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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955615

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica is one of the most important food-borne pathogens, whose motility and virulence are highly related to flagella. Flagella alternatively express two kinds of surface antigen flagellin, FliC and FljB, in a phenomenon known as flagellar phase variation. The molecular mechanisms by which the switching orientation of the Hin-composed DNA segment mediates the expression of the fljBA promoter have been thoroughly illustrated. However, the precise regulators that control DNA strand exchange are barely understood. In this study, we found that a putative response regulator, STM0347, contributed to the phase variation of flagellin in S. Typhimurium. With quantitative proteomics and secretome profiling, a lack of STM0347 was confirmed to induce the transformation of flagellin from FliC to FljB. Real-time PCR and in vitro incubation of SMT0347 with the hin DNA segment suggested that STM0347 disturbed Hin-catalyzed DNA reversion via hin degradation, and the overexpression of Hin was sufficient to elicit flagellin variation. Subsequently, the Δstm0347 strain was outcompeted by its parental strain in HeLa cell invasion. Collectively, our results reveal the crucial role of STM0347 in Salmonella virulence and flagellar phase variation and highlight the complexity of the regulatory network of Hin-modulated flagellum phase variation in Salmonella.


Assuntos
Flagelina , Salmonella typhimurium , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Flagelos/genética , Flagelos/metabolismo , Flagelina/genética , Flagelina/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Variação de Fase , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , beta-Frutofuranosidase/genética
2.
J Theor Biol ; 549: 111212, 2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792157

RESUMO

Phase variation, which causes splitting the homogeneous bacterial population into subpopulations of the cells with different and reversible activity of the same variable genes, provide bacteria with wide opportunities to implement their adaptation strategies. Meanwhile, the gene networks perform integral regulation of the genome and control over the formation of phenotypic traits of the organism. Mechanisms of phase variation, such as genomic rearrangements and DNA methylation, affect the regulatory contours of gene networks. At the same time, the gene networks themselves may be the key cause of the appearance of phenotypic variants. Here we propose a new class of gene networks that represent a ring connection of genetic triggers based on an oscillator with cyclic gene repression, termed the tringers. It is shown in silico that the tringers are able to provide splitting the homogeneous bacterial population into cellular subpopulations with alternative expression of controlled genes (phases), stable inheritance of phases, and switching between them, in particular, returning to a homogeneous state. Switching can be carried out under the influence of external and internal factors, both directly and by signals from specialized molecular genetic systems of the cell, in particular, the response to various types of stress. Such epigenetic structures with the function of a phase switching controller are possible in nature and applicable in synthetic biology.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Variação de Fase , Bactérias/genética , Metilação de DNA , Fenótipo
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(7): e1010677, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789350

RESUMO

The opportunistic nosocomial pathogen Clostridioides difficile exhibits phenotypic heterogeneity through phase variation, a stochastic, reversible process that modulates expression. In C. difficile, multiple sequences in the genome undergo inversion through site-specific recombination. Two such loci lie upstream of pdcB and pdcC, which encode phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that degrade the signaling molecule c-di-GMP. Numerous phenotypes are influenced by c-di-GMP in C. difficile including cell and colony morphology, motility, colonization, and virulence. In this study, we aimed to assess whether PdcB phase varies, identify the mechanism of regulation, and determine the effects on intracellular c-di-GMP levels and regulated phenotypes. We found that expression of pdcB is heterogeneous and the orientation of the invertible sequence, or 'pdcB switch', determines expression. The pdcB switch contains a promoter that when properly oriented promotes pdcB expression. Expression is augmented by an additional promoter upstream of the pdcB switch. Mutation of nucleotides at the site of recombination resulted in phase-locked strains with significant differences in pdcB expression. Characterization of these mutants showed that the pdcB locked-ON mutant has reduced intracellular c-di-GMP compared to the locked-OFF mutant, consistent with increased and decreased PdcB activity, respectively. These alterations in c-di-GMP had concomitant effects on multiple known c-di-GMP regulated processes, indicating that phase variation of PdcB allows C. difficile to coordinately diversify multiple phenotypes in the population to enhance survival.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Clostridioides difficile , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Clostridioides difficile/enzimologia , Clostridioides difficile/genética , GMP Cíclico/análogos & derivados , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Variação de Fase , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo
4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0091622, 2022 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536022

