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1.
Theriogenology ; 177: 172-182, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715542

RESUMO

Artificial insemination (AI) is a proven breeding technology which has been widely used in pig reproduction. Low temperature can cause very serious damage to pig sperm below 15 °C and the situation is even more serious at lower temperature. Besides, the preservation of pig sperm is mainly carried out at 17 °C because of its outstanding performance in pig reproduction. However, the accumulation of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the preservation process is the main reason for the deterioration of sperm quality. In our research, by adding different concentrations of hydroxytyrosol to the diluent during the storage of pig sperm at 17 °C, we compared them with the traditional diluent to study the sperm motility, the cumulative amount of ROS, the extent of sperm membrane damage, the sperm acrosome integrity, the sperm DNA damage and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, T-AOC, SOD, GSH-PX, MDA) to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol on the sperm quality during storage. We used proteomics sequencing technology to monitor difference in sperm protein between the control samples and the addition of 120 µmol/L hydroxytyrosol samples (optimum concentration) after three days storage. Ultimately, we selected the control samples and the addition of 120 µmol/L hydroxytyrosol samples to test the effect of AI. The results of our research showed that during storage of pig sperm at 17 °C, the sperm quality and antioxidant capacity of the hydroxytyrosol-treated samples significantly improved (HT 120 µmol/L) (P < 0.05). Proteomics sequencing analysis proved that the addition of 120 µmol/L hydroxytyrosol treatment samples had potential value in improving sperm quality. The significant increase in sow pregnancy rate and piglet birth weight proved that hydroxytyrosol had important practical value in pig reproduction. Based on our results, we demonstrated that the addition of hydroxytyrosol to the diluent could improve the quality of pig sperm and the efficiency of AI.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Motilidade Espermática , Animais , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Gravidez , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides , Suínos
2.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959830

RESUMO

Women and men share similar diseases; however, women have unique issues, including gynecologic diseases and diseases related to menstruation, menopause, and post menopause. In recent decades, scientists paid more attention to natural products and their derivatives because of their good tolerability and effectiveness in disease prevention and treatment. Olive oil is an essential component in the Mediterranean diet, a diet well known for its protective impact on human well-being. Investigation of the active components in olive oil, such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, showed positive effects in various diseases. Their effects have been clarified in many suggested mechanisms and have shown promising results in animal and human studies, especially in breast cancer, ovarian cancer, postmenopausal osteoporosis, and other disorders. This review summarizes the current evidence of the role of olives and olive polyphenols in women's health issues and their potential implications in the treatment and prevention of health problems in women.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/métodos , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Saúde da Mulher , Animais , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Glucosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 179: 104979, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802529

RESUMO

Rotenone, a plant-derived pesticide belonging to genera Derris and Lonchorcarpus, is an inhibitor of NADH dehydrogenase complex. Studies have shown that rotenone was applied as a neurotoxic agent in various neuronal models. Hydroxytyrosol [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethanol] is a natural phenolic compound found in the olive (Olea europaea L.). Studies of hydroxytyrosol have dramatically increased because this compound may contribute to the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Although hydroxytyrosol has received increasing attention due to its multiple pharmacological activities, it is not explored whether hydroxytyrosol inhibited rotenone-induced cytotoxicity in the neuronal cell model. The aim of this study was to explore whether hydroxytyrosol prevented rotenone-induced Ca2+ signaling, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in HCN-2 neuronal cell line. In HCN-2 cells, rotenone (5-30 µM) concentration-dependently induced cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) rises and cytotoxicity. Treatment with hydroxytyrosol (30 µM) reversed rotenone (20 µM)-induced cytotoxic responses. In Ca2+-containing medium, rotenone-induced Ca2+ entry was inhibited by 2-APB (a store-operated Ca2+ channel modulator) or hydroxytyrosol. In Ca2+-free medium, treatment with thapsigargin (an endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor) or hydroxytyrosol significantly inhibited rotenone-induced [Ca2+]i rises. Furthermore, treatment with hydroxytyrosol reversed ROS levels, cytotoxic responses, and antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GPX and CAT) in rotenone-treated cells. Together, in HCN-2 cells, rotenone induced Ca2+ influx via store-operated Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and caused oxidative stress. Moreover, hydroxytyrosol ameliorated Ca2+ or ROS-associated cytotoxicity. It suggests that hydroxytyrosol might have a protective effect on rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in human neuronal cells.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Rotenona , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Estresse Oxidativo , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Rotenona/toxicidade
4.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 73(6): 800-806, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596913

