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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(34): e30226, 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunity protects the body from external threats and prevents the development of cancer. Biological response modifiers extracted from natural sources are being actively studied, and the immunostimulatory and anticancer effects of various types of fungi have been reported. However, there are no previous clinical studies on the immune-enhancing effect of Phellinus linteus (PL). Lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity assay is a prerequisite in order to get approval for using PL as a raw material in functional supplements and medicines in Korea. However, due to the absence of precedent clinical trials, the use of PL in supplements has been hindered. but there is no precedent clinical trial using it. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of PL extract for the improvement of immunity using the lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity assay. METHODS: A total of 98 subjects were enrolled and randomly assigned to 2 groups. Subjects in the PL and placebo groups received 1000 mg of PL extract and 1000 mg of dextrin per day, respectively (one capsule, twice every day for 8 weeks). The primary outcome measured was the activity of natural killer cells. Secondary outcomes were the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IgG1, IgG2, and IgM. Safety was evaluated using laboratory tests. RESULTS: NK cell activity was significantly increased in the PL group compared to the placebo group (P < .05). Despite the absence of significant changes in secondary outcomes, there was a tendency for improvement in the PL group. PL extract-related adverse outcomes, particularly in liver and renal function, were not observed. CONCLUSION: PL extract may improve immunity and is safe to be consumed orally.


Assuntos
Phellinus , Extratos Vegetais , Basidiomycota , Humanos , Lactato Desidrogenases , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973282

RESUMO

We developed an efficient combination method for extraction, biological activity screening, and preparation of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors from Phellinus igniarius. 5-Lipoxygenase inhibitors were rapidly screened using ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography based on the receptor-ligand affinity. Parameters such as extraction time, extraction times, and temperature as well as liquid-solid ratio were optimized using response surface methodology to maximize the total yield of the three target compounds. Next, bioactive ingredients were isolated using high-speed countercurrent chromatography and semi-preparative liquid chromatography. Three active ingredients, phellibaumin E, protocatechuic aldehyde, and osmundacetone, were obtained via ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography. Subsequently, the potential anti-dementia effects of the obtained bioactive compounds were verified using molecular docking assays. The above-mentioned target compounds, with purities of 98.82%, 98.89%, and 99.51%, respectively, were separated using a two-phase solvent system consisting of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (2.5:2:0.75:3, v/v/v/v) coupled with semi-preparative liquid chromatography.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Lipoxigenase , Água , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Cetonas , Ligantes , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Phellinus
3.
Biomater Adv ; 139: 213002, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35882149

RESUMO

In many clinical studies, prebiotics have been used as adjuvant therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Phellinus igniarius polysaccharide (PIP) possesses great anti-inflammatory and prebiotic activities. Herein, we developed an orally deliverable PIP-loaded chitosan-modified PLGA nanomedicine (CS-PIPP) to investigate its anti-inflammatory effect in vitro and in vivo. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model was established to evaluate the preventive effect of CS-PIPP on IBD. This study characterized that CS-PIPP had a size of 288.7 ± 5.49 nm, positive zeta potential, and showed good stability over four weeks. The in-vitro study suggested that CS-PIPP had enhanced phagocytosis by macrophages, which could further significantly inhibit M1-like macrophages phenotype and regulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokines. The in-vivo study revealed that CS-PIPP prominently prevented intestinal inflammatory damage and protected the integrity of the intestinal barrier. Moreover, CS-PIPP increased the contents of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and positively regulated the gut microbiota. Specifically, CS-PIPP reduced enteropathogenic microorganisms while increasing the beneficial microbiota, including Lactobacillus and Akkermansia, which revealed the potential of CS-PIPP as prebiotics. Generally, CS-PIPP promoted the anti-inflammatory effect of PIP, so it could be regarded as a novel and potent nanoformulation to treat IBD.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Nanopartículas , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Phellinus , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
4.
Food Chem ; 397: 133731, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908464