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial illness worldwide. Current vaccines based on the polysaccharide capsule are only effective against a limited number of the >100 capsular serotypes. A universal vaccine based on conserved protein antigens requires a thorough understanding of gene expression in S. pneumoniae. All S. pneumoniae strains encode the SpnIII Restriction-Modification system. This system contains a phase-variable methyltransferase that switches specificity, and controls expression of multiple genes-a phasevarion. We examined the role of this phasevarion during pneumococcal pathobiology, and determined if phase variation resulted in differences in expression of currently investigated conserved protein antigens. Using locked strains that express a single methyltransferase specificity, we found differences in clinically relevant traits, including survival in blood, and adherence to and invasion of human cells. We also observed differences in expression of numerous proteinaceous vaccine candidates, which complicates selection of antigens for inclusion in a universal protein-based pneumococcal vaccine. This study will inform vaccine design against S. pneumoniae by ensuring only stably expressed candidates are included in a rationally designed vaccine. IMPORTANCE S. pneumoniae is the world's foremost bacterial pathogen. S. pneumoniae encodes a phasevarion (phase-variable regulon), that results in differential expression of multiple genes. Previous work demonstrated that the pneumococcal SpnIII phasevarion switches between six different expression states, generating six unique phenotypic variants in a pneumococcal population. Here, we show that this phasevarion generates multiple phenotypic differences relevant to pathobiology. Importantly, expression of conserved protein antigens varies with phasevarion switching. As capsule expression, a major pneumococcal virulence factor, is also controlled by the phasevarion, our work will inform the selection of the best candidates to include in a rationally designed, universal pneumococcal vaccine.


Assuntos
Variação de Fase , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Humanos , Metiltransferases/genética , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/genética , Virulência
5.
Microb Genom ; 8(3)2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266868

RESUMO

Fowl cholera caused by Pasteurella multocida has re-emerged in Australian poultry production since the increasing adoption of free-range production systems. Currently, autogenous killed whole-cell vaccines prepared from the isolates previously obtained from each farm are the main preventative measures used. In this study, we use whole-genome sequencing and phylogenomic analysis to investigate outbreak dynamics, as well as monitoring and comparing the variations in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer core biosynthesis loci of the outbreak and vaccine strains. In total, 73 isolates from two different free-range layer farms were included. Our genomic analysis revealed that all investigated isolates within the two farms (layer A and layer B) carried LPS type L3, albeit with a high degree of genetic diversity between them. Additionally, the isolates belonged to five different sequence types (STs), with isolates belonging to ST9 and ST20 being the most prevalent. The isolates carried ST-specific mutations within their LPS type L3 outer core biosynthesis loci, including frameshift mutations in the outer core heptosyltransferase gene (htpE) (ST7 and ST274) or galactosyltransferase gene (gatG) (ST20). The ST9 isolates could be separated into three groups based on their LPS outer core biosynthesis loci sequences, with evidence for potential phase variation mechanisms identified. The potential phase variation mechanisms included a tandem repeat insertion in natC and a single base deletion in a homopolymer region of gatG. Importantly, our results demonstrated that two of the three ST9 groups shared identical rep-PCR (repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR) patterns, while carrying differences in their LPS outer core biosynthesis loci region. In addition, we found that ST9 isolates either with or without the natC tandem repeat insertion were both associated with a single outbreak, which would indicate the importance of screening more than one isolate within an outbreak. Our results strongly suggest the need for a metagenomics culture-independent approach, as well as a genetic typing scheme for LPS, to ensure an appropriate vaccine strain with a matching predicted LPS structure is used.