RESUMO

2-phenylethanol (2-PE), which is extracted naturally from plant or biotechnology processing, is widely used in the food and cosmetics industries. Due to the high cost of 2-PE production, the valorization of waste carbon to produce 2-PE has gained increasing attention. Here, 2-PE was produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using tobacco waste extract (TWE) as the substrate. Considering the toxicity of nicotine and its inhibition of 2-PE, the tolerance of S. cerevisiae was first evaluated. The results suggested that the production of 2-PE by S. cerevisiae in TWEs could be carried out at 2·0 mg ml-1 nicotine concentrations and may be inhibited by 1·0 mg ml-1 2-PE. Thus, the compounds in the TWEs prepared at different temperatures were detected, and the results revealed that the TWEs prepared at 140°C contained 2·18 mg ml-1 of nicotine, had total sugar concentrations of 26·8 mg ml-1 and were suitable for 2-PE production. Due to feedback regulation, the 2-PE production was only 1·11 mg ml-1 , and the remaining glucose concentration remained at 13·78 mg ml-1 , which indicated insufficient glucose utilization. Then, in situ product recovery was further implemented to remove this inhibition; the glucose utilization (the remaining concentration decreased to 3·64 mg ml-1 ) increased, and the 2-PE production increased to 1·65 mg ml-1 . The 2-PE produced in the fermentation broth was first isolated by elution from the resin with 75% ethanol and then by removing the impurities with 2·5% activated charcoal, and pure 2-PE was identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results of this study suggest that TWE could be an alternative carbon source for 2-PE production. This could provide an outlet tobacco waste as well as reducing the price of natural 2-PE, although more strategies need to be explored to improve the production yield of 2-PE by using TWE.


Assuntos
Álcool Feniletílico , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Fermentação , Extratos Vegetais , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo
5.
Dent Med Probl ; 58(3): 335-341, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) may be considered as alternative treatment for periodontitis and benefit the heart by way of its ameliorative effects. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of CAPE on cytokine levels and the oxidative status in the serum and heart tissue in a rat model of periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Experimental animals were randomly assigned to 3 groups: control group (C; n = 8); periodontitis group (P; n = 10); and periodontitis + CAPE group (PC; n = 10). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, at a dose of 10 µmol/kg/day, was administered by intraperitoneal injection over a 14-day period. Interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL­10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were assessed in the serum. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in both the serum and the heart tissue homogenate. RESULTS: Increased IL­1ß, IL­10 and TNF-α serum levels were observed in the P group (p < 0.05). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester significantly decreased alveolar bone loss (ABL) and cytokine levels in the PC group (p < 0.05). Malondialdehyde, one of the strongest oxidants, was significantly decreased in the PC group as compared to the P group (p < 0.05). In both the serum and the heart tissue homogenate there were no differences in MDA levels between the PC and C groups. Furthermore, CAPE significantly increased GSH and GSH-Px levels in the serum and heart tissue (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester has beneficial effects on the tissues affected by periodontitis.