RESUMO

Phellinus spp., an important medicinal fungus mushroom extensively cultivated and consumed in East Asia for over 2000 years, is traditionally considered a precious food supplement and medicinal ingredient. Published studies showed that the polysaccharides are major bioactive macromolecules from Phellinus spp. (PPs) with multiple health-promoting effects, including immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and other bioactivities. Although the polysaccharides extracted from the fruiting body, mycelium, and fermentation broth of Phellinus spp. have been extensively studied for the extraction and purification methods, structural characteristics, and pharmacological activities, the knowledge for their structures and bioactivity relationship, toxicologic effects, and pharmacokinetic profile is limited. This review systematically summarizes the recent progress in the isolation and purification, chemical structures, bioactivities, and the underlying mechanisms of PPs. Information from this review provides insights into the further development of polysaccharides from PPs as therapeutic agents and functional foods.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Agaricales/química , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/química , Micélio , Phellinus , Polissacarídeos/química
5.
Braz J Microbiol ; 53(3): 1187-1197, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380361

RESUMO

Phellinus Quél is one of the largest genera of Hymenochaetaceae; it comprises about 220 species widely distributed on Earth. Most Phellinus species are lignicolous mushrooms that accumulate bioactive compounds. This research studied the phenolic composition of Phellinus spp. and their relationship with antibacterial and antiviral capacity. Phenolics were extracted from Phellinus badius, P. fastuosus, and P. grenadensis; their antiviral and antibacterial activities were evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli O157: H7; and the bacteriophages MS2 and Φ- × 174. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, ferulic acid, catechin, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin were found in different proportions among Phellinus spp. Total phenolic content ranged from 96 to 209 mg GAE/g, and total flavonoids from 10 to 27 QE/g. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of P. badius, P. grenadensis, and P. fastuosus against E. coli O157: H7 were 13, 20, and 27 mg/mL, against S. enterica were 20, 30, and 15 mg/mL, and against L. monocytogenes were 10, 15, and 25 mg/mL, respectively. The phenolic content was better correlated with the antibacterial effect against E. coli O157: H7 and L. monocytogenes (r = 0.8-0.9), but not against S. enterica (r = 0.05). The antiviral activity of the extracts (0.9 mg/mL) was 29 to 41% against MS2 and 27 to 38% for Φ-X174 virus (r = 0.8-0.9). In silico analysis showed binding energy values of - 7.9 and - 4.8 kcal/mol between the identified phenolic compounds and the M and G proteins of each virus. The antibacterial and antiviral properties of Phellinus species were correlated with the phenolic content.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli O157 , Listeria monocytogenes , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antivirais/análise , Antivirais/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Phellinus , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia
6.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(3): 77-90, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467808

RESUMO

This study aimed 1) to screen a high hispidin production strain from 12 strains of genus Phellinus and 2) to evaluate the effects of liquid inoculum conditions and grain medium on this strain's hispidin production levels after solid-state fermentation. The results showed that Ph. linteus 04 led to the highest hispidin production; this strain was then selected to elucidate the optimal liquid inoculum conditions and grain medium for hispidin production. Various liquid inoculum conditions were evaluated, and the highest hispidin yield, specific productivity of hispidin, and total content of hispidin were found to be optimal at 1 week of liquid inoculum culture time, cultured with potato dextrose broth, and using a 10% inoculum rate, with each condition resulting in 0.350, 0.325, and 0.328 mg/g dry weight of mycelium, 0.352, 0.251, and 0.249 µg/mg of specific productivity per week, and 57.90, 60.23, and 61.77 mg/kg dry weight of brown rice medium, respectively. These liquid inoculum conditions were then used to determine the appropriate grain medium for hispidin production. The highest hispidin yield and total content of hispidin were observed in pearl barley (1.107 mg/g dry weight of mycelium and 199.76 mg/kg dry weight of pearl barley), which led to results that were 4.73-fold and 5.35-fold higher than those of the control (brown rice medium). Overall, this study shows that Ph. linteus hispidin production can be enhanced by solid-state fermentation using optimal liquid inoculum conditions and the appropriate grain medium.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Oryza , Basidiomycota/química , Meios de Cultura/química , Grão Comestível , Fermentação , Phellinus , Pironas/química
7.
J Nat Prod ; 85(3): 511-518, 2022 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073082

