of the varieties harbor unknown genetic factors in addition to Rpp that could influence resistance reactions against the pathogen. In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of Rpp-P. pachyrhizi interactions, homogenous plant material harboring Rpp genes is necessary. In this study, we bred Rpp-near isogenic lines (Rpp-NILs), which retained identical plant characters originating from a single genetic background, and accordingly showed low-variant compatible/incompatible reactions against the pathogen. These Rpp-NILs can be used as genetic resources for studying P. pachyrhizi epidemiology and elucidating resistance mechanisms. Compatible/incompatible relationships between the soybean rust resistance gene Rpp and isolates of the pathogen P. pachyrhizi are clearly distinguishable using the Rpp-NILs bred in this study.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Phakopsora pachyrhizi/patogenicidade , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/genética , Soja/microbiologia
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20180168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520214

RESUMO

Meta-analysis is a probabilistic technique that combines results from several studies that approach the same topic and produce a result that sums up the whole. In the agricultural field, it is used to make empirical estimates of efficiency for the development of productivity and economic research on agriculture. Meta-analysis can be applied through software such as R, which is executed through commands, and produces results without providing user interactivity, nor does it reproduce a friendly and easy-to-understand interface. This paper presents the creation of a computer system, the WMA, which aims to simplify the execution of meta-analysis, providing a graphical interface and improves the display of the results through an interactive visualization using the Hierarchical Information Visualization Technique Bifocal Tree. For validation, the meta-analysis was applied in the agricultural area in a case study that grouped studies that used the fungicide fluquinconazole to combat the soybean rust disease, the results obtained through the application of the meta-analysis were analyzed using the WMA proposed tool.


Assuntos
Phakopsora pachyrhizi/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Software , Triazóis/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(10): 3357-3368, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trifluoromethyloxadiazoles (TFMOs) are selective inhibitors of class II histone deacetylases (HDACs). To date, class II HDACs have not been addressed as target enzymes by commercial fungicides. RESULTS: Antifungal testing of a broad variety of TFMOs against several important plant pathogens showed activity against only rusts, and especially Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the cause of Asian soybean rust. A structure-activity relationship was established, leading to highly active fungicides that inhibit fungal class II and HOS3-type HDACs of Aspergillus nidulans. Studies of the enzyme-inhibitor binding mode using protein structural information based on the crystal structure of human HDAC4 argue that TFMOs inhibit these enzymes only after undergoing hydration. CONCLUSION: Fungal class II HDACs are potential target enzymes for the control of at least some biotrophic crop diseases, in particular Asian soybean rust. As with any novel mode-of-action, class II HDAC fungicides would offer the potential to control fungal isolates that show reduced sensitivity toward existing commercial fungicides.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Fungicidas Industriais , Histona Desacetilases , Humanos , Soja
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 151: 526-534, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305819

RESUMO

The biotrophic fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi is currently the major pathogen affecting soybean production worldwide. It has already been suggested for the non-host interaction between P. pachyrhizi and Arabidopsis thaliana that the fungus in early infection induces jasmonic acid (JA) pathway to the detriment of the salicylic acid (SA) pathway as a mechanism to the establishment of infection. In this study, we verified that this mechanism might also be occurring during the compatible interaction in soybean (Glycine max L. Merril). It was demonstrated that P. pachyrhizi triggers a JA pathway during the early and late stages of infection in a susceptible soybean cultivar. The expression of the GmbZIP89 was induced in a biphasic profile, similarly to other JA responsive genes, which indicates a new marker gene for this signaling pathway. Additionally, plants silenced for GmbZIP89 (iGmZIP89) by the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach present lower severity of infection and higher expression of pathogenesis related protein 1 (PR1). The lower disease severity showed that the iGmbZIP89 plants became more resistant to infection. These data corroborate the hypothesis that the GmbZIP89 may be a resistance negative regulator. In conclusion, we demonstrated that P. pachyrhizi mimics a necrotrophic fungus and activates the JA/ET pathway in soybean. It is possible to suppose that its direct penetration on epidermal cells or fungal effectors may modulate the expression of target genes aiming the activation of the JA pathway and inhibition of SA defense.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Oxilipinas , Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Transdução de Sinais , Soja , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Phakopsora pachyrhizi/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia
15.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 21(6): 794-807, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196911