Assuntos
Cólera , Infecções por Pasteurella , Pasteurella multocida , Austrália/epidemiologia , Cólera/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fazendas , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Infecções por Pasteurella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida/genética , Variação de Fase
6.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2038854, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192433

RESUMO

Clostridioides difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen that can cause severe, toxin-mediated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Recent work has shown that C. difficile exhibits heterogeneity in swimming motility and toxin production in vitro through phase variation by site-specific DNA recombination. The recombinase RecV reversibly inverts the flagellar switch sequence upstream of the flgB operon, leading to the ON/OFF expression of flagellum and toxin genes. How this phenomenon impacts C. difficile virulence in vivo remains unknown. We identified mutations in the right inverted repeat that reduced or prevented flagellar switch inversion by RecV. We introduced these mutations into C. difficile R20291 to create strains with the flagellar switch "locked" in either the ON or OFF orientation. These mutants exhibited a loss of flagellum and toxin phase variation during growth in vitro, yielding precisely modified mutants suitable for assessing virulence in vivo. In a hamster model of acute C. difficile infection, the phase-locked ON mutant caused greater toxin accumulation than the phase-locked OFF mutant but did not differ significantly in the ability to cause acute disease symptoms. In contrast, in a mouse model, preventing flagellum and toxin phase variation affected the ability of C. difficile to colonize the intestinal tract and to elicit weight loss, which is attributable to differences in toxin production during infection. These results show that the ability of C. difficile to phase vary flagella and toxins influences colonization and disease development and suggest that the phenotypic variants generated by flagellar switch inversion have distinct capacities for causing disease.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Clostridioides difficile , Infecções por Clostridium , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Clostridioides difficile/genética , Infecções por Clostridium/metabolismo , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flagelos/genética , Flagelos/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Variação de Fase
7.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 8(1): 1, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013297

RESUMO

Antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) regulated by invertible promoters can mitigate the fitness cost of maintaining ARGs in the absence of antibiotics and could potentially prolong the persistence of ARGs in bacterial populations. However, the origin, prevalence, and distribution of these ARGs regulated by invertible promoters remains poorly understood. Here, we sought to assess the threat posed by ARGs regulated by invertible promoters by systematically searching for ARGs regulated by invertible promoters in the human gut microbiome and examining their origin, prevalence, and distribution. Through metagenomic assembly of 2227 human gut metagenomes and genomic analysis of the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Genome (UHGG) collection, we identified ARGs regulated by invertible promoters and categorized them into three classes based on the invertase-regulating phase variation. In the human gut microbiome, ARGs regulated by invertible promoters are exclusively found in Bacteroidales species. Through genomic analysis, we observed that ARGs regulated by invertible promoters have convergently originated from ARG insertions into glycan-synthesis loci that were regulated by invertible promoters at least three times. Moreover, all three classes of invertible promoters regulating ARGs are located within integrative conjugative elements (ICEs). Therefore, horizontal transfer via ICEs could explain the wide taxonomic distribution of ARGs regulated by invertible promoters. Overall, these findings reveal that glycan-synthesis loci regulated by invertible promoters in Bacteroidales species are an important hotspot for the emergence of clinically-relevant ARGs regulated by invertible promoters.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Metagenômica , Variação de Fase
8.
Magn Reson Med ; 87(2): 999-1014, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611904

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide a complex-valued deep learning approach for partial Fourier (PF) reconstruction of complex MR images. METHODS: Conventional PF reconstruction methods, such as projection onto convex sets (POCS), uses low-resolution image phase information from the central symmetrically sampled k-space for image reconstruction. However, this smooth phase constraint undermines the phase estimation accuracy in presence of rapid local phase variations, causing image artifacts and limiting the extent of PF reconstruction. Using both magnitude and phase characteristics in big complex image datasets, we propose a complex-valued deep learning approach with an unrolled network architecture for PF reconstruction that iteratively reconstructs PF sampled data and enforces data consistency. We evaluate our approach for reconstructing both spin-echo and gradient-echo data. RESULTS: The proposed method outperformed the iterative POCS PF reconstruction method. It produced better artifact suppression and recovery of both image magnitude and phase details in presence of local phase changes. No noise amplification was observed even for highly PF reconstruction. Moreover, the network trained on axial brain data could reconstruct sagittal and coronal brain and knee data. This method could be extended to 2D PF reconstruction and joint multi-slice PF reconstruction. CONCLUSION: Our proposed method can effectively reconstruct MR data even at low PF fractions, yielding high-fidelity magnitude and phase images. It presents a valuable alternative to conventional PF reconstruction, especially for phase-sensitive 2D or 3D MRI applications.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Variação de Fase , Algoritmos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Redes Neurais de Computação
9.
Int Microbiol ; 25(1): 111-122, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363151