RESUMO

Microbial cocultivation has been applied as a strategy to induce the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites. However, most previous studies have focused on competitive interactions between test strains. During our LC-MS-based chemical screening of randomized cocultures of Basidiomycetous fungi, we discovered that the coculture of Phellinus orientoasiaticus (Hymenochaetaceae) and Xylodon flaviporus (Schizoporaceae) induces multiple metabolites, although they did not show any competitive morphology. Targeted isolation yielded three new sesquiterpenes (1-3) along with five known analogues (4-8). The structures of the isolates were determined by MS and NMR experiments as well as electronic circular dichroism analysis. LC-MS analysis suggested that cyclohumulanoids of illudane-, sterpurane-, and tremulane-type scaffolds (1-7) were produced by P. orientoasiaticus, whereas a drimane-type sesquiterpene (8) was produced by X. flaviporus. None of the isolates exhibited antifungal activity or cytotoxicity, and compounds 1-7 exhibited NO production of LPS-treated RAW276.4 cells in a range of 15.9% to 38.0% at 100 µM.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Sesquiterpenos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Estrutura Molecular , Phellinus , Sesquiterpenos/química
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(13): 3353-3359, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331172

RESUMO

Two new naphthalene derivatives, named naphthalene A (1) and naphthalene B (2), together with eight known compounds (3-10) were isolated from dichloromethane fraction of Phellinus igniarius. The structures of compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and absolute configurations were established based on electronic circular dichroism data. Compounds 9 and 10 exhibited moderate activity, increasing Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) translocation by 1.62 and 1.87 folds, respectively.


Assuntos
Fungos , Phellinus , Naftalenos
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 849, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the population of Korea ages, interest in healthcare has increased. In particular, there is an increasing demand for immune-function improvement to prevent infectious diseases. Phellinus linteus (PL) has previously been shown to exert immune-enhancing and anticancer effects. We aim to evaluate whether PL mycelium extract, cultured from the PL KCTC0399BP strain, can increase immune function, as measured using blood-test indicators. This clinical trial protocol is designed as the main trial and is based on the results of a pilot study. METHODS: This clinical trial is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-eight participants are enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group (PL 1000 mg) and the control group (placebo). Participants are administered with experimental food or placebo for eight weeks. Blood tests are performed before trial initiation and 8 weeks later, at trial completion. Laboratory evaluation items are as follows: natural killer cell activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, IgG2, and IgM. We will mainly use the full analysis dataset to statistically analyze the effectiveness of the treatment. DISCUSSION: This study evaluates the effects of PL extract on immune function and will contribute to knowledge on the value of PL as an immune-function-boosting functional food. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) of Korea CRIS-KCT0005460 . Registered on 12 October 2020.


Assuntos
Phellinus , Extratos Vegetais , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Imunidade , Projetos Piloto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 269, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study extensively aimed to evaluate the underlying mechanism of the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of Phellinus linteus mycelium (PLM). METHODS: To assess whether PLM influences the production of markers related to inflammation, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with PLM (50, 100, 200, and 500 µg/mL). Splenocyte, thymus, peritoneal exudate cells (PEC), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the Balb/c mice treated with Korean red ginseng or PLM once a day for 5 weeks. Moreover, all mice except normal mice were stimulated with 10% proteose peptone (PP) treated 3 days before the sacrifice and 2% starch treated 2 days before the sacrifice. Subsequently, the cytotropic substance was evaluated by using flow cytometry analysis and ELISA assay. RESULTS: PLM200 treatment significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α dose-dependently in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PLM200 supplementation showed a significant increase in IL-2, IL-12, and interferon (IFN)-γ production and upregulated the ratio of IFN-γ (T-helper type 1, Th1) to IL-4 (T-helper type 2, Th2) in splenocytes. After PLM200 treatment, the significant elevation of CD4+CD25+, CD4+&CD8+, and CD4+CD69+ treatment were detected in thymus. Moreover, CD4+ and CD4+CD69+ in PBMC and CD69+ in PEC were also shown in a significant increase. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results showed an immunomodulatory effect of PLM about an elevated INF-γ/IL4 ratio, as an index of Th1/Th2, as well as the anti-inflammatory effect in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that PLM possesses immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Austrália , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Phellinus , Células RAW 264.7/efeitos dos fármacos , República da Coreia
11.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(11): e2100609, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705323