RESUMO

Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by the obligate fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi, often leads to significant yield losses and can only be managed through fungicide applications currently. In the present study, eight urediniospore germination or appressorium formation induced P. pachyrhizi genes were investigated for their feasibility to suppress ASR through a bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-based host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) strategy. Soybean plants expressing three of these modified BPMV vectors suppressed the expression of their corresponding target gene by 45%-80%, fungal biomass accumulation by 58%-80%, and significantly reduced ASR symptom development in soybean leaves after the plants were inoculated with P. pachyrhizi, demonstrating that HIGS can be used to manage ASR. In addition, when the in vitro synthesized double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) for three of the genes encoding an acetyl-CoA acyltransferase, a 40S ribosomal protein S16, and glycine cleavage system H protein were sprayed directly onto detached soybean leaves prior to P. pachyrhizi inoculation, they also resulted in an average of over 73% reduction of pustule numbers and 75% reduction in P. pachyrhizi biomass accumulation on the detached leaves compared to the controls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of suppressing P. pachyrhizi infection in soybean through both HIGS and spray-induced gene silencing. It was demonstrated that either HIGS constructs targeting P. pachyrhizi genes or direct dsRNA spray application could be an effective strategy for reducing ASR development on soybean.


Assuntos
Comovirus/genética , Phakopsora pachyrhizi/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Soja/imunologia , Inativação Gênica , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Soja/genética , Soja/microbiologia
16.
Plant Dis ; 104(4): 1087-1095, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031475

RESUMO

Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & P. Syd., is one of the most economically important foliar diseases of soybean. Resistant cultivars could reduce yield losses and management costs but considerable pathogenic diversity exists among populations of the fungus; thus, resistance to a range of pathotypes is essential. Seedling and detached-leaf assays were conducted to characterize the resistance of 55 soybean plant introductions (PIs) to six purified isolates of P. pachyrhizi originating from the southern United States. In the greenhouse resistance assays, the differentials Hyuuga (PI 506764) and PI 471904 and accessions PI 224268, PI 567025A, PI 567039, PI 567046A, and DT 2000 (PI 635999) were resistant to all six isolates, including Florida isolates from 2011 and 2012 that were able to defeat resistance conditioned by the Rpp1 through Rpp4 genes. Twenty-six other PIs were resistant to four or five of the six isolates. In the detached-leaf assays, eight accessions developed reddish-brown reactions to all six isolates, with an average of only 0.23 to 0.55 uredinia/lesion. These included Hyuuga, DT 2000, two differentials with a resistance allele at the Rpp5 locus, and accessions PI 224268, PI 423960B, PI 567025A, and PI 567046A. Many of the resistant accessions have subsequently been reported to have a resistance allele at the Rpp3 locus, and two others have resistance genes at the Rpp4 or Rpp6 locus. This study provided new information about resistance reaction phenotypes that can be useful for understanding mechanisms of resistance, which Rpp genes and alleles could be combined to obtain broader and more durable rust resistance in soybean cultivars, and pathotype diversity among the six isolates used.


Assuntos
Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Florida , Genes de Plantas , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas , Soja , Estados Unidos
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 138, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924833