RESUMO

In current times, the opportunistic pathogen Morganella morganii is increasingly becoming a cause of urinary tract infections. The condition has been further complicated by the multiple drug resistance of most isolates. Swimming motility plays an important role in the development of urinary tract infections, allowing bacteria to colonize the upper urinary tract. We determined the differences between the growth, swimming motility, and biofilm formation of two M. morganii strains MM 1 and MM 190 isolated from the urine of patients who had community-acquired urinary tract infections. MM 190 showed a lower growth rate but better-formed biofilms in comparison to MM 1. In addition, MM 190 possessed autoaggregation abilities. It was found that a high temperature (37 °C) inhibits the flagellation of strains and makes MM 190 less motile. At the same time, the MM 1 strain maintained its rate of motility at this temperature. We demonstrated that urea at a concentration of 1.5% suppresses the growth and swimming motility of both strains. Genome analysis showed that MM 1 has a 17.7-kb-long insertion in flagellar regulon between fliE and glycosyltransferase genes, which was not identified in corresponding loci of MM 190 and 9 other M. morganii strains with whole genomes. Both strains carry two genes encoding flagellin, which may indicate flagellar antigen phase variation. However, the fliC2 genes have only 91% identity to each other and exhibit some variability in the regulatory region. We assume that all these differences influence the swimming motility of the strains.


Assuntos
Morganella morganii , Infecções Urinárias , Humanos , Morganella morganii/genética , Variação de Fase , Regulon , Natação
10.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 41(1): 63-74, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383645

RESUMO

Echo-planar time resolved imaging (EPTI) is an effective approach for acquiring high-quality distortion-free images with a multi-shot EPI (ms-EPI) readout. As with traditional ms-EPI acquisitions, inter-shot phase variations present a main challenge when incorporating EPTI into a diffusion-prepared pulse sequence. The aim of this study is to develop a self-navigated Cartesian EPTI-based (scEPTI) acquisition together with a magnitude and phase constrained reconstruction for distortion-free diffusion imaging. A self-navigated Cartesian EPTI-based diffusion-prepared pulse sequence is designed. The different phase components in EPTI diffusion signal are analyzed and an approach to synthesize a fully phase-matched navigator for the inter-shot phase correction is demonstrated. Lastly, EPTI contains richer magnitude and phase information than conventional ms-EPI, such as the magnitude and phase correlations along the temporal dimension. The potential of these magnitude and phase correlations to enhance the reconstruction is explored. The reconstruction results with and without phase matching and with and without phase or magnitude constraints are compared. Compared with reconstruction without phase matching, the proposed phase matching method can improve the accuracy of inter-shot phase correction and reduce signal corruption in the final diffusion images. Magnitude constraints further improve image quality by suppressing the background noise and thereby increasing SNR, while phase constraints can mitigate possible image blurring from adding magnitude constraints. The high-quality distortion-free diffusion images and simultaneous diffusion-relaxometry imaging capacity provided by the proposed EPTI design represent a highly valuable tool for both clinical and neuroscientific assessments of tissue microstructure.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Ecoplanar , Variação de Fase
11.
mSphere ; 6(6): e0079921, 2021 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787444

