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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(26): e2122582119, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733265

RESUMO

Plants use photoperiodism to activate flowering in response to a particular daylength. In rice, flowering is accelerated in short-day conditions, and even a brief exposure to light during the dark period (night-break) is sufficient to delay flowering. Although many of the genes involved in controlling flowering in rice have been uncovered, how the long- and short-day flowering pathways are integrated, and the mechanism of photoperiod perception is not understood. While many of the signaling components controlling photoperiod-activated flowering are conserved between Arabidopsis and rice, flowering in these two systems is activated by opposite photoperiods. Here we establish that photoperiodism in rice is controlled by the evening complex (EC). We show that mutants in the EC genes LUX ARRYTHMO (LUX) and EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) paralogs abolish rice flowering. We also show that the EC directly binds and suppresses the expression of flowering repressors, including PRR37 and Ghd7. We further demonstrate that light acts via phyB to cause a rapid and sustained posttranslational modification of ELF3-1. Our results suggest a mechanism by which the EC is able to control both long- and short-day flowering pathways.


Assuntos
Flores , Oryza , Fotoperíodo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Luz , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
2.
J Exp Bot ; 73(12): 3825-3827, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749691
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(6)2022 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35741853

RESUMO

The reproduction of sheep is affected by many factors such as light, nutrition and genetics. The Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is an important pathway for sheep reproduction, and changes in HPG axis-related gene expression can affect sheep reproduction. In this study, a model of bilateral ovarian removal and estrogen supplementation (OVX + E2) was applied to screen differentially expressed genes and miRNAs under different photoperiods using whole transcriptome sequencing and reveal the regulatory effects of the photoperiod on the upstream tissues of the HPG axis in sheep. Whole transcriptome sequencing was performed in ewe hypothalamus (HYP) and distal pituitary (PD) tissues under short photoperiod 21st day (SP21) and long photoperiod 21st day (LP21). Compared to the short photoperiod, a total of 1813 differential genes (up-regulation 966 and down-regulation 847) and 145 differential miRNAs (up-regulation 73 and down-regulation 72) were identified in the hypothalamus of long photoperiod group. Similarly, 2492 differential genes (up-regulation 1829 and down-regulation 663) and 59 differential miRNAs (up-regulation 49 and down-regulation 10) were identified in the pituitary of long photoperiod group. Subsequently, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the differential genes and target genes of differential miRNA were enriched in GnRH, Wnt, ErbB and circadian rhythm pathways associated with reproduction. Combined with sequence complementation and gene expression correlation analysis, several miRNA-mRNA target combinations (e.g., LHB regulated by novel-414) were obtained. Taken together, these results will help to understand the regulatory effect of the photoperiod on the upstream tissues of HPG in sheep.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Fotoperíodo , Animais , Feminino , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Hipófise/metabolismo , Reprodução/genética , Ovinos/genética
4.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 562, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676530

RESUMO

Animal behavior in space and time is structured by the perceived day/night cycle. However, this is modified by the animals' own movement within its habitat, creating a realized diel light niche (RDLN). To understand the RDLN, we investigated the light as experienced by zooplankton undergoing synchronized diel vertical migration (DVM) in an Arctic fjord around the spring equinox. We reveal a highly dampened light cycle with diel changes being about two orders of magnitude smaller compared to the surface or a static depth. The RDLN is further characterized by unique wavelength-specific irradiance cycles. We discuss the relevance of RDLNs for animal adaptations and interactions, as well as implications for circadian clock entrainment in the wild and laboratory.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos , Migração Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Fotoperíodo , Zooplâncton
5.
Physiol Behav ; 253: 113851, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35609722

RESUMO

Fragmented day-night (FDN) cycles are environments in which multiple periods of light and dark alternate across a 24 h period. Exposure to FDN cycles disrupts circadian rhythms, resulting in period lengthening and alterations to mood in mice. A constant light environment, which also induces period lengthening, is linked to mood and metabolic disturbances and disruption to the development of the circadian clock. This study aims to determine how exposure to the FDN cycle impacts development in mice, with the hypothesis that there would be similar and adverse effects as observed in constant light conditions. Our study used CD-1 mice reared under the FDN cycle compared to the commonly used 12 h light: 12 h dark consolidated day-night cycle. During the first week of development, mouse pups reared under the FDN cycle gained bodyweight at a faster rate and did not avoid aberrant light exposure in comparison to 12:12 LD reared mouse pups. Developmental exposure to the FDN cycle lasted two weeks, and then mice were transferred to the 12:12 LD cycle, where after 2 weeks, bodyweight was similar between FDN reared and 12:12 LD reared mice at 1-month and 2-months old. When re-exposed to the FDN cycle during adulthood, FDN reared pups exhibited binge-like eating behaviors and reduced light avoidance. This study shows that the unnatural distribution of light and dark across the 24 h day can cause disruptions during early development that can reappear during adulthood when placed in the same stressful light-dark environment as adults.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Ritmo Circadiano , Animais , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Camundongos , Fotoperíodo , Ganho de Peso
6.
J Exp Biol ; 225(12)2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35615921