RESUMO

Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), caused by the biotrophic fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a devastating disease with an estimated crop yield loss of up to 90%. Yet, there is a nerf of information on the metabolic response of soybean plants to the pathogen Untargeted metabolomics and Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking platform approach was used to explore soybean metabolome modulation to P. pachyrhizi infection. Soybean plants susceptible to ASR was inoculated with P. pachyrhizi spore suspension and non-inoculated plants were used as controls. Leaves from both groups were collected 14 days post-inoculation and extracted using different extractor solvent mixtures. The extracts were analyzed on an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system coupled to high-definition electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. There was a significant production of defense secondary metabolites (phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and flavonoids) when P. pachyrhizi infected soybean plants, such as putatively identified liquiritigenin, coumestrol, formononetin, pisatin, medicarpin, biochanin A, glyoceollidin I, glyoceollidin II, glyoceollin I, glyoceolidin II, glyoceolidin III, glyoceolidin IV, glyoceolidin VI. Primary metabolites (amino acids, peptides and lipids) also were putatively identified. This is the first report using untargeted metabolomics and GNPS-Molecular Networking approach to explore ASR in soybean plants. Our data provide insights into the potential role of some metabolites in the plant resistance to ASR, which could result in the development of resistant genotypes of soybean to P. pachyrhizi, and effective and specific products against the pathogen.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Phakopsora pachyrhizi/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1422-1431, sept./oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048985

RESUMO

At maximum vegetative growth, sprays with fungicide to control Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow and P. Sydow) should reach high canopy penetration and plant coverage. Therefore, the central objective of this study was to determine leaf area, spray deposition, and plant coverage by fungicides sprayed on soybeans as a function of sowing seasons and plant population densities with reduced doses of tebuconazole and azoxystrobin + cyproconazole. Field experiments were conducted in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 crop years, using a medium-cycle soybean cultivar MG/BR­46 (Conquista) under a natural infestation of Asian soybean rust. Leaf area (LA) and leaf area index (LAI) were measured at three developmental stages (V8, R2, and R4). Spray deposition and coverage were evaluated during the first fungicide spraying. As results, LAI decreased as plant population decreased. Despite the lower LAIs, smaller plant populations had no effect on spray deposition and plant coverage. Both fungicides presented similar depositions on all thirds when plants had lower development.


Para o controle da ferrugem asiática (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow & P. Sydow), quando as plantas atingem o máximo de desenvolvimento vegetativo, as pulverizações com fungicidas necessitam de alta capacidade de penetração e cobertura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a área foliar, o depósito e a cobertura de calda fungicida em soja em função de épocas de semeadura, populações de plantas e doses reduzidas de fungicidas. Experimentos de campo foram conduzidos nos anos agrícolas 2009/2010 e de 2010/2011, com a cultivar de ciclo médio MG/BR-46 (Conquista), sob infestação natural da ferrugem asiática. Nos estádios V8, R2 e R4 de desenvolvimento da cultura foram determinados a área foliar e o índice de área foliar (IAF) das plantas. As avaliações de depósito e cobertura foram realizadas no momento da primeira pulverização com os tratamentos fungicidas. Com a redução da população de plantas houve redução no IAF. Os depósitos e coberturas da calda aplicada não apresentaram aumento com a redução da população de plantas, apesar dos menores IAF. Os tratamentos fungicidas com tebuconazol e com azoxystrobina + ciproconazol apresentaram deposições semelhantes em todos os terços das plantas quando as plantas apresentaram menor desenvolvimento.


Assuntos
Soja , Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Fungicidas Industriais
19.
Plant Dis ; 103(9): 2460-2466, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322492

RESUMO

The intensive use of fungicides in controlling soybean rust (SBR), a damaging foliar fungal disease of soybean caused by the obligate fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, may have accelerated the insensitivity of P. pachyrhizi populations to fungicides. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of selected biopesticides and their application time on reducing SBR infection. There were differences (P < 0.05) in percent rust reduction values for application times, biopesticide treatments, and their interaction in detached-leaf and whole-plant greenhouse experiments. All application times and nearly all biopesticide treatments reduced (α = 0.05) fungal infection compared with the nonfungicide control. Among the treatments, Bacillus subtilis QST 713 and acibenzolar-S-methyl often reduced fungal sporulation more than the other treatments in detached-leaf and whole-plant greenhouse experiments. The identification of biopesticides effective to P. pachyrhizi may be a valuable alternative or complement to synthetic fungicides and may be useful in integrated pest management programs for SBR control.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico , Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Doenças das Plantas , Soja , Phakopsora pachyrhizi/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Soja/microbiologia
20.
Plant J ; 99(3): 395-396, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348597
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