RESUMO

Although prokaryotic DNA methylation investigations have long focused on immunity against exogenous DNA, it has been recently recognized that DNA methylation impacts gene expression and phase variation in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus suis. A comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation is lacking for beta-hemolytic streptococci, and thus we sought to examine DNA methylation in the major human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS). Using a database of 224 GAS genomes encompassing 80 emm types, we found that nearly all GAS strains encode a type I restriction modification (RM) system that lacks the hsdS' alleles responsible for impacting gene expression in S. pneumoniae and S. suis. The GAS type I system is located on the core chromosome, while sporadically present type II orphan methyltransferases were identified on prophages. By combining single-molecule real-time (SMRT) analyses of 10 distinct emm types along with phylogenomics of 224 strains, we were able to assign 13 methylation patterns to the GAS population. Inactivation of the type I RM system, occurring either naturally through phage insertion or through laboratory-induced gene deletion, abrogated DNA methylation detectable via either SMRT or MinION sequencing. Contrary to a previous report, inactivation of the type I system did not impact transcript levels of the gene (mga) encoding the key multigene activator protein (Mga) or Mga-regulated genes. Inactivation of the type I system significantly increased plasmid transformation rates. These data delineate the breadth of the core chromosomal type I RM system in the GAS population and clarify its role in immunity rather than impacting Mga regulon expression. IMPORTANCE The advent of whole-genome approaches capable of detecting DNA methylation has markedly expanded appreciation of the diverse roles of epigenetic modification in prokaryotic physiology. For example, recent studies have suggested that DNA methylation impacts gene expression in some streptococci. The data described herein are from the first systematic analysis of DNA methylation in a beta-hemolytic streptococcus and one of the few analyses to comprehensively characterize DNA methylation across hundreds of strains of the same bacterial species. We clarify that DNA methylation in group A Streptococcus (GAS) is primarily due to a type I restriction modification (RM) system present in the core genome and does not impact mga-regulated virulence gene expression, but does impact immunity against exogenous DNA. The identification of the DNA motifs recognized by each type I RM system may assist with optimizing methods for GAS genetic manipulation and help us understand how bacterial pathogens acquire exogenous DNA elements.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Metilação de DNA , Enzimas de Restrição-Modificação do DNA/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Variação de Fase , Regulon , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Virulência/genética
12.
J Microbiol ; 59(12): 1125-1132, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718962

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori outer membrane inflammatory protein A (OipA) was originally named for its role in inducing inflammation in the host, as evidenced by high mucosal IL-8 levels. Expression of OipA is regulated by phase variation of a CT dinucleotide-repeat located in the 5' region of the gene. However, little is known about OipA geographic diversity across isolates. To address this gap, we conducted a large-scale molecular epidemiologic analysis using H. pylori clinical isolates obtained from two geographically distinct populations: Korea and the United States (US). Most Korean isolates (98.7%) possessed two copies of oipA located at two specific loci (A and B) while all US isolates contained only one copy of oipA at locus A. Furthermore, most Korean oipA (94.8%) possessed three or less CT repeats while most US oipA (96.6%) contained five or more CT repeats. Among the two copies, all Korean H. pylori possessed at least one oipA 'on' phase variant while the single copy of oipA in US isolates showed 56.2% 'on' and 43.8% 'off.' Thus, host differences seem to have driven geographic diversification of H. pylori across these populations such that OipA expression in US isolates is still regulated by phase variation with 5 or more CT repeats, while Korean isolates always express OipA; duplication of the oipA combined with a reduction of CT repeats to three or less ensures continued expression. En masse, these findings suggest that diversity in the oipA gene copy number, CT repeats, and phase variation among H. pylori from different populations may confer a benefit in adaptation to particular host populations.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sequência Consenso , Citosina , Repetições de Dinucleotídeos , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Genótipo , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Variação de Fase , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Timidina , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
mBio ; 12(4): e0140121, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425708