Assuntos
Periodontite , Álcool Feniletílico , Animais , Antioxidantes , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/prevenção & controle , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Ratos
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258180, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665833

RESUMO

2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is a valuable aromatic compound with favorable flavors and good properties, resulting in its widespread application in the cosmetic, food and medical industries. In this study, a mutant strain, AD032, was first obtained by adaptive evolution under 2-PE stress. Then, a fusion protein from the Ehrlich pathway, composed of tyrB from Escherichia coli, kdcA from Lactococcus lactis and ADH2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was constructed and expressed. As a result, 3.14 g/L 2-PE was achieved using L-phenylalanine as a precursor. To further increase 2-PE production, L-glutamate oxidase from Streptomyces overexpression was applied for the first time in our research to improve the supply of α-ketoglutarate in the transamination of 2-PE synthesis. Furthermore, we found that the disruption of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding gene PDC5 caused an increase in 2-PE production, which has not yet been reported. Finally, assembly of the efficient metabolic modules and process optimization resulted in the strain RM27, which reached 4.02 g/L 2-PE production from 6.7 g/L L-phenylalanine without in situ product recovery. The strain RM27 produced 2-PE (0.8 mol/mol) with L-phenylalanine as a precursor, which was considerably high, and displayed manufacturing potential regarding food safety and process simplification aspects. This study suggests that innovative strategies regarding metabolic modularization provide improved prospects for 2-PE production in food exploitation.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Engenharia Metabólica , Álcool Feniletílico/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684821

RESUMO

Currently, there is a growing demand for flavorings, especially of natural origin. It is worth paying attention to the biotechnological processes of flavor production, characterized by simplicity, high efficiency and relatively low cost. In this study, we analyzed the ability of the Galac tomyces geotrichum mold to transform by-products of the dairy industry: sour whey and buttermilk to complex flavour mixtures with pleasant, honey-rose aroma. Furthermore, the aroma complexity of the fermentation product has been carefully identified applying a sensomic approach involving the use of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) to identify and quantify aroma compounds. Based on the calculation of odor activity value (OAV), 13 key aroma compounds were present in both tested variants. The highest OAVs were found for phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) in the buttermilk variant (912) and 2-phenylethanol (rose-like) in the sour whey variant (524). High values of this indicator were also recorded for phenylacetaldehyde (319) and 3-methyl-1-butanol with a fruity aroma (149) in the sour whey culture. The other compounds identified are 3-methylbutanal (malty), 2,3-butanedione (cheesy), isovaleric acid (cheesy), 3-(methylthio)-propanal (boiled potato), butanoic acid (vinegar), (E)-2-nonenal (fatty), ethyl furaneol (burnt sugar), dimethyl trisulfide (cabbage), and acetic acid (vinegar).


Assuntos
Leitelho/análise , Leitelho/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Geotrichum/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Soro do Leite/química , Soro do Leite/microbiologia , Acetaldeído/análogos & derivados , Acetaldeído/análise , Biotecnologia , Biotransformação , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Olfatometria , Álcool Feniletílico/análise , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
8.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 176: 298-311, 2021 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610362

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction promotes the alveolar bone loss during the development of periodontitis. Mitochondria are the principal source of ROS. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural phenolic compound present in olive oil, is well known for its antioxidant and mitochondrial-protective prosperities. Nonetheless, the impact of HT on periodontitis and its related mechanisms underlying bone cell behavior remains unknown. Osteoclasts differentiated from RAW264.7 model and oxidative stress (OS) induced pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell injury model were treated with and without HT. Cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation, mitochondrial function along with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were investigated. Meanwhile, the effect and related mechanisms of HT on bone loss in mice with periodontitis were also detected. HT inhibited osteoclast differentiation and prevented OS induced pre-osteoblast cells injury via regulating mitochondrial function as well as ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Moreover, HT attenuated the alveolar bone loss, increased bone forming activity, inhibited the osteoclasts differentiation and decreased the level of OS in mice with periodontitis. Our findings, for the first time, revealed a novel function of HT in bone remodeling of periodontitis, and highlighted its therapeutical potential for the prevention/treatment of periodontitis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno , Periodontite , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/metabolismo , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641545