RESUMO

This study presents the current knowledge on chemical composition, biological activity, and possible medicinal applications of Phellinus igniarius, Phellinus pini, Phellinus pomaceus, and Phellinus robustus. These inedible arboreal species are phytopathogens that cause the enzymatic decomposition of wood. These species belong to the medicinal mushrooms and have been known for centuries in the traditional medicine of the Far East. They have been used as an effective remedy for stomach and intestinal ailments, diarrhea, and hemorrhages. Mycochemical studies have proved the presence of polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and terpenoids. These compounds show biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, antiangiogenic, and antiviral. Research studies conducted using modern analytical methods have advanced the knowledge on the potential therapeutic use of compounds isolated not only from the fruiting bodies but also from biomass obtained with in vitro biotechnological methods.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Phellinus/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antivirais/química , Medicina Tradicional , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/farmacologia
12.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(8): 77-88, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587427

RESUMO

Phellinus igniarius has been widely used as traditional herbal medicine in China, Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries for centuries. To gain a molecular understanding of this fungus, Illumina high-throughput technology was used to sequence and analyze the transcriptome of Ph. igniarius, and 11,847 unigenes were obtained. Additionally, based on similarity search with known proteins, unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology (GO), and clusters of orthologous groups (COG). Based on the GO annotation, a total of 6983 unigenes could be assigned to one or more terms, which were categorized into 39 functional groups under three main divisions (biological process, cellular component and molecular function). A total of 2315 Ph. igniarius unigenes were associated with 124 unique Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. A total of 832 simple sequence repeats were identified in these unigenes. In addition, nine candidate genes involved in laccases were discovered, 17 candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid were identified and were worthy for further investigation. This is the first study to conduct transcriptome analyses on Ph. igniarius, which lays a basis for further functional genomics studies of Ph. igniarius.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Salix , Agaricales/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Phellinus , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
13.
Infectio ; 25(3): 197-199, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250093

RESUMO

Abstract Mycetoma is a chronic and slow-developing granulomatous disease characterized by the triad of large painless tumour-like subcutaneous swellings, the formation of sinuses, and discharge that usually contains grains. Phellinus spp. are saprophytic wood-decaying filamentous basidiomycetes. They are an under-recognised cause of invasive fungal infections and are rarely reported worldwide. We report a 59-year-old male patient with mycetoma caused by Phellinus spp. The diagnosis was confirmed with clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, soft tissue and bone biopsy culture, and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mycetoma due to Phellinus spp. without chronic granulomatous disease (CGD).


Resumen El micetoma es una enfermedad granulomatosa crónica y de lento desarrollo caracterizada por la tríada de grandes inflamaciones subcutáneas similares a tumores indoloras, la formación de los senos nasales y secreción que generalmente contiene granos. Phellinus spp. son basidiomicetos filamentosos saprofitos que descomponen la madera. Son un poco reconocido causa de infecciones fúngicas invasivas y rara vez se informan en todo el mundo. Presentamos un paciente masculino de 59 años con micetoma causado por Phellinus spp. El diagnostico se confirmó con examen clínico, estudio de resonancia magnética (RM), cultivo de biopsia de tejido blando y óseo y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. A lo mejor que sepamos, este es el primer caso reportado de micetoma debido a Phellinus spp. sin enfermedad granulomatosa crónica (EGC).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Basidiomycota , Phellinus , Micetoma , Brasil , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Micoses
14.
J Nat Prod ; 84(8): 2385-2389, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351742

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 inspires the development of effective inhibitors to block the SARS-CoV-2 spike-ACE2 interaction. A chemical investigation on the fruiting bodies of Phellinus pini led to the isolation of five aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids including four new ones, named piniterpenoids A-D (1-4), as well as three known lignans. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis including HRMS and 1D and 2D NMR. All of the aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 spike-ACE2 interaction, with IC50 values ranging from 64.5 to 99.1 µM. A molecular docking study showed the disruption of the interaction of compound 1 via hydrogen interactions with Arg403, Asp405, and Arg408 of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Arg393 and His34 residues of ACE2. These results suggested that aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids might be useful in developing agents for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Carpóforos/química , Phellinus/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
15.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112907, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399303

RESUMO

Seven undescribed 22-hydroxylanostane triterpenoids were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Phellinus igniarius, together with three known sterols. Their structures were assigned by extensive spectroscopic and HRESIMS data analyses. The absolute configurations of C-22 were determined by X-ray crystallography, chemical methods, and spectroscopic data comparison. Phellinol G was a 25,26,27-trinorlanostane triterpenoid glycoside. 22S/22R-25,26,27- Trinorlanosta-8-en-3ß,22,24-triols with the same side chain as that of phellinol G were stereoselectively synthesized from commercial lanosterol for the first time. The key step involved Sharpless asymmetrical epoxidation. Phellinols A, B, and F showed cardioprotective activity against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation injury in H9c2 cells at a concentration of 20 µM.


Assuntos
Triterpenos , Carpóforos , Lanosterol/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Phellinus , Triterpenos/farmacologia
16.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 66(5): 775-786, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120307

RESUMO

Members of Hymenochaetaceae fungi are among well-known macromycetes with various medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological activities of Phellinus tuberculosus and Fuscoporia ferruginosa collected in Iran. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of the two species were examined, and their phenolic and polysaccharide contents were quantified. Compounds were characterized by HPLC-DAD chromatography and LC-ESI-MS/MS spectroscopy. According to our results, the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of P. tuberculosus extracts were stronger than F. ferruginosa. Also, the effect of hydroalcoholic extracts was higher than the aqueous extract. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to all extracts, especially Streptococcus mutans with a MIC of 0.7 mg/mL and MBC of 6.25 mg/mL. HPLC-DAD analyses detected gallic acid, caffeic acid, and syringic acid in both fungi. The LC-ESI-MS/MS confirmed the detected compounds in HPLC-DAD and showed the presence of several phenolic compounds such as phellifuropyranone, phelligridin, and hispidin, besides others. This study showed that F. ferruginosa and P. tuberculosus are potent medicinal fungi with antibacterial and antioxidant properties, with no toxic effect on normal HDF cells, and possess various bioactive compounds including styrylpyrone-type phenols with well-known bioactivities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Basidiomycota , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Basidiomycota/química , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Irã (Geográfico) , Phellinus/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
J Food Biochem ; 45(7): e13818, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121192

RESUMO

In this study, through the combination of AB-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC, an antioxidant component was purified from the crude extract of Phellinus pini, thereby evaluating the cardioprotective effect of the fraction. As a result, total phenolic content of the 60% ethanol elution was increased by 4.8-fold after one run treatment on Sephadex LH-20 chromatography with gradient elution. After semi-preparative HPLC separation, the first peak (PP-S4-1) showed that inhibition ratio of erythrocyte hemolysis was 91.9%, and inhibition ratio of lipid peroxidation was also increased by 87.6%, at 50 µg/ml (p < .01). Based on the results of ESI-MS, 1 HNMR, 13 CNMR, and RP-HPLC compared to many published results, PP-S4-1was identified as catechin (MW 290.015, C15 H14 O6 ). The results showed that PP-S4-1 pretreatment made cell viability increased, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibited. Meanwhile, PP-S4-1 remarkably decreased the fluorescence intensity of Ca2+ , and increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; ΔΨm). In addition, PP-S4-1 could significantly inhibit the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity as well as the increase of MDA content in H9c2 cells induced by H2 O2 . Moreover, pretreatment with PP-S4-1 significantly improved the morphological changes and prevented H2 O2 -induced DNA damage. Therefore, this study clarifies the ability of PP-S4-1 to treat H9c2 cell oxidative stress damage induced by H2 O2 through its antioxidant effect. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This research is not only helpful to elaborate the cardioprotective effect of Phellinus pini but also can contribute to the development of health foods or drug supplements for heart disease in the future. This is the first report dealing with phenolic component and cardioprotective activity of a medicinal mushroom P. pini belonging to the genus Phellinus.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Antioxidantes , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Phellinus , Ratos
18.
J Sep Sci ; 44(15): 2868-2874, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021686

RESUMO

In the present study, the anti-inflammation effect of Phellinus igniarius extract was detected on an in vitro model of RAW 264.7 cells stimulated using sodium urate. In this cell model, the content changes of inflammatory cytokines, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and interleukin-1 beta, in cell culture supernatants were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of P. igniarius extracts was determined using a microplate reader. Furthermore, in order to identify the active compounds of P. igniarius, ultrafiltration liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was utilized to screen xanthine oxidase inhibitors from the extract. Our results showed that in the presence of P. igniarius extract, the expressions of interleukin-1 beta and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 decreased (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) compared to that in the control group. The extract effective inhibited the xanthine oxidase activity. Finally, seven compounds were screened and identified as potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from P. igniarius. Taken together, these results demonstrate a potential anti-inflammation bioactivity of P. igniarius in vitro, providing a basis for further in vivo research for the prevention and treatment of gout.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Supressores da Gota/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Phellinus/química , Ultrafiltração/métodos , Animais , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores
19.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3493-3503, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900340

RESUMO

Edible mushrooms have potential in anti-diabetic phytotherapy. They are rich in natural compounds such as polysaccharides, which have been known to have antihyperlipidemic effects since ancient times. A polysaccharide fraction of PP80 and a contained low molecular-weight (Mw), water-soluble polysaccharide (PPW-1, Mw: 3.2 kDa) were isolated from the fruiting body of Phellinus pini. Both PP80 and PPW-1 possess α-glucosidase inhibition and glucose consumption amelioration in an insulin-resistant HepG2 cell model. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of PPW-1 (IC50 = 2.2 ± 0.1 mg mL-1) is significantly (P < 0.01) higher than those of PP80 (IC50 = 13.1 ± 0.5 mg mL-1) and acarbose (IC50 = 4.3 ± 0.2 mg mL-1), behaving in a non-competitive inhibition manner. The structural characterization results indicated that PPW-1 is a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide composed of d-glucose, d-mannose, d-galactose and l-rhamnose. The major backbone of PPW-1 is primarily comprised of 1,6-linked glucopyranose, every third residue of which is branched at the O-3 position by a side chain consisting of 1,3-linked and terminal glucopyranose. In addition, small amounts of 1,2-linked-α-d-Manp, 1,6-linked-3-O-Me-α-d-Galp and rhamnose exist in PPW-1. In summary, PPW-1 is a novel heteropolysaccharide with potent in vitro hypoglycemic activity, and it may be a potential dietary component for improving glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Carpóforos/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Phellinus/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Configuração de Carboidratos , Glucose/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metilação , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(4): 59-69, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822508

RESUMO

This study used a He-Ne laser with pulsed light irradiation to produce mutant strains of Phellinus igniarius strain JQ9 with enhanced characteristics for fermentation (17.685 ± 3.092 g/L) compared with the parent strain (12.062 ± 1.119 g/L). The combined treatment conditions were as follows: He-Ne laser irradiation for 30 min using a spot diameter of 10 mm, pulsed light treatment power set at 100 J, a treatment distance of 14.5 cm, and a flash frequency of 0.5 s. The production of bioactive polysaccharides and small biocompounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenes increased together with mycelium production. The results showed that polyphenol content was significantly correlated with L*, a*, and b* values (R = -0.594, P < 0.01; R = 0.571, P < 0.01; and R = 0.500, P < 0.05; respectively). Antagonistic and random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses indicated that the genetic material of the screened mutants was altered. The mutant screening using a He-Ne laser with pulsed light irradiation could be an effective method for the development of Phellinus strains and could thus improve mycelium production.


Assuntos
Lasers de Gás , Phellinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phellinus/efeitos da radiação , Colorimetria , Meios de Cultura , Fermentação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Mutagênese , Micélio/química , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/efeitos da radiação , Phellinus/química , Phellinus/genética , Pigmentação , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Protoplastos , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
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