RESUMO

Hypermutable simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are major drivers of phase variation in Campylobacter jejuni. The presence of multiple SSR-mediated phase-variable genes encoding enzymes that modify surface structures, including capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and lipooligosaccharide (LOS), generates extreme cell surface diversity within bacterial populations, thereby promoting adaptation to selective pressures in host environments. Therefore, genetically controlling SSR-mediated phase variation can be important for achieving stable and reproducible research on C. jejuni. Here, we show that natural "cotransformation" is an effective method for C. jejuni genome editing. Cotransformation is a trait of naturally competent bacteria that causes uptake/integration of multiple different DNA molecules, which has been recently adapted to multiplex genome editing by natural transformation (MuGENT), a method for introducing multiple mutations into the genomes of these bacteria. We found that cotransformation efficiently occurred in C. jejuni. To examine the feasibility of MuGENT in C. jejuni, we "locked" different polyG SSR tracts in strain NCTC11168 (which are located in the biosynthetic CPS/LOS gene clusters) into either the ON or OFF configurations. This approach, termed "MuGENT-SSR," enabled the generation of all eight edits within 2 weeks and the identification of a phase-locked strain with a highly stable type of Penner serotyping, a CPS-based serotyping scheme. Furthermore, extensive genome editing of this strain by MuGENT-SSR identified a phase-variable gene that determines the Penner serotype of NCTC11168. Thus, MuGENT-SSR provides a platform for genetic and phenotypic engineering of genetically unstable C. jejuni, making it a reliable approach for elucidating the mechanisms underlying phase-variable expression of specific phenotypes. IMPORTANCE Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in developed countries and occasionally progresses to the autoimmune disease Guillain-Barré syndrome. A relatively large number of hypermutable simple sequence repeat (SSR) tracts in the C. jejuni genome markedly decreases its phenotypic stability through reversible changes in the ON or OFF expression states of the genes in which they reside, a phenomenon called phase variation. Thus, controlling SSR-mediated phase variation can be important for achieving stable and reproducible research on C. jejuni. In this study, we developed a feasible and effective approach for genetically manipulate multiple SSR tracts in the C. jejuni genome using natural cotransformation, a trait of naturally transformable bacterial species that causes the uptake and integration of multiple different DNA molecules. This approach will greatly help to improve the genetic and phenotypic stability of C. jejuni to enable diverse applications in research and development.


Assuntos
Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma Bacteriano , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Família Multigênica , Mutação , Variação de Fase/genética , Fenótipo , Recombinação Genética
14.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 163, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The crAss-like phages are ubiquitous and highly abundant members of the human gut virome that infect commensal bacteria of the order Bacteroidales. Although incapable of lysogeny, these viruses demonstrate long-term persistence in the human gut microbiome, dominating the virome in some individuals. RESULTS: Here we show that rapid phase variation of alternate capsular polysaccharides in Bacteroides intestinalis cultures plays an important role in a dynamic equilibrium between phage sensitivity and resistance, allowing phage and bacteria to multiply in parallel. The data also suggests the role of a concomitant phage persistence mechanism associated with delayed lysis of infected cells, similar to carrier state infection. From an ecological and evolutionary standpoint, this type of phage-host interaction is consistent with the Piggyback-the-Winner model, which suggests a preference towards lysogenic or other "benign" forms of phage infection when the host is stably present at high abundance. CONCLUSION: Long-term persistence of bacteriophage and host could result from mutually beneficial mechanisms driving bacterial strain-level diversity and phage survival in complex environments.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Bacteroides , Bactérias , Bacteroides/virologia , Humanos , Variação de Fase , Filogenia
15.
mBio ; 12(4): e0130421, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399624

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that can alter its cell surface phenotype in response to the host environment. We demonstrated that the transcriptional regulator FabT is an indirect regulator of capsular polysaccharide, an important virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transcriptome analysis between the wild-type D39s and D39ΔfabT mutant strains unexpectedly identified a differentially expressed gene encoding a site-specific recombinase, PsrA. PsrA catalyzes the inversion of 3 homologous hsdS genes in a type I restriction-modification (RM) system SpnD39III locus and is responsible for the reversible switch of phase variation. Our study demonstrated that upregulation of PsrA in a D39ΔfabT mutant correlated with an increased ratio of transparent (T) phase variants. Inactivation of the invertase PsrA led to uniform opaque (O) variants. Direct quantification of allelic variants of hsdS derivatives and inversions of inverted repeats indicated that the recombinase PsrA fully catalyzes the inversion mediated by IR1 and IR3, and FabT mediated the recombination of the hsdS alleles in PsrA-dependent and PsrA-independent manners. In addition, compared to D39s, the ΔfabT mutant exhibited reduced nasopharyngeal colonization and was more resistant to phagocytosis and less adhesive to epithelial cells. These results indicated that phase variation in the ΔfabT mutant also affects other cell surface components involved in host interactions. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen, and its virulence factors and especially the capsular polysaccharide have been extensively studied. In addition to virulence components that are present on its cell surface that directly interact with the host, S. pneumoniae undergoes a spontaneous and reversible phase variation that allows survival in different host environments. This phase variation is manipulated by the recombination of allelic hsdS genes that encode the sequence recognition proteins of the type I RM system SpnD39III locus. The recombination of hsdS alleles is catalyzed by the DNA invertase PsrA. Interestingly, we found the opaque colony morphology can be reversed by inactivation of the transcriptional regulator FabT, which regulates fatty acid biosynthesis. Inactivation of FabT leads to a significant decrease in capsule production and systematic virulence, but these phase variations do not correlate with the capsule production. This phase variation is mediated via the upregulated invertase PsrA in the ΔfabT mutant. These results identify an unexpected link between the specific phase variations and FabT that strongly suggests an underlying mechanism regulating the DNA invertase PsrA.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Variação de Fase/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Células A549 , Alelos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Streptococcus pneumoniae/fisiologia
16.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 40(12): 3389-3399, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086567