RESUMO

Nowadays, increasing interest in olive pomace (OP) valorization aims to improve olive's industry sustainability. Interestingly, several studies propose a high-value application for OP extracts containing its main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, as therapy for ocular surface diseases. In this work, the stability and accessibility of OP total phenolic and flavonoid content, main representative compounds, and antioxidant activity were assessed under different pretreatment conditions. Among them, lyophilization and supercritical CO2 extraction were found to increase significantly most responses measured in the produced extracts. Two selected extracts (CONV and OPT3) were obtained by different techniques (conventional and pressurized liquid extraction); Their aqueous solutions were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Additionally, their safety and stability were evaluated according to EMA requirements towards their approval as ophthalmic products: their genotoxic effect on ocular surface cells and their 6-months storage stability at 4 different temperature/moisture conditions (CPMP/ICH/2736/99), together with pure hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein solutions. The concentration of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein in pure or extract solutions was tracked, and possible degradation products were putatively identified by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein had different stability as standard or extract solutions, with oleuropein also showing different degradation profile. All compounds/extracts were safe for ophthalmic use at the concentrations tested.


Assuntos
Olea/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Aldeídos/química , Aldeídos/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ensaio Cometa , Córnea/citologia , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Soluções Oftálmicas/química , Soluções Oftálmicas/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacocinética , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 150: 109886, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489039

RESUMO

Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol derived from virgin olive oil and olives extract, have wide applications both as functional food components and as nutraceuticals. However, they have low bioavailability due to their low absorption and high metabolism in human liver and small intestine. Acetylation of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol can effectively improve their bioavailability and thus increase their potential use in the food and cosmeceutical industries. There is no report on the bioproductin of tyrosol acetate and hydroxytyrosol acetate so far. Thus, it is of great significance to develop microbial cell factories for achieving tyrosol acetate or hydroxytyrosol acetate biosynthesis. In this study, a de novo biosynthetic pathway for the production of tyrosol acetate and hydroxytyrosol acetate was constructed in Escherichia coli. First, an engineered E. coli that allows production of tyrosol from simple carbon sources was established. Four aldehyde reductases were compared, and it was found that yeaE is the best aldehyde reductase for tyrosol accumulation. Subsequently, the pathway was extended for tyrosol acetate production by further overexpression of alcohol acetyltransferase ATF1 for the conversion of tyrosol to tyrosol acetate. Finally, the pathway was further extended for hydroxytyrosol acetate production by overexpression of 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase HpaBC.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Álcool Feniletílico , Acetatos , Escherichia coli/genética , Glucose , Humanos , Azeite de Oliva , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4749-4756, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581085

RESUMO

The 95% ethanol extract of Baphicacanthis Cusiae Rhizoma et Radix was purified by multi-chromatographic methods including microporous resin, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and C_(18) reversed-phase column chromatography. Fourteen compounds were isolated and structurally identified, including five phenylethanoid glycosides, five phenylpropanoids, one lupinane triterpene, two alkaloids, and one flavonoid, listed as follows: 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxo-1-propanol B(1), threo-2,3-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzene)-3-methoxypropanol(2), 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-ethanol-1-O-[3,4-O-di-acetyl-(1→3)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-ß-D-glucopyranoside(3), verbascoside(4), 2″,3″-di-O-acetyl martynoside(5),(+)-pinore-sinol(6), diospyrosin(7), daidzein(8), wiedemannioside B(9), buddlenol A(10), 2″-O-acetyl martyonside(11), lupeol(12), indirubin(13), and tryptanthrin(14). Compound 3 was a new phenylethanoid glycoside, and the other 10 compounds were isolated for the first time from Baphicacanthis Cusiae Rhizoma et Radix except compounds 12, 13, and 14.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos Cardíacos , Álcool Feniletílico , Flavonoides , Glicosídeos , Estrutura Molecular , Rizoma
12.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361616

RESUMO

The extraction of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastes is important, not only to avoid environmental damages, but also because of the intrinsic value of those biophenols, well-known for their high antioxidant potential and health benefits. This study focuses on tyrosol (Tyr) and hydroxytyrosol (HT), two of the main phenolic compounds found in olive mill wastes. A new, simple, and eco-friendly extraction process for the removal of phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions using native ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) in the solid state has been developed. Several ß-CD/biophenol molar ratios and biophenol concentrations were investigated, in order to maintain ß-CD mostly in the solid state while optimizing the extraction yield and the loading capacity of the sorbent. The extraction efficiencies of Tyr and HT were up to 61%, with a total solid recovery higher than 90% using an initial concentration of 100 mM biophenol and 10 molar equivalents of ß-CD. The photochemical stability of the complexes thus obtained was estimated from ∆E*ab curve vs. illumination time. The results obtained showed that the phenols encapsulated into solid ß-CD are protected against photodegradation. The powder obtained could be directly developed as a safe-grade food supplement. This simple eco-friendly process could be used for extracting valuable biophenols from olive mill wastewater.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Suplementos Nutricionais , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 700305, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408988

RESUMO

Candida albicans is the main fungal species associated with the development of oral candidiasis. Currently, therapeutic options for these infections are limited by the adverse effects of antifungal drugs and by the emergence of drug resistant strains. Thus, the development of new antifungal agents is needed for the prevention and treatment of oral Candida infections. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a natural compound from propolis polyphenolic groups that exhibits many pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated whether CAPE can have antifungal and immunomodulatory effects on oral candidiasis. Preliminary tests to assess the antifungal activity of CAPE were performed using the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assay that demonstrated inhibition in a range from 16 to 32 µg/mL, confirming its antifungal activity on several C. albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity. Subsequently, we analyzed Candida spp biofilms formed in vitro, in which CAPE treatment at 5 x MIC caused a reduction of 68.5% in the total biomass and ~2.60 Log in the viable cell count (CFU/mL) in relation to the untreated biofilm (p<0.0001). Next, RNA was extracted from untreated and CAPE-treated biofilms and analyzed by real-time qPCR. A series of genes analyzed (ALS1, ECE1, EPA1, HWP1, YWP1, BCR1, BGR1, CPH1, EFG1, NDT80, ROB1, TEC1, UME6, SAP2, SAP5, PBL2, and LIP9) were downregulated by CAPE compared to the untreated control group (p<0.0001). In in vivo studies using Galleria mellonella, the treatment with CAPE prolonged survival of larvae infected by C. albicans by 44.5% (p < 0.05) and accompanied by a 2.07-fold increase in the number of hemocytes. Flow cytometry revealed the most prominent increases were in types P2 and P3 hemocytes, granular cells, which phagocytize pathogens. In addition, CAPE treatment decreased the fungal load in the hemolymph and stimulated the expression of antifungal peptide genes such as galiomicin and gallerimycin. The antifungal and immunomodulatory activities observed in G. mellonella were extended to a murine model of oral candidiasis, in which CAPE decreased the levels of C. albicans colonization (~2 log CFU/mL) in relation to the untreated control group. In addition, CAPE treatment significantly reduced pseudomembranous lesions, invasion of hyphae on epithelium surfaces, tissue damage and inflammatory infiltrate (p < 0.05). CAPE was also able to increase the expression of ß-defensin 3 compared to the infected and untreated group by 3.91-fold (p < 0.0001). Taken together, these results show that CAPE has both antifungal and immunomodulatory effects, making it a promising natural antifungal agent for the treatment and prevention of candidiasis and shows impact to oral candidiasis.


Assuntos
Candidíase Bucal , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes , Ácidos Cafeicos , Candida albicans , Candidíase Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados
14.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(9): 4454-4462, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396772

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a valuable tool in medicine over the past few decades. With a growing number of applications using this advanced processing technique, new polymer libraries with varied properties are required. Herein, we investigate tyrosol-based poly(ester-arylate)s as biodegradable inks in fused deposition modeling (FDM). Tyrosol-based polycarbonates and polyesters have proven to be useful biomaterials due to their excellent tunability, nonacidic degradation components, and the ability to be functionalized. Polymers are synthesized by polycondensation between a custom diphenol and commercially available diacids. Thermal properties, degradation rates, and mechanical properties are all tunable based on the diphenol and diacid chosen. Evaluation of material print as it relates to chemical structure, molecular weight, and thermal properties was explored. Higher-molecular-weight polymers greater than 50 kDa exhibit thermal degradation during printing and at some points are too viscous to print. It was determined that polymers with lower processing temperatures and molecular weights were printable regardless of the structure. An exception to this was pHTy6 that was printed at 65 kDa with minimal degradation. This is most likely due to its low melting temperature and, as a result, lower printing temperatures. Additionally, chemical improvements were made to incorporate thiol-alkene click chemistry as a means for postprint curing. Low-molecular-weight pHTy6 was end-capped with alkene functionality. This material was then formulated with either a dithiol for chain extension or tetrathiol for cross-linking. Scaffolds were cured after printing for 5, 15, 30 and 60 min intervals where longer cure times resulted in a tougher material. This design builds on the library of biologically active materials previously explored and aims to bring new biomaterials to the field of 3D-printed personal medicine.


Assuntos
Tinta , Impressão Tridimensional , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Polímeros
15.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443655

RESUMO

To identify and analyze the characteristics of the microorganisms involved in the formation of the desirable flavor of Doenjang, a total of 179 strains were isolated from ninety-four Doenjang collected from six regions in South Korea, and fourteen strains were selected through a sensory evaluation of the aroma of each culture. The enzyme activities of amylase, protease and lipase was shown in the various strains. Bacillus sp.-K3, Bacillus sp.-K4 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-J2 showed relatively high protease activity, at 317.1 U, 317.3 U and 319.5 U, respectively. The Bacillus sp.-K1 showed the highest lipase activity at 2453.6 U. In the case of amylase, Bacillus subtilis-H6 showed the highest activity at 4105.5 U. The results of the PCA showed that Bacillus subtilis-H2, Bacillus subtilis-H3, and Bacillus sp.-K2 were closely related to the production of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (23.51%~43.37%), and that Bacillus subtilis-H5 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-J2 were significantly associated with the production of phenethyl alcohol (0.39% and 0.37%). The production of peptides was observed to vary among the Bacillus cultures such as Val-Val-Pro-Pro-Phe-Leu and Pro-Ala-Glu-Val-Leu-Asp-Ile. These peptides are precursors of related volatile flavor compounds created in Doenjang via the enzymatic or non-enzymatic route; it is expected that these strains could be used to enhance the flavor of Doenjang.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/enzimologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Biossíntese Peptídica/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/genética , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443664

RESUMO

Propolis is a resinous natural product collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera and others) from tree exudates that has been widely used in folk medicine. The present study was carried out to investigate the fatty acid composition, chemical constituents, antioxidant, and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of Jordanian propolis, collected from Al-Ghour, Jordan. The hexane extract of Jordanian propolis contained different fatty acids, which are reported for the first time by using GC-FID. The HPLC was carried out to identify important chemical constituents such as fatty acids, polyphenols and α-tocopherol. The antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities were also monitored. The major fatty acid identified were palmitic acid (44.6%), oleic acid (18:1∆9cis, 24.6%), arachidic acid (7.4%), stearic acid (5.4%), linoleic acid (18:2∆9-12cis, 3.1%), caprylic acid (2.9%), lignoceric acid (2.6%), cis-11,14-eicosaldienoic acid (20:2∆11-14cis, 2.4%), palmitoleic acid (1.5%), cis-11-eicosenoic acid (1.2%), α-linolenic acid (18:3∆9-12-15cis, 1.1%), cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid (22:2∆13-16cis, 1.0%), along with other fatty acids. The major chemical constituents identified using gradient HPLC-PDA analysis were pinocembrin (2.82%), chrysin (1.83%), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (1.23%), caffeic acid (1.12%), caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, 0.79%), apigenin (0.54%), galangin (0.46%), and luteolin (0.30%); while the minor constituents were hesperidin, quercetin, rutin, and vanillic acid. The percentage of α-tocopherol was 2.01 µg/g of the lipid fraction of propolis. Antioxidant properties of the extracts were determined via DPPH radical scavenging. The DPPH radical scavenging activities (IC50) of different extracts ranged from 6.13 to 60.5 µg/mL compared to ascorbic acid (1.21 µg/mL). The xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50) ranged from 75.11 to 250.74 µg/mL compared to allopurinol (0.38 µg/mL). The results indicate that the various flavonoids, phenolic compounds, α-tocopherol, and other constituents which are present in propolis are responsible for the antioxidant and xanthine oxidation inhibition activity. To evaluate the safety studies of propolis, the pesticide residues were also monitored by LC-MS-MS 4500 Q-Trap. Trace amounts of pesticide residue (ng/mL) were detected in the samples, which are far below the permissible limit as per international guidelines.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Própole/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/isolamento & purificação , Rutina/química
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444688

RESUMO

Propolis is produced by honeybees from materials collected from plants they visit. It is a resinous material having mixtures of wax and bee enzymes. Propolis is also known as bee glue and used by bees as a building material in their hives, for blocking holes and cracks, repairing the combs and strengthening their thin borders. It has been extensively used since ancient times for different purposes in traditional human healthcare practices. The quality and composition of propolis depend on its geographic location, climatic zone and local flora. The New Zealand and Brazilian green propolis are the two main kinds that have been extensively studied in recent years. Their bioactive components have been found to possess a variety of therapeutic potentials. It was found that Brazilian green propolis improves the cognitive functions of mild cognitive impairments in patients living at high altitude and protects them from neurodegenerative damage through its antioxidant properties. It possesses artepillin C (ARC) as the key component, also known to possess anticancer potential. The New Zealand propolis contains caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) as the main bioactive with multiple therapeutic potentials. Our lab performed in vitro and in vivo assays on the extracts prepared from New Zealand and Brazilian propolis and their active ingredients. We provided experimental evidence that these extracts possess anticancer, antistress and hypoxia-modulating activities. Furthermore, their conjugation with γCD proved to be more effective. In the present review, we portray the experimental evidence showing that propolis has the potential to be a candidate drug for different ailments and improve the quality of life.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Própole/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Fenilpropionatos/farmacologia
18.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(7): 653-663, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196858

RESUMO

Upon damage by herbivores, plants release herbivory-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). To find their prey, the pest's natural enemies need to be fine-tuned to the composition of these volatiles. Whereas standard methods can be used in the identification and quantitation of HIPVs, more recently introduced techniques such as PTR-ToF-MS provide temporal patterns of the volatile release and detect additional compounds. In this study, we compared the volatile profile of apple trees infested with two aphid species, the green apple aphid Aphis pomi, and the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea, by CLSA-GC-MS complemented by PTR-ToF-MS. Compounds commonly released in conjunction with both species include nonanal, decanal, methyl salicylate, geranyl acetone, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenyl butanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl 2-methyl-butanoate, (E)-ß-caryophyllene, ß-bourbonene and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate. In addition, benzaldehyde and (E)-ß-farnesene were exclusively associated with A. pomi, whereas linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene were exclusively associated with D. plantaginea. PTR-ToF-MS additionally detected acetic acid (AA) and 2-phenylethanol (PET) in the blends of both trees attacked by aphid species. In the wind tunnel, the aphid predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), responded strongly to a blend of AA and PET, much stronger than to AA or PET alone. The addition of common and species-specific HIPVs did not increase the response to the binary blend of AA and PET. In our setup, two host-associated volatiles AA + PET appeared sufficient in the attraction of C. carnea. Our results also show the importance of combining complementary methods to decipher the odor profile associated with plants under pest attack and identify behaviourally active components for predators.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Malus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Ácido Acético/análise , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Álcool Feniletílico/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade da Espécie , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198522

RESUMO

We synthesized phenylboronic acid pinacol ester (PBPE)-conjugated hyaluronic acid (HA) via thiobis(ethylamine) (TbEA) linkage (abbreviated as HAsPBPE conjugates) to fabricate the radiosensitive delivery of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) and for application in radioprotection. PBPE was primarily conjugated with TbEA and then PBPE-TbEA conjugates were conjugated again with hyaluronic acid using carbodiimide chemistry. CAPE-incorporated nanoparticles of HAsPBPE were fabricated by the nanoprecipitation method and then the organic solvent was removed by dialysis. CAPE-incorporated HAsPBPE nanoparticles have a small particle size of about 80 or 100 nm and they have a spherical shape. When CAPE-incorporated HAsPBPE nanoparticles were irradiated, nanoparticles became swelled or disintegrated and their morphologies were changed. Furthermore, the CAPE release rate from HAsPBPE nanoparticles were increased according to the radiation dose, indicating that CAPE-incorporated HAsPBPE nanoparticles have radio-sensitivity. CAPE and CAPE-incorporated HAsPBPE nanoparticles appropriately prevented radiation-induced cell death and suppressed intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). CAPE and CAPE-incorporated HAsPBPE nanoparticles efficiently improved survivability of mice from radiation-induced death and reduced apoptotic cell death. We suggest that HAsPBPE nanoparticles are promising candidates for the radio-sensitive delivery of CAPE.


Assuntos
Ácidos Borônicos/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Glicóis/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Nanopartículas/química , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Proteção Radiológica , Animais , Ácidos Borônicos/síntese química , Ácidos Cafeicos/síntese química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Álcool Feniletílico/síntese química , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281279

RESUMO

(1) Background: Autophagy, the major cytoplasmic process of substrate turnover, declines with age, contributing to proteostasis decline, accumulation of harmful protein aggregates, damaged mitochondria and to ROS production. Accordingly, abnormalities in the autophagic flux may contribute to many different pathophysiological conditions associated with ageing, including neurodegeneration. Recent data have shown that extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols stimulate cell defenses against plaque-induced neurodegeneration, mainly, through autophagy induction. (2) Methods: We carried out a set of in vitro experiments on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells exposed to toxic Aß1-42 oligomers to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy activation by two olive oil polyphenols, oleuropein aglycone (OleA), arising from the hydrolysis of oleuropein (Ole), the main polyphenol found in olive leaves and drupes and its main metabolite, hydroxytyrosol (HT). (3) Results: Our data show that the mixture of the two polyphenols activates synergistically the autophagic flux preventing cell damage by Aß1-42 oligomers., in terms of ROS production, and impairment of mitochondria. (4) Conclusion: Our results support the idea that EVOO polyphenols act synergistically in autophagy modulation against neurodegeneration. These data confirm and provide the rationale to consider these molecules, alone or in combination, as promising candidates to contrast ageing-associated neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/dietoterapia , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Acetatos/química , Acetatos/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Monoterpenos Ciclopentânicos/administração & dosagem , Monoterpenos Ciclopentânicos/química , Monoterpenos Ciclopentânicos/farmacologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Neurológicos , Degeneração Neural/induzido quimicamente , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Degeneração Neural/prevenção & controle , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Azeite de Oliva/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/toxicidade , Álcool Feniletílico/administração & dosagem , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/química , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Piranos/administração & dosagem , Piranos/química , Piranos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo
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