RESUMO

Nonresponding Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) do not develop the winter phenotype of white fur, low body mass (Mb) and spontaneous torpor in response to short photoperiod. However, their thermoregulatory response to fasting remains unknown. We measured body temperature and Mb of 12 nonresponders acclimated to short photoperiod and then to cold and fasted four times for 24 h. Four individuals used torpor, and in total, we recorded 19 torpor bouts, which were shallow, short and occurred at night. Moreover, fasting increased the heterothermy index in all hamsters. Low Mb was not a prerequisite for torpor use and Mb loss did not correlate with either heterothermy index or torpor use. This is the first evidence that individuals which do not develop the winter phenotype can use torpor or increase body temperature variability to face unpredictable, adverse environmental conditions. Despite the lack of seasonal changes, thermoregulatory adjustments may increase the probability of winter survival in nonresponders.


Assuntos
Phodopus , Torpor , Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Cricetinae , Jejum , Phodopus/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Estações do Ano
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7947, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562382

RESUMO

Timing is essential for survival and reproduction of organisms across the tree of life. The core circadian clock gene Clk is involved in the regulation of annual timing events and shows highly conserved sequence homology across vertebrates except for one variable region of poly-glutamine repeats. Clk genotype varies in some species with latitude, seasonal timing and migration. However, findings are inconsistent, difficult to disentangle from environmental responses, and biased towards high latitudes. Here we combine field data with a common-garden experiment to study associations of Clk polymorphism with latitude, migration and annual-cycle timing within the stonechat species complex across its trans-equatorial distribution range. Our dataset includes 950 records from 717 individuals from nine populations with diverse migratory strategies. Gene diversity was lowest in resident African and Canary Island populations and increased with latitude, independently of migration distance. Repeat length and annual-cycle timing was linked in a population-specific way. Specifically, equatorial African stonechats showed delayed timing with longer repeat length for all annual-cycle stages. Our data suggest that at low latitudes with nearly constant photoperiod, Clk genotype might orchestrate a range of consistent, individual chronotypes. In contrast, the influence of Clk on annual-cycle timing at higher latitudes might be mediated by its interactions with genes involved in (circadian) photoperiodic pathways.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos , Fotoperíodo , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Polimorfismo Genético , Reprodução
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563325

RESUMO

Like many other insects in temperate regions, Drosophila melanogaster exploits the photoperiod shortening that occurs during the autumn as an important cue to trigger a seasonal response. Flies survive the winter by entering a state of reproductive arrest (diapause), which drives the relocation of resources from reproduction to survival. Here, we profiled the expression of microRNA (miRNA) in long and short photoperiods and identified seven differentially expressed miRNAs (dme-mir-2b, dme-mir-11, dme-mir-34, dme-mir-274, dme-mir-184, dme-mir-184*, and dme-mir-285). Misexpression of dme-mir-2b, dme-mir-184, and dme-mir-274 in pigment-dispersing, factor-expressing neurons largely disrupted the normal photoperiodic response, suggesting that these miRNAs play functional roles in photoperiodic timing. We also analyzed the targets of photoperiodic miRNA by both computational predication and by Argonaute-1-mediated immunoprecipitation of long- and short-day RNA samples. Together with global transcriptome profiling, our results expand existing data on other Drosophila species, identifying genes and pathways that are differentially regulated in different photoperiods and reproductive status. Our data suggest that post-transcriptional regulation by miRNA is an important facet of photoperiodic timing.


Assuntos
Diapausa , MicroRNAs , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Fotoperíodo
9.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 374, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 like (CCA1L) proteins are important components that participate in plant growth and development, and now have been characterized in multiple plant species. However, information on mungbean CCA1L genes is limited. RESULTS: In this study, we identified 27 VrCCA1L genes from the mungbean genome. VrCCA1L genes were unevenly distributed on 10 of the 11 chromosomes and showed one tandem and two interchromosomal duplication events. Two distinct kinds of conserved MYB domains, MYB 1 and MYB 2, were found, and the conserved SHAQK(Y/F) F sequence was found at the C terminus of each MYB 2 domain. The VrCCA1Ls displayed a variety of exon-intron organizations, and 24 distinct motifs were found among these genes. Based on phylogenetic analysis, VrCCA1L proteins were classified into five groups; group I contained the most members, with 11 VrCCA1Ls. VrCCA1L promoters contained different types and numbers of cis-acting elements, and VrCCA1Ls showed different expression levels in different tissues. The VrCCA1Ls also displayed distinct expression patterns under different photoperiod conditions throughout the day in leaves. VrCCA1L26 shared greatest homology to Arabidopsis CCA1 and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY). It delayed the flowering time in Arabidopsis by affecting the expression levels of CONSTANS (CO), FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1). CONCLUSION: We identified and characterized 27 VrCCA1L genes from mungbean genome, and investigated their spatio-temporal expression patterns. Further analysis revealed that VrCCA1L26 delayed flowering time in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Our results provide useful information for further functional characterization of the VrCCA1L genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Relógios Circadianos , Vigna , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotoperíodo , Filogenia , Vigna/genética
10.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565801

RESUMO

Variations in the light/dark cycle and obesogenic diets trigger physiological and behavioral disorders. Proanthocyanidins, in addition to their healthy properties, have recently demonstrated a modulating effect on biological rhythms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the administration of a grape seed proanthocyanidin-rich extract (GSPE) to mitigate the disruption caused by a sudden photoperiod change in healthy and cafeteria (CAF)-diet obese rats. For this, 48 photoperiod-sensitive Fischer 344 rats were fed standard or CAF diets for 6 weeks under a standard (12 h light/day, L12) conditions. Then, rats were switched to a long (18 h light/day, L18) or short (6 h light/day, L6) photoperiod and administered vehicle or GSPE (25 mg/kg) for 1 week. Body weight (BW) and food intake (FI) were recorded weekly. Animal activity and serum hormone concentrations were studied before and after the photoperiod change. Hormone levels were measured both at 3 h (ZT3) and 15 h (ZT15) after the onset of light. Results showed the impact of the CAF diet and photoperiod on the BW, FI, activity, and hormonal status of the animals. GSPE administration resulted in an attenuation of the changes produced by the photoperiod disruption. Specifically, GSPE in L6 CAF-fed rats reduced serum corticosterone concentration, restoring its circadian rhythm, increased the T3-to-T4 ratio, and increased light phase activity, while under L18, it decreased BW and testosterone concentration and increased the animal activity. These results suggest that GSPE may contribute to the adaptation to the new photoperiods. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the metabolic pathways and processes involved in these events.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Proantocianidinas , Animais , Peso Corporal , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Hormônios , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(5): 23, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588356

RESUMO

Purpose: A high-fat diet (HFD) increases the risk of developing many systemic diseases; however, the effects of high fat intake on lacrimal gland functions and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. We explored the effects of an HFD on the circadian rhythms of the extraorbital lacrimal glands (ELGs). Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice maintained on a 12/12-hour light/dark cycle were fed an ad libitum HFD or normal chow (NC) for 2 weeks. The ELGs were collected from euthanized animals every 3 hours throughout the circadian cycle (24 hours). Using high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), we studied the circadian transcriptomic profile of the ELGs. Circadian oscillations in cell size, secretion response, lipid deposition, and immune cell trafficking of the ELGs were also analyzed. Results: An HFD modulated the circadian transcriptomic profile of the ELGs, including the composition, phase, and amplitude of cyclical transcript oscillations, and affected the associated signaling pathways at spatiotemporal levels. HFD feeding significantly altered the normal rhythmic oscillations of ELG cell size, immune cell trafficking, secretion response, and lipid deposition. After dietary reversal in HFD-fed animals, the activity, core temperature, and lipid accumulation in lacrimal glands recovered partially to the level of NC-fed animals. However, the average cell size of the ELGs, the recruitment of immune cells, and the rhythm of lacrimal secretion did not return to the levels of the NC-fed group. Conclusions: HFD perturbation interferes with the cyclical transcriptomic profile, cell size, immune cell trafficking, and secretion function of the ELGs with a strikingly high sensitivity.


Assuntos
Aparelho Lacrimal , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fotoperíodo
12.
Chronobiol Int ; 39(7): 903-906, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491759

RESUMO

Exposure to an adequate light-dark cycle is important for the speedy recovery of hospitalized and institutionalized patients. Light exposure, including natural light, offers several health benefits to both patients and nursing staff. This includes physical (e.g., decreased confusion and disorientation) and mental health benefits (e.g., prevention of depression) and a reduction in the hospital stay. Improved alertness and performance can also be noted among hospital staff. In this commentary, we discuss disrupting factors that include light during the nighttime along with noise and physical procedures on the patient and others. We then address some of the important steps that can be undertaken to restore a more normal environment for patients in the intensive care unit, which can be particularly important for COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Fotoperíodo , Sono
13.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 38(5): 1929-1945, 2022 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35611739

RESUMO

The responsive patterns of phytochrome gene family members to photoperiod and abiotic stresses were comparatively analyzed and the favorable natural variation sites of these genes were identified. This would help understand the mechanism of phytochrome gene family in photoperiod-regulated growth and development and abiotic stress response. In addition, it may facilitate the molecular marker assisted selection of key traits in foxtail millet. In this study, we used RT-PCR to clone three phytochrome genes SiPHYA, SiPHYB and SiPHYC from ultra-late maturity millet landrace variety 'Maosu'. After primary bioinformatics analysis, we studied the photoperiod control mode and the characteristics of these genes in responding to five abiotic stresses including polyethylene glycol (PEG)-simulated drought, natural drought, abscisic acid (ABA), high temperature and NaCl by fluorescence quantitative PCR. Finally, we detected the mutation sites of the three genes among 160 foxtail millet materials and performed haplotype analysis to determine the genes' functional effect. We found that the cloned cDNA sequences of gene SiPHYA, SiPHYB and SiPHYC were 3 981, 3 953 and 3 764 bp respectively, which contained complete coding regions. Gene SiPHYB and SiPHYC showed closer evolutionary relationship. Photoperiod regulated all of the three genes, but showed more profound effects on diurnal expression pattern of SiPHYB, SiPHYC than that of SiPHYA. Under short-day, when near heading, the expression levels of SiPHYA and SiPHYB were significantly lower than that under long-day, indicating their roles in suppressing heading of foxtail millet under long-day. SiPHYB and SiPHYC were responsive to PEG-simulated drought, natural drought, ABA and high temperature stresses together. SiPHYA and SiPHYB responded differently to salt stress, whereas SiPHYC did not respond to salt stress. Re-sequencing of 160 foxtail millet materials revealed that SiPHYB was highly conservative. Two missense mutations of SiPHYA, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 7 034 522C→T and SNP7 036 657G→C, led to delaying heading and increasing plant height. One missense mutation of SiPHYC, such as SNP5 414 823G→T, led to shortening heading under short-day and delaying heading under long-day, as well as increasing plant height and panicle length regardless of photo-thermal conditions. Photoperiod showed different regulatory effects on SiPHYA, SiPHYB and SiPHYC. SiPHYB and SiPHYC jointly responded to various abiotic stresses except for the salt stress. Compared with the reference genotype, mutation genotypes of SiPHYA and SiPHYC delayed heading and increased plant height and panicle length.


Assuntos
Fitocromo , Setaria (Planta) , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotoperíodo , Fitocromo/genética , Fitocromo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
14.
J Biol Rhythms ; 37(3): 310-328, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575430

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms are internal processes repeating approximately every 24 hours in living organisms. The dominant circadian pacemaker is synchronized to the environmental light-dark cycle. Other circadian pacemakers, which can have noncanonical circadian mechanisms, are revealed by arousing stimuli, such as scheduled feeding, palatable meals and running wheel access, or methamphetamine administration. Organisms also have ultradian rhythms, which have periods shorter than circadian rhythms. However, the biological mechanism, origin, and functional significance of ultradian rhythms are not well-elucidated. The dominant circadian rhythm often masks ultradian rhythms; therefore, we disabled the canonical circadian clock of mice by knocking out Per1/2/3 genes, where Per1 and Per2 are essential components of the mammalian light-sensitive circadian mechanism. Furthermore, we recorded wheel-running activity every minute under constant darkness for 272 days. We then investigated rhythmic components in the absence of external influences, applying unique multiscale time-resolved methods to analyze the oscillatory dynamics with time-varying frequencies. We found four rhythmic components with periods of ∼17 h, ∼8 h, ∼4 h, and ∼20 min. When the ∼17-h rhythm was prominent, the ∼8-h rhythm was of low amplitude. This phenomenon occurred periodically approximately every 2-3 weeks. We found that the ∼4-h and ∼20-min rhythms were harmonics of the ∼8-h rhythm. Coupling analysis of the ridge-extracted instantaneous frequencies revealed strong and stable phase coupling from the slower oscillations (∼17, ∼8, and ∼4 h) to the faster oscillations (∼20 min), and weak and less stable phase coupling in the reverse direction and between the slower oscillations. Together, this study elucidated the relationship between the oscillators in the absence of the canonical circadian clock, which is critical for understanding their functional significance. These studies are essential as disruption of circadian rhythms contributes to diseases, such as cancer and obesity, as well as mood disorders.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos , Ritmo Ultradiano , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Escuridão , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Fotoperíodo
15.
J Biol Rhythms ; 37(3): 296-309, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502701

RESUMO

The existence of a microbiome-gut-brain axis has been established wherein gut microbiota significantly impacts host behavior and physiology, with increasing evidence suggesting a role for the gut microbiota in maintaining host homeostasis. Communication between the gut microbiota and the host is bidirectional, and shifts in the composition of the gut microbiota are dependent on both internal and external cues (host-derived signals, such as stress and immunity, and endocrine and environmental signals, such as photoperiod). Although there is host-driven seasonal variation in the composition of the microbiota, the mechanisms linking photoperiod, gut microbiota, and host behavior have not been characterized. The results of the present study suggest that seasonal changes in the gut microbiota drive seasonal changes in aggression. Implanting short-day Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) with fecal microbiota from long-day hamsters resulted in a reversal of seasonal aggression, whereby short-day hamsters displayed aggression levels typical of long-day hamsters. In addition, there are correlations between aggressive behavior and several bacterial taxa. These results implicate the gut microbiota as part of the photoperiodic mechanism regulating seasonal host behavior and contribute toward a more comprehensive understanding of the relationships between the microbiota, host, and environment.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Phodopus , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias , Ritmo Circadiano , Cricetinae , Masculino , Phodopus/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Estações do Ano
16.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 323(1): R98-R109, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503523

RESUMO

Migratory birds seasonally increase fat stores and the capacity to use fat to fuel long-distance migratory flights. However, lean mass loss also occurs during migratory flights and, if adaptive, should exhibit seasonal changes in the capacity for protein metabolism. We conducted a photoperiod manipulation using captive white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) to investigate seasonal changes in protein metabolism between the nonmigratory "winter" condition and after exposure to a long-day "spring" photoperiod to stimulate the migratory condition. After photostimulation, birds in the migratory condition rapidly increased fat mass and activity of fat catabolism enzymes. Meanwhile, total lean mass did not change, but birds increased the activity of protein catabolism enzymes and lost more water and lean mass during water-restricted metabolic testing. These data suggest that more protein may be catabolized during migratory seasons, corresponding with more water loss. Counter to predictions, birds in the migratory condition also showed an approximately 30-fold increase in muscle expression of sarcolipin, which binds to sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and uncouples Ca2+ transport from ATP hydrolysis. Our documented changes to protein catabolism enzymes and whole animal lean mass dynamics may indicate that protein breakdown or increased protein turnover is adaptive during migration in songbirds.


Assuntos
Pardais , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Fotoperíodo , Estações do Ano , Pardais/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo
17.
J Plant Physiol ; 274: 153719, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598433

RESUMO

Floral transition is an important process in plant development, which is regulated by at least four flowering pathways: the photoperiod, vernalization, autonomous, and gibberellin (GA)-dependent pathways. The DnaJ-like zinc finger domain-containing protein ORANGE (OR) was originally cloned from the cauliflower or mutant, which has distinct phenotypes of the carotenoid-accumulating curd, the elongated petioles, and the delayed-flowering time. OR has been demonstrated to interact with phytoene synthase for carotenoid biosynthesis in plastids and with eukaryotic release factor 1-2 (eRF1-2) in the nucleus for the first two phenotypes, respectively. In this study, we showed that overexpression of OR in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in a delayed-flowering phenotype resembling the cauliflower or mutant. Our results indicated that OR negatively regulates the expression of the flowering integrator genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1). Both GA3 and vernalization treatments could not rescue the delayed-flowering phenotype of the OR-overexpressing seedlings, suggesting the repression of floral transition by OR does not depend on SOC1-mediated vernalization or GA-dependent pathways. Moreover, our analysis revealed that transcripts of OR and FT fluctuated in opposite directions diurnally, and the overexpression of OR repressed the accumulation of CONSTANS (CO), FT, and SOC1 transcripts in a 16 h/8 h light/dark long-day cycle. Our results indicated the possibility that OR represses flowering through the CO-FT-SOC1-mediated photoperiodic flowering pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Fotoperíodo
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7366, 2022 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513413

RESUMO

Healthy sleep supports robust development of the brain and behavior. Modern society presents a host of challenges that can impair and disrupt critical circadian rhythms that reinforce optimal physiological functioning, including the proper timing and consolidation of sleep. While the acute effects of inadequate sleep and disrupted circadian rhythms are being defined, the adverse developmental consequences of disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms are understudied. Here, we exposed mice to disrupting light-dark cycles from birth until weaning and demonstrate that such exposure has adverse impacts on brain and behavior as adults. Mice that experience early-life circadian disruption exhibit more anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, poorer spatial memory in the Morris Water Maze, and impaired working memory in a delayed match-to-sample task. Additionally, neuron morphology in the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex is adversely impacted. Pyramidal cells in these areas had smaller dendritic fields, and pyramidal cells in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus also exhibited diminished branching orders. Disrupted mice were also hyperactive as adults, but otherwise exhibited no alteration in adult circadian locomotor rhythms. These results highlight that circadian disruption early in life may have long lasting and far-reaching consequences for the development of behavior and the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Ritmo Circadiano , Animais , Ansiedade , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Camundongos , Fotoperíodo , Sono
19.
J Exp Bot ; 73(12): 3978-3990, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383838

RESUMO

Change in phenology has been an important component in crop evolution, and selection for earlier flowering through a reduction in environmental sensitivity has helped broaden adaptation in many species. Natural variation for flowering in domesticated pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been noted and studied for decades, but there has been no clear account of change relative to its wild progenitor. Here we examined the genetic control of differences in flowering time between wild P. sativum ssp. humile and a typical late-flowering photoperiodic P. s. sativum accession in a recombinant inbred population under long and short photoperiods. Our results confirm the importance of the major photoperiod sensitivity locus Hr/PsELF3a and identify two other loci on chromosomes 1 (DTF1) and 3 (DTF3) that contribute to earlier flowering in the domesticated line under both photoperiods. The domesticated allele at a fourth locus on chromosome 6 (DTF6) delays flowering under long days only. Map positions, inheritance patterns, and expression analyses in near-isogenic comparisons imply that DTF1, DTF3, and DTF6 represent gain-of-function alleles of the florigen/antiflorigen genes FTa3, FTa1, and TFL1c/LF, respectively. This echoes similar variation in chickpea and lentil, and suggests a conserved route to reduced photoperiod sensitivity and early phenology in temperate pulses.


Assuntos
Flores , Ervilhas , Ritmo Circadiano , Florígeno/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Ervilhas/genética , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo
20.
Plant J ; 110(6): 1619-1635, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388561

RESUMO

Increasing the vegetative growth period of crops can increase biomass and grain yield. In rice (Oryza sativa), the concentration of trans -zeatin, an active cytokinin, was high in the leaves during vegetative growth and decreased rapidly upon induction of florigen expression, suggesting that this hormone is involved in the regulation of the vegetative phase. To elucidate whether exogenous cytokinin application influences the length of the vegetative phase, we applied 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to rice plants at various developmental stages. Our treatment delayed flowering time by 8-9 days when compared with mock-treated rice plants, but only at the transition stage when the flowering signals were produced. Our observations also showed that flowering in the paddy field is delayed by thidiazuron, a stable chemical that mimics the effects of cytokinin. The transcript levels of florigen genes Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and Rice Flowering locus T1 (RFT1) were significantly reduced by the treatment, but the expression of Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), a gene found directly upstream of the florigen genes, was not altered. In maize (Zea mays), similarly, BAP treatment increased the vegetative phage by inhibiting the expression of ZCN8, an ortholog of Hd3a. We showed that cytokinin treatment induced the expression of two type-A response regulators (OsRR1 and OsRR2) which interacted with Ehd1, a type-B response regulator. We also observed that cytokinin did not affect flowering time in ehd1 knockout mutants. Our study indicates that cytokinin application increases the duration of the vegetative phase by delaying the expression of florigen genes in rice and maize by inhibiting Ehd1.


Assuntos
Oryza , Citocininas/metabolismo , Florígeno/metabolismo , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
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