RESUMO

A novel divergence-free constrained phase unwrapping method was proposed and evaluated for 4D flow MRI. The unwrapped phase field was obtained by integrating the phase variations estimated from the wrapped phase data using weighted least-squares. The divergence-free constraint for incompressible blood flow was incorporated to regulate and denoise the resulting phase field. The proposed method was tested on synthetic phase data of left ventricular flow and in vitro 4D flow measurement of Poiseuille flow. The method was additionally applied to in vivo 4D flow measurements in the thoracic aorta from 30 human subjects. The performance of the proposed method was compared to the state-of-the-art 4D single-step Laplacian algorithm. The synthetic phase data were completely unwrapped by the proposed method for all the cases with velocity encoding (venc) as low as 20% of the maximum velocity and signal-to-noise ratio as low as 5. The in vitro Poiseuille flow data were completely unwrapped with a 60% increase in the velocity-to-noise ratio. For the in-vivo aortic datasets with venc ratio less than 0.4, the proposed method significantly improved the success rate by as much as 40% and reduced the velocity error levels by a factor of 10 compared to the state-of-the-art method. The divergence-free constrained method exhibits reliability and robustness on phase unwrapping and shows improved accuracy of velocity and hemodynamic quantities by unwrapping the low-venc 4D flow MRI data.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Variação de Fase , Algoritmos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Imagens de Fantasmas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 49(3): 1147-1157, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110370

RESUMO

Autoaggregation, adherence between identical bacterial cells, is important for colonization, kin and kind recognition, and survival of bacteria. It is directly mediated by specific interactions between proteins or organelles on the surfaces of interacting cells or indirectly by the presence of secreted macromolecules such as eDNA and exopolysaccharides. Some autoaggregation effectors are self-associating and present interesting paradigms for protein interaction. Autoaggregation can be beneficial or deleterious at specific times and niches. It is, therefore, typically regulated through transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms or epigenetically by phase variation. Autoaggregation can contribute to bacterial adherence, biofilm formation or other higher-level functions. However, autoaggregation is only required for these phenotypes in some bacteria. Thus, autoaggregation should be detected, studied and measured independently using both qualitative and quantitative in vitro and ex vivo methods. If better understood, autoaggregation holds the potential for the discovery of new therapeutic targets that could be cost-effectively exploited.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Aderência Bacteriana/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Viabilidade Microbiana/genética , Variação de Fase/genética , Variação de Fase/fisiologia , Ligação Proteica
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 808550, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35096655

RESUMO

Biofilms have been established as an important lifestyle for bacteria in nature as these structured communities often enable survivability and persistence in a multitude of environments. Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium found throughout much of the northern hemisphere. However, biofilm formation remains understudied and poorly understood in F. tularensis as non-substantial biofilms are typically observed in vitro by the clinically relevant subspecies F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (Type A and B, respectively). Herein, we report conditions under which robust biofilm development was observed in a stochastic, but reproducible manner in Type A and B isolates. The frequency at which biofilm was observed increased temporally and appeared switch-like as progeny from the initial biofilm quickly formed biofilm in a predictable manner regardless of time or propagation with fresh media. The Type B isolates used for this study were found to more readily switch on biofilm formation than Type A isolates. Additionally, pH was found to function as an environmental checkpoint for biofilm initiation independently of the heritable cellular switch. Multiple colony morphologies were observed in biofilm positive cultures leading to the identification of a particular subset of grey variants that constitutively produce biofilm. Further, we found that constitutive biofilm forming isolates delay the onset of a viable non-culturable state. In this study, we demonstrate that a robust biofilm can be developed by clinically relevant F. tularensis isolates, provide a mechanism for biofilm initiation and examine the potential role of biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Francisella tularensis , Francisella , Tularemia , Biofilmes , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Variação de Fase , Tularemia/microbiologia
19.
Neuroimage ; 244: 118632, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627977

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A phase correction method for high-resolution multi-shot (MSH) diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is proposed. The efficacy and generalization capability of the method were validated on both healthy volunteers and patients. THEORY AND METHODS: Conventionally, inter-shot phase variations for MSH echo-planar imaging (EPI) DWI are corrected by model-based algorithms. However, many acquisition imperfections are hard to measure accurately for conventional model-based methods, making the phase estimation and artifacts suppression unreliable. We propose a deep learning multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (DL-MUSE) framework to improve the phase estimations based on convolutional neural network (CNN) reconstruction. Aliasing-free single-shot (SSH) DW images, which have been used routinely in clinical settings, were used for training before the aliasing correction of MSH-DWI images. A dual-channel U-net comprising multiple convolutional layers was used for the phase estimation of MSH-EPI. The network was trained on a dataset containing 30 healthy volunteers and tested on another dataset of 52 healthy subjects and 15 patients with lesions or tumors with different shot numbers (4, 6 and 8). To further validate the generalization capability of our network, we acquired a dataset with different numbers of shots, TEs, partial Fourier factors, resolutions, ETLs, FOVs, coil numbers, and image orientations from two sites. We also compared the reconstruction performance of our proposed method with that of the conventional MUSE and SSH-EPI qualitatively and quantitatively. RESULTS: Our results show that DL-MUSE is capable of correcting inter-shot phase errors with high and robust performance. Compared to conventional model-based MUSE, our method, by applying deep learning-based phase corrections, showed reduced distortion, noise level, and signal loss in high b-value DWIs. The improvements of image quality become more evident as the shot number increases from 4 to 8, especially in those central regions of the images, where g-factor artifacts are severe. Furthermore, the proposed method could provide the information about the orientation of the white matter with better consistency and achieve finer fibers delineation compared to the SSH-EPI method. Besides, the experiments on volunteers and patients from two different sites demonstrated the generalizability of our proposed method preliminarily. CONCLUSION: A deep learning-based reconstruction algorithm for MSH-EPI images, which helps improve image quality greatly, was proposed. Results from healthy volunteers and tumor patients demonstrated the feasibility and generalization performances of our method for high-resolution MSH-EPI DWI, which can be used for routine clinical applications as well as neuroimaging research.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Ecoplanar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Variação de Fase , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Magn Reson ; 332: 107065, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560390

RESUMO

IDEAL-type magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) sequences require the acquisition of several datasets using optimized sampling in the time domain to reconstruct metabolite maps. Each unitary scan consists of a selective slice (2D) or slab (3D) excitation followed by an evolution time and then the acquisition of the spatially encoded signal. It is critical that the phase variation during the evolution time for each scan is only dependent on chemical shifts. In this paper, we described the apparition of spurious phase due to either the transmit or the receive frequency. The presence of this unwanted phase depends on (i) where the commutation between these two frequencies is performed and (ii) how it is done, as there are two phase commutation modes: continuous and coherent. We present the correction needed in function of the different cases. It appears that some solutions are universal. However, it is critical to know which case is implemented on the MRI scanner, which is not always easy information to have. We illustrated several cases with our preclinical MRI by using the IDEAL spiral method on a 13C phantom.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Variação de Fase , Imageamento Tridimensional , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Imagens de Fantasmas
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