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PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280190, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696455


Recently, ecological damage and environmental pollution have become increasingly serious. Experts in various fields have started to study related issues from diverse points of view. To prevent the accelerated deterioration of the ecological environment, ecolinguistics emerged. Eco-critical discourse analysis is one of the important parts of ecolinguistics research, that is, it is a critical discourse analysis of the use of language from the perspective of the language's ecological environment. Firstly, an ecological tone and modality system are constructed from an ecological perspective. Under the guidance of the ecological philosophy of "equality, harmony, and symbiosis", this study conducts an ecological discourse analysis on the Sino-US trade friction reports, aiming to present the similarities and differences between the two newspapers' trade friction discourses and to reveal the ecological significance of international ecological factors in the discourse. Secondly, this method establishes a vector expression of abstract words based on emotion dictionary resources and introduces emotion polarity and part-of-speech features of words. Then the word vector is formed into the text feature matrix, which is used as the input of the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model, and the Back Propagation algorithm is adopted to train the model. Finally, in the light of the trained CNN model, the unlabeled news is predicted, and the experimental results are analyzed. The results reveal that during the training process of Chinese and English datasets, the accuracy of the training set can reach nearly 100%, and the loss rate can be reduced to 0. On the test set, the classification accuracy of Chinese text can reach 83%, while that of English text can reach 90%, and the experimental results are ideal. This study provides an explanatory approach for ecological discourse analysis on the news reports of Sino-US trade frictions and has certain guiding significance for the comparative research on political news reports under different ideologies between China and the United States.

Aprendizado Profundo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Idioma , Emoções , Filosofia
J Exp Anal Behav ; 119(1): 209-230, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597188


This tribute to Howard Rachlin speculates about scholarly work that might have been. It explores how behavioral data might bear on philosophical issues, with examples that might be called case studies in experimental philosophy. In 1964, an issue of the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society served a similar function. It was entitled "Psychology: A Behavioral Interpretation"; the papers included "Will," "Experience," "Appetite," "Humors," "Anxiety," and "Man." This presentation imagines what a contemporary project devoted to philosophical and behavior analytic perspectives on the topics of causation, freedom and volition, good and evil, time, words, and mind might have looked like. Along the way it notes how the project would have benefitted from Howard Rachlin's seminal contributions to both behavior analysis and philosophy. If ever such a project comes to pass, it will inevitably bear the stamp of his contributions.

Ansiedade , Filosofia , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Transtornos de Ansiedade
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 45(1): 3, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656442


Bringing together scholars from philosophy, bioethics, law, sociology, and anthropology, this topical collection explores how innovations in the field of biomedicine and the life sciences are challenging and transforming traditional understandings of human temporality and of the temporal duration, extension and structure of human life. The contributions aim to expand the theoretical debate by highlighting the significance of time and human temporality in different discourses and practical contexts, and developing concrete, empirically informed, and culturally sensitive perspectives. The collection is structured around three main foci: the beginning of life, the middle of life, and later life. This structure facilitates an in-depth examination of specific technological and biographical contexts and at the same time allows an overarching comparison of relevant similarities and differences between life phases and fields of application.

Bioética , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Humanos , Sociologia , Antropologia , Filosofia
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674272


Modern environmental philosophy is a new type of philosophy for humans re-examining the relationship between man and nature and provides the value guidance for modern environmental law. China's environmental crime legislation has gone through the exploration period, establishment period, and optimization period. The environmental philosophy behind this is worth discussing and determines the direction China will take environmental crime in the future and whether China's environmental strategy can really be implemented. At present, the disputes about the environmental philosophy of environmental crime in China are mainly reflected in the contention between anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, and eco-anthropocentrism. There are radical risks of pure human centrism or pure ecological centrism, and these two theories struggle to serve as a value basis for environmental crime legislation. Although eco-anthropocentrism seems to be comprehensive, it is actually ambiguous, and it is still difficult to deal with the conflict between people and nature. In recent years, China has continuously emphasized the construction of ecological civilization construction and written this into the constitution. Therefore, in the environmental philosophy issues of environmental crimes in China, we should consider absorbing the advantages of anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, and eco-anthropocentrism, while taking the original Chinese ecological civilization philosophy as the value foundation.

Civilização , Filosofia , Humanos , Crime , China
Nature ; 613(7944): 431-432, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646869

Filosofia , Matemática
Nurs Sci Q ; 36(1): 30-34, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571308


In this article, I discuss a provocative recommendation by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing for research doctorate education as it relates to nursing education and the broader question whether nursing scientists should be nurse scientists. I use tools from the tradition of analytic philosophy to examine issues and language underlying this discussion about nursing science, knowledge, and practice. I draw some conclusions based on my review of the association's documents and from philosophical perspectives on nursing science and practice.

Educação em Enfermagem , Humanos , Filosofia , Currículo , Conhecimento
J Med Philos ; 47(6): 770-783, 2022 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562841


In the philosophical debate on aging, it is common to raise the question of the theoretical definition of aging in terms of its possible characterization as a disease. Understanding aging as a disease seems to imply its medicalization, which has important practical consequences. In this paper, we analyze the question of whether aging is a disease by appealing to the concept of disease in the philosophy of medicine. As a result of this analysis, we argue that a pragmatist approach to the conception of disease is the best alternative to highlight the relevance of the medicalization of aging. From this pragmatist perspective, it can be seen that the notion of aging is going through a conceptual change, and aging can today be understood as a not radically different process from any other condition that is usually considered a disease.

Medicalização , Filosofia , Humanos
Int J Psychoanal ; 103(6): 1002-1024, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36533651


The Spanish psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Ángel Garma-exiled in Argentina after the Spanish Civil War-was one of the founders and the first president of the Argentinian Psychoanalytical Association. Garma unsuccessfully tried to become a university lecturer on three occasions. His final attempt was in 1965, when he applied for a professorship in deep psychology at the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature of the University of Buenos Aires. The application he submitted for this professorship position has been located in Ángel Garma's personal archive. The aim of this article is to analyse this manuscript to search for clues about the author's relationship with his own work and to explain the priorities and interests he intended to explore in the university environment. The first part of the article analyses the content of his application for the professorship, contrasting this content with published work and reviewing the fundamental lines of Garma's psychoanalytical thought (child sexuality, psychoanalysis and psychosomatic medicine, the psychoanalytical institution, etc.). The second part suggests the main reasons why Garma failed in his attempts to become a university lecturer.

Psicanálise , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , História do Século XX , Filosofia , Universidades , Argentina
Cogn Sci ; 46(12): e13222, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515385


Cognitive science was established as an interdisciplinary domain of research in the 1970s. Since then, the domain has flourished, despite disputes concerning its interdisciplinarity. Multiple methods exist for the assessment of interdisciplinary research. The present study proposes a methodology for quantifying interdisciplinary aspects of research in cognitive science. We propose models for text similarity analysis that provide helpful information about the relationship between publications and their specific research fields, showing potential as a robust measure of interdisciplinarity. We designed and developed models utilizing the Doc2Vec method for analyzing cognitive science and related fields. Our findings reveal that cognitive science collaborates closely with most constituent disciplines. For instance, we found a balanced engagement between several constituent fields-including psychology, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science-that contribute significantly to cognitive science. On the other hand, anthropology and neuroscience have made limited contributions. In our analysis, we find that the scholarly domain of cognitive science has been exhibiting overt interdisciplinary for the past several decades.

Estudos Interdisciplinares , Neurociências , Humanos , Ciência Cognitiva , Filosofia
J Med Philos ; 47(6): 688-700, 2022 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562838


Within bioethics, Kant's conception of autonomy is often portrayed as excessively rationalistic, abstract, and individualistic, and, therefore, far removed from the reality of patients' needs. Drawing on recent contributions in Kantian philosophy, we argue that specific features of Kantian autonomy remain relevant for medical ethics and for patient experience. We use contemporary end-of-life illness narratives-a resource that has not been analyzed with respect to autonomy-and show how they illustrate important Kantian themes, namely, the duty to know oneself, the interest in elaborating universalizable principles, and the emphasis on ideals as points of orientation that guide behavior without ever being fully realized. As Kant does, the patient-authors discussed here perceive the end of life as a moment to reflect on the constitutive principles which have governed that life, thereby offering a privileged moment to pursue self-knowledge. We argue that bioethical conceptions of autonomy stand to gain if they revise their conception of Kantian moral philosophy as too formal, abstract, and detached from emotions and personal relationships to be helpfully applied.

Bioética , Autonomia Pessoal , Humanos , Filosofia , Princípios Morais , Morte
Metas enferm ; 25(10): 0760-0761, dic. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213289


Lola Baldrich lleva muchos años delante de las cámaras. La hemos podido ver como Gertru en Médico de Familia o en series míticas como El Internado o Compañeros, pero también sobre los escenarios dando vida a muy variados personajes, algo que siempre ha confesado que le apasiona. En la actualidad está inmersa en la obra de teatro Adictos, junto a Lola Herrera y Ana Labordeta. ¿Dónde más la veremos? ¡Nos cuenta!.(AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Pessoas Famosas , Escolha da Profissão , Enfermagem , Filosofia , Arte
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 6553017, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389107


Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest medical systems in the world, and inquiry is an essential part of TCM diagnosis. The development of artificial intelligence has led to the proposal of several computational TCM diagnostic methods. However, there are few research studies among them, and they have the following flaws: (1) insufficient engagement with the patient, (2) barren TCM consultation philosophy, and (3) inadequate validation of the method. As TCM inquiry knowledge is abstract and there are few relevant datasets, we devise a novel knowledge representation technique. The mapping of symptoms and syndromes is constructed based on the diagnostics of traditional Chinese medicine. As a guide, the inquiry knowledge base is constructed utilizing the "Ten Brief Inquiries," TCM's domain knowledge. Subsequently, a corresponding assessment approach is proposed for an intelligent consultation model for syndrome differentiation. We establish three criteria: the quality of the generated question-answer pairs, the accuracy of model identification, and the average number of questions. Three TCM specialists are asked to undertake a manual evaluation of the model separately. The results reveal that our approach is capable of pretty accurate syndrome differentiation. Furthermore, the model's question and answer pairs for simulated consultations are relevant, accurate, and efficient.

Inteligência Artificial , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Síndrome , Filosofia , Encaminhamento e Consulta
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 96: 141-153, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332523


Functionalism is the view that being x is to play the role of x. This paper defends a functionalist account of three-dimensional entities in the context of Wave Function Realism (WFR), that can explain in details how we can recover three-dimensional entities out of the wavefunction. In particular, the essay advocates for a novel version of WFR in terms of a functional reductionist approach in the style of David Lewis. This account entails reduction of the upper entities to the bottom ones, when the latter behave appropriately. As applied to WFR, it shows how the wavefunction can turn out to be identical to three-dimensional objects, provided certain conditions. The first major goal of the paper is thus to put forward an improved and more rigorous version of WFR, which dissolves several extant issues about the theory, and can serve as a starting point for the future literature about the topic. Moreover, the second major goal of the article is to take WFR as a case study to demonstrate the pros of functional reductionism, especially in the form defended here, thereby helping to bring this view back in the philosophy of science debate. The positive upshots of this paper suggest a possible application of functional reductionism also to other contexts.

Filosofia , Filosofia/história
Am J Bioeth ; 22(12): 49-51, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416422

Bioética , Humanos , Filosofia
Am J Bioeth ; 22(12): 30-33, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416425
Am J Bioeth ; 22(12): 64-66, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416426
Am J Bioeth ; 22(12): 58-60, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416427

Bioética , Humanos , Filosofia