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1.
PeerJ ; 11: e14770, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721778

RESUMO

Background: Hypoxic and cold environments have been shown to improve the function and performance of athletes. However, it is unclear whether the combination of subalpine conditions and cold temperatures may have a greater effect. The present study aims to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of training in a sub-plateau cold environment on the physical function and athletic ability of elite parallel giant slalom snowboard athletes. Methods: Nine elite athletes (four males and five females) participated in the study. The athletes underwent 6 weeks of high intensity ski-specific technical training (150 min/session, six times/week) and medium-intensity physical training (120 min/session, six times/week) prior to the Beijing 2021 Winter Olympic Games test competition. The physiological and biochemical parameters were collected from elbow venous blood samples after each 2-week session to assess the athletes' physical functional status. The athletes' athletic ability was evaluated by measuring their maximal oxygen uptake, Wingate 30 s anaerobic capacity, 30 m sprint run, and race performance. Measurements were taken before and after participating in the training program for six weeks. The repeated measure ANOVA was used to test the overall differences of blood physiological and biochemical indicators. For indicators with significant time main effects, post-hoc tests were conducted using the least significant difference (LSD) method. The paired-samples t-test was used to analyze changes in athletic ability indicators before and after training. Results: (1) There was a significant overall time effect for red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC) in males; there was also a significant effect on the percentage of lymphocytes (LY%), serum testosterone (T), and testosterone to cortisol ratio (T/C) in females (p < 0.001 - 0.015, η p 2 = 0 . 81 - 0 . 99 ). In addition, a significant time effect was also found for blood urea(BU), serum creatine kinase (CK), and serum cortisol levels in both male and female athletes (p = 0.001 - 0.029, η p 2 = 0 . 52 - 0 . 95 ). (2) BU and CK levels in males and LY% in females were all significantly higher at week 6 (p = 0.001 - 0.038), while WBC in males was significantly lower (p = 0.030). T and T/C were significantly lower in females at week 2 compared to pre-training (p = 0.007, 0.008, respectively), while cortisol (C) was significantly higher in males and females at weeks 2 and 4 (p (male) = 0.015, 0.004, respectively; p (female) = 0.024, 0.030, respectively). (3) There was a noticeable increase in relative maximal oxygen uptake, Wingate 30 s relative average anaerobic power, 30 m sprint run performance, and race performance in comparison to the pre-training measurements (p < 0.001 - 0.027). Conclusions: Six weeks of sub-plateau cold environment training may improve physical functioning and promote aerobic and anaerobic capacity for parallel giant slalom snowboard athletes. Furthermore, male athletes had a greater improvement of physical functioning and athletic ability when trained in sub-plateau cold environments.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Temperatura Baixa , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atletas , Hidrocortisona , Oxigênio , Esportes , Testosterona , Esportes na Neve
3.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 18(2): 187-194, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640772

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether sleeping activity, hormonal responses, and wellness are altered in elite water polo players during their preparation toward the Tokyo Olympics. METHODS: Eight elite-level water polo players participated in 3 consecutive training phases: (1) before the commencement of a residential-based conditioning camp (PRE-CAMP; 3 d), (2) residential-based conditioning camp (5 d), and (3) a congested period of training and competition (POST-CAMP; 8 d). Nocturnal sleep was monitored for 14 consecutive days in PRE-CAMP (2 d), CAMP (5 d), and POST-CAMP (7 d). Postawakening salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin-A, and subjective wellness were measured during PRE-CAMP, CAMP, and POST-CAMP, and internal training/match load (ITL) was calculated daily. The averaged values for dependent variables were compared among training phases and analyzed using linear mixed models. RESULTS: At CAMP compared with PRE-CAMP, ITL was higher (P < .01), and sleep onset and offset were earlier (P < .01). At this period, sleep interruptions and salivary cortisol were higher (P < .01, d = 1.6, d = 1.9, respectively), and subjective wellness was worsened (P < .01, d = 1.3). At POST-CAMP, the reduction of workload was followed by increased sleep efficiency, reduced sleep interruptions, and moderately affected salivary cortisol, yet overall wellness remained unaltered. In POST-CAMP, 2 of the players demonstrated severe symptoms of illness. CONCLUSIONS: At the highest level of the sport and prior to the Olympics, large increments in workload during a training camp induced meaningful sleep interruptions and salivary cortisol increases, both of which were reversed at POST-CAMP. We suggest that the increased workload alongside the inadequate recovery affects sleep patterns and may increase the risk of infection.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Esportes Aquáticos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Imunidade , Fadiga
4.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2022_0318, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407661

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Athletes' physical conditioning is closely related to the type of sport dedicated, training levels, intrinsic conditions of the athletes, type of load, and recovery status after exercise training. There is ample documentation on the physical conditioning of volleyball athletes in normal situations, but the literature is lacking in surveys during competition periods. Objective: To explore the physical conditioning through analysis of body biomarkers in volleyball athletes in competition. Methods: Before and after the summer training, fasting urine and blood samples were collected from five female volleyball players. Biomarkers involving white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, etc., were detected, recorded, and the data were statistically analyzed. After the general analysis of the sample, a case study of two elite female athletes was conducted. Results: The urea nitrogen value of athlete A decreased from 7.62mmol/L to 4.91mmol/L, and the urea nitrogen value of athlete B decreased from 6.91mmol/L to 6.57mmol/L; the urea nitrogen values of both athletes showed a downward trend. Athlete A's physical function status decreased significantly after summer training, while Athlete B's physical function status improved slightly. Conclusion: During the summer training period, it is necessary to perform continuous index measurements on the athletes to increase the timeliness of the data, which is conducive to in-depth analysis of the athletes' fitness status. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução: O condicionamento físico dos atletas está intimamente relacionado ao tipo de esporte dedicado, níveis de treinamento, condições intrínsecas das atletas, tipo de carga e status de recuperação após o treinamento dos exercícios. Há vasta documentação sobre o condicionamento físico dos atletas de vôlei em situações normais, porém a literatura deixa a desejar nos levantamentos durante o período de competições. Objetivo: Explorar o condicionamento físico através de análise de biomarcadores corporais nos atletas de vôlei em competição. Métodos: Antes e depois do período de treinamento de verão, foram coletadas amostras de urina e sangue, em jejum, de cinco jogadoras de vôlei feminino. Biomarcadores envolvendo glóbulos brancos, glóbulos vermelhos, hemoglobina, etc. foram detectados, registrados, e os dados foram analisados estatisticamente. Após a análise geral da amostra, foi realizado um estudo de caso de duas atletas de elite. Resultados: O valor de nitrogênio de ureia da atleta A diminuiu de 7,62mmol/L para 4,91mmol/L, e o valor do nitrogênio de ureia da atleta B diminuiu de 6,91mmol/L para 6,57mmol/L, os valores de nitrogênio da ureia de ambas as atletas apresentaram tendência de queda. O estado de função física da atleta A diminuiu significativamente após os treinos de verão, enquanto o estado de função física da atleta B melhorou ligeiramente. Conclusão: Durante o período de treinamento de verão, é necessário realizar uma medição contínua do índice sobre os atletas para aumentar a pontualidade dos dados, o que é propício à análise aprofundada do estado de condicionamento físico das atletas. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: El acondicionamiento físico de los deportistas está íntimamente relacionado con el tipo de deporte al que se dedican, los niveles de entrenamiento, las condiciones intrínsecas de los deportistas, el tipo de carga y el estado de recuperación tras los ejercicios de entrenamiento. Existe una amplia documentación sobre el acondicionamiento físico de los deportistas de voleibol en situaciones normales, pero la literatura deja mucho que desear en los estudios durante el periodo de competiciones. Objetivo: Explorar la condición física mediante el análisis de biomarcadores corporales en atletas de voleibol en competición. Métodos: Antes y después del periodo de entrenamiento de verano, se recogieron muestras de orina y sangre en ayunas de cinco jugadoras de voleibol. Se detectaron y registraron los biomarcadores relativos a los glóbulos blancos, los glóbulos rojos, la hemoglobina, etc., y los datos se analizaron estadísticamente. Tras el análisis general de la muestra, se realizó un estudio de casos de dos atletas de élite. Resultados: El valor de nitrógeno ureico del atleta A disminuyó de 7.62mmol/L a 4.91mmol/L, y el valor de nitrógeno ureico del atleta B disminuyó de 6.91mmol/L a 6.57mmol/L, los valores de nitrógeno ureico de ambos atletas mostraron una tendencia a la baja. El estado de la función física del atleta A disminuyó significativamente después del entrenamiento de verano, mientras que el estado de la función física del atleta B mejoró ligeramente. Conclusión: Durante el período de entrenamiento de verano, es necesario realizar mediciones continuas de los índices en los atletas para aumentar la puntualidad de los datos, lo que favorece el análisis en profundidad del estado de forma física de los atletas.Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Biomarcadores/análise , Voleibol , Atletas , Condicionamento Físico Humano
5.
J Strength Cond Res ; 37(1): 174-180, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515603

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Pedersen, A, Randers, MB, Luteberget, LS, and Møller, M. Validity of session rating of perceived exertion for measuring training load in youth team handball players. J Strength Cond Res 37(1): 174-180, 2023-Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) is a subjective self-reported measure of training load and is a popular method in several different team sports. This study aimed to investigate the validity of sRPE, by correlating sRPE load (sRPE × minutes of training) and heart rate (HR) expressed as Edwards Summated Heart Rate Zones (SHRZ) and PlayerLoad among Danish youth team handball players. Second, the study aimed to investigate sRPE load's ability to descriptively differentiate between a low and a high training load category. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in the in-season period. Fourteen training sessions were measured from 6 teams, in which PlayerLoad, Edwards SHRZ, and sRPE load were measured for the training session and collected from 47 subjects (23 males and 24 females). Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated between sRPE load and Edwards SHRZ and PlayerLoad. Furthermore, a high and a low load category were made from PlayerLoad or Edwards SHRZ to investigate sRPE load's ability to discriminate between high and low objective load. Large correlations between sRPE load and Edwards SHRZ (0.52 [95% CI 0.27:0.70]) and between sRPE load and PlayerLoad (0.67 [95% CI 0.47:0.80]) were observed. Our findings further indicate that sRPE load can differentiate between a high and a low training load category in both Edwards SHRZ and PlayerLoad. Our results show that sRPE load reflects both internal and external load during team handball training sessions and seems to discriminate between high- and low-intensity training sessions. These results support the validity of sRPE load for measuring training load in young team handball players.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Esportes , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia
6.
J Strength Cond Res ; 37(1): 230-233, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515611

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Rodríguez-Marroyo, JA, Blanco, P, Foster, C, Villa, JG, and Carballo-Leyenda, B. Expanding knowledge about the effect of measurement time on session rating of perceived exertion. J Strength Cond Res 37(1): 230-233, 2023-The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of postexercise rating times (from 0 minutes to 4 weeks) on session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). Twenty-five athletes (12 women and 13 men) from different sports (sprinting, endurance running, cycling, and volleyball) were involved in this study. At least 3 training sessions per subject were quantified based on sRPE using a visual analog scale. The scale was administered immediately after, at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks postexercise. In addition, the effect of rating time on sRPE was studied according to the training intensity. For this, the training sessions were classified (based on the 30-minute rating) as easy (sRPE < 3), moderate (sRPE 3-5), and hard (sRPE > 5). A significant (p < 0.001) main effect of the postexercise rating time on sRPE was found. There were significant (p < 0.05) differences between sRPE obtained at 30 minutes and those obtained immediately after hard training sessions and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks postexercise. There was no significant effect of rating time on sRPE in the easy and moderate training sessions. In conclusion, the present data suggest that athletes' sRPE may be obtained in a valid and reliable manner within a time frame of 5 minutes to 72 hours posttraining. The effect of postexercise rating time on sRPE seems to be conditioned by the training intensity, especially in those training sessions whose training intensity was high (sRPE > 5).


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Corrida , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Esforço Físico , Atletas , Ciclismo , Conhecimento
7.
FASEB J ; 37(1): e22686, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36468768

RESUMO

We present the time course of change in the muscle transcriptome 1 h after the last exercise bout of a daily resistance training program lasting 2, 10, 20, or 30 days. Daily exercise in rat tibialis anterior muscles (5 sets of 10 repetitions over 20 min) induced progressive muscle growth that approached a new stable state after 30 days. The acute transcriptional response changed along with progressive adaptation of the muscle phenotype. For example, expression of type 2B myosin was silenced. Time courses recently synthesized from human exercise studies do not demonstrate so clearly the interplay between the acute exercise response and the longer-term consequences of repeated exercise. We highlight classes of transcripts and transcription factors whose expression increases during the growth phase and declines again as the muscle adapts to a new daily pattern of activity and reduces its rate of growth. Myc appears to play a central role.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Treinamento de Força , Humanos , Animais , Ratos , Aclimatação , Músculos , Fenótipo
8.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 22(88): 877-891, dic. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213730

RESUMO

La insatisfacción con la imagen corporal puede desencadenar preocupación excesiva por la estética conduciendo a una utilización indiscriminada de suplementos nutricionales. Por ello, el objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre percepción y conformidad de imagen corporal al uso de suplementos nutricionales en usuarios regulares de gimnasios de la región del Biobío, Chile. La investigación corresponde a un estudio analítico transversal realizado en el segundo semestre del año 2018, en el que participaron 262 personas mayores de 18 años. Se observó una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el uso de suplementos nutricionales y la percepción de la imagen corporal (OR 0,58, IC95%0,34–0,98; p=0,045), y entre el uso de suplementos nutricionales y la conformidad con la imagen corporal (OR 0,43, IC95%0,25–0,75; p=0,003). En conclusión, a mayor disconformidad con la imagen corporal o la presencia de una percepción alterada de ésta, mayor es la probabilidad de consumir suplementos nutricionales. (AU)


Dissatisfaction with body image can trigger excessive concern for aesthetics aspects leading to indiscriminate use of nutritional supplements. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the perception and conformity of body image with the use of nutritional supplements in regular users of gyms in the Biobío region, Chile. The research corresponds to a cross-sectional analytical study conducted in the second half of the year 2018, in 262 participants over 18 years old. A statistically significant association between the use of nutritional supplements and the perception of body image (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34–0.98; p = 0.045), and between the use of nutritional supplements and conformity with body image (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25-0.75; p = 0.003) were observed. In conclusion, to greater disagreement with body image or the presence of an altered perception of it, more likely to consume nutritional supplements. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Academias de Ginástica , Estudos Transversais , Imagem Corporal , Autoimagem , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte
9.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 22(87): 663-685, sept. 2022. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-211095

RESUMO

La implementación de estrategias efectivas de control de carga en el entrenamiento es primordial para mejorar el rendimiento. El objetivo fue caracterizar las demandas soportadas durante un microciclo competitivo de un equipo profesional de baloncesto femenino y su interacción con la competición. Diez jugadoras se equiparon con un dispositivo inercial y una banda de frecuencia cardíaca. Se analizó la carga soportada por las jugadoras durante el entrenamiento y la competición mediante variables de Carga Externa: (i) Distancia recorrida, (ii) Distancia recorrida a alta intensidad, (iii) Playerload, (iv) Saltos, (v) Aceleraciones y Deceleraciones, y (vi) Velocidad máxima y media; y variables de Carga Interna: (i) Frecuencia cardíaca media y máxima, (ii) Zonas de % Frecuencia Cardíaca Máxima. Se analizaron diferencias entre el entrenamiento y la competición mediante un análisis ANOVA, observando que la competición fue la condición más exigente en todas las variables estudiadas a excepción de los saltos por minuto. (AU)


The implementation of effective load control strategies in training is essential to improve performance. The purpose of this study was to carry out a first approach to monitoring load with a professional women's basketball team. Ten players were equipped with an inertial device and a heart rate band during one microcycle. The load supported by the players during training and competition was analysed by External Load variables: (i) Distance performed, (ii) Distance performed at high intensity, (iii) PlayerLoad, (iv) Jumps, (v) Accelerations and Decelerations, (vi) Peak and average speed; and Internal Load variables: (i) Average and peak heart rate, (ii) Zones of % peak Heart Rate. Differences among training and competition were analysed through ANOVA analysis. The competition was the most demanding condition in all the variables studied except jumps per minute. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , 34628 , Basquetebol , Atletas , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Análise de Variância , Estudos Transversais
10.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(8): 1287-1294, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975377

RESUMO

Background: Serum proteins serve as biomarkers for athletes and recreationally active individuals; they reflect the positive nitrogen growth balance alongside the onset of fatigue. Aim: To investigate the impact of training sessions on serum proteins is crucial to monitor their impact on athletes' future performance. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study to compare serum blood protein biomarker (albumin blood, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, uric acid, and creatinine), in 43 young Saudi professional soccer players in Riyadh, levels were measured pre- and post-training sessions across a 3-day period. Results: Significant differences were found between training sessions from day 1 to day 3 in addition to the significant differences between post- and pre-training sessions with P > 0.05. Creatinine levels increased significantly in the players' blood samples post-training on all 3 days of training (P = 0.01). Albumin was the only serum protein biomarker that showed no significant changes pre- and post-training, while albumin levels varied by a statistically significant amount (P = 0.02) between pre-training (day 1 and day 2) and post-training (day 1 and day 3) periods. Conclusion: As biomarkers, serum proteins may provide good indicators that can be used to organize training schedules to achieve optimal outcomes. In this study, creatinine was the most sensitive biomarker measured post-training; it can be considered a critical biomarker while blood urea was the least sensitive.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Futebol , Albuminas , Atletas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Creatinina , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Arábia Saudita
11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 36(8): 2223-2229, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916748

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Tometz, MJ, Jevas, SA, Esposito, PM, and Annaccone, AR. Validation of internal and external load metrics in NCAA D1 women's beach volleyball. J Strength Cond Res 36(8): 2223-2229, 2022-The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of internal and external load metrics in NCAA D1 women's beach volleyball. Subjects included 13 NCAA D1 women's beach volleyball players (age: 20.3 ± 1.4 years). A total of 578 data points were analyzed from 51 team training sessions, including practice, games, and sport-specific conditioning during the pre-season semester (15 weeks). Data points included Edward's training impulse (TRIMP) (228.0 ± 80.7 arbitrary units [AU]), session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) Load (532.5 ± 232.8 [AU]), distance covered (DC) in meters (2,635.4 ± 884.3 [m]), and daily environmental condition variables {(temperature (76.5 ± 13.7 [°F]), relative humidity (72.5 ± 13.2 [%]), and wet-bulb globe temperature (52.9 ± 19.9 [°F])}. The subjects wore Polar Team Pro heart rate monitors with global positioning system during each session. Subjects completed an sRPE questionnaire after every session. Pearson product moment correlations yielded statistically significant relationships (p < 0.01) between TRIMP and sRPE Load (r = 0.81), TRIMP and DC (r = 0.78), and sRPE Load and DC (r = 0.82). A forward selection multiple regression yielded that sRPE Load could predict TRIMP with the equation: TRIMPTometz = 78.735 + (sRPE Load * 0.28) (p < 0.001). These findings support sRPE Load as a valid alternative to TRIMP when monitoring internal loads in NCAA D1 women's beach volleyball. Session rating of perceived exertion Load may be more practical and accessible for teams. Distance covered should be considered when periodizing and monitoring training loads because of its relationship with internal loads.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Voleibol , Adolescente , Adulto , Benchmarking , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 21(6): 186-191, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703744

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Workload plays important roles in sports-related injury and athletic performance by influencing exposure to external injury risk factors and potential events, promoting changes in fitness level, which involves positive adaptations to training that may lead to improved performance, and/or stimulating fatigue which leads to negative effects in the body that may increase the risk of injury and negatively affect performance. In addition to the physical stress and significant time required for practice and training, student athletes also face subjective stressors. The total workload affects injury risk, but acute changes or spikes in external and/or internal loads seem to affect injury risk the most. These also may lead to poor recovery practices that may affect physical and academic performance. It is important for the medical team, coaches, parents, and the student athlete to understand the vulnerability of this population to increased amounts of workload and its positive and negative effects.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Traumatismos em Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudantes , Carga de Trabalho
14.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 304-315, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375639

RESUMO

Abstract Background Obesity and overweight in childhood can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease throughout live. Objectives This study provides an update of a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCT) published in 2014, to assess the effects of physical activity interventions on preventing cardiovascular risk factors in childhood. Methods This update combines data from the previous search with new data obtained from June 2013 to June 2020. Searches were performed on PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL. The RCTs enrolled used interventions with physical activity longer than six months in school children aged 6-12 years, and evaluated body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Data analysis was performed using a random-effects model and a P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 28,603 articles were retrieved, and 17 RCTs (11,952 subjects) were included. Physical activity interventions were associated with reduction in SBP [−2.11mmHg (95%CI −3.67, −0.54), I243%], DBP [−2.08mmHg (95%CI −3.68, −0,49), I265%] and TG [-0.08mmol/L (95% CI -0.13, -0.03), I20%], and increase in TC [0.17mmol/L (95%CI 0.04, 0.30), I20%]. However, the interventions were not associated with reductions in BMI [−0.03 kg/m2 (95%CI −0.17, 0.10), I20%]. Conclusion This update confirms and reinforces the beneficial effects of physical activity intervention in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure and TG levels.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Esportes , Estudantes , Teste de Esforço , Obesidade Pediátrica , Condicionamento Físico Humano
16.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 30: 10-16, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise can reduce the negative effects of aging on postural control. The slackline training could potentially be an activity to improve postural control in older adults. However, the effects of slackline on postural control in older adults are not clear. This systematic review aimed to investigate the effects of slackline on postural control in older adults. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials were retrieved from ISI Web Knowledge, PubMed and Scopus using the descriptors "Slackline", "Slacklining", "Aged", "Aging", "Elderly", "Older adults", "Balance", "Postural Balance" and "Postural Control". Randomized controlled trials were selected. Postural control was evaluated through center of pressure (CoP), and slackline standing time during single leg stance. RESULTS: Four studies with 118 participants were included. The studies found that slackline improves slackline standing time in the tandem, and the single-legged postures, without differences in CoP displacement in single-leg position, results that were confirmed by the meta-analyses. CONCLUSION: Although slackline training improves task-specific performance, this improvement is not transferable to other tasks. This conclusion should be interpreted with caution considering the small number of studies, inconsistent designs, and general study limitations. Further studies are required before recommending slackline training to optimize the postural control of older adults.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Equilíbrio Postural , Postura
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564336

RESUMO

Dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) polymorphisms have been associated with cognitive abilities, obesity, addictions, and physical-activity-related behaviors, which may underlie differences in the effectiveness of training programs. What is not yet clear is the impact of DRD2 polymorphisms on the effectiveness of exercise programs. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between the DRD2 polymorphic sites (rs1076560, rs12364283, rs1799732, rs1800497, and rs1800498) and the body's response to regular physical activity. We studied genotypes and haplotypes distribution in a group of 165 females measured for body mass and body composition measurements, lipid profile, and glucose levels before and after realization of a 12-week training program. When tested individually, statistical analyses revealed one significant genotype by training interaction under the general model (for the basal metabolic rate, BMR, p = 0.033). Carriers of the rs1076560 CC genotype exhibited a decrease in BMR in response to training (p = 0.006). Haplotype analyses also showed that (i) the CACCC and CACTT haplotypes were associated with a post-training decrease in glucose level (ß = -4.11, p = 0.032; ß = -6.86, p = 0.020, respectively); (ii) the CGCCT with an increase in BMR (ß = 0.65, p = 0.003) and fat free mass (FFM, ß = 1.20, p = 0.009); (iii) the CA-CT with a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, ß = -17.26, p = 0.046). These results provide some evidence that the DRD2 polymorphisms may play a role in post-training changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and, as a consequence, in the effectiveness of training programs.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Dopamina D2 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , LDL-Colesterol , Feminino , Genótipo , Glucose , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética
18.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 194(8): 3582-3593, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35451795

RESUMO

The purpose of the paper is to study and analyse the annual dynamics of blood lipid parameters in highly qualified physical training. An experiment is a leading method for studying this problem that allows considering the problem comprehensively and in practice, as well as a comparison method, which makes it possible to analyse common features and differences as well as consider the dynamics of blood lipid parameters. Athletes who developed endurance or strength to a greater extent had no significant differences in many blood parameters. However, the groups of athletes who developed only strength had a more pronounced anisocytosis. In addition, it was possible to identify a correlation between the parameters of red blood cells and trained sports results. It was concluded that the highest indicators of the number of red blood cells, haemoglobin and average haemoglobin concentration in red blood cells were observed in strength training, and the lowest-in athletes training speed indicators. The article is of practical value for future research in the field of medicine and regenerative physiotherapy.


Assuntos
Atletas , Lipídeos , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Eritrócitos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Esportes
19.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267227, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439262

RESUMO

Exercise and sport practitioners frequently utilize rating of perceived exertion (RPE) to evaluate the players' psychophysiological strains during training sessions. The subjective rating of physical exertion level during sports training has been shown to have a reciprocal relationship with wellness status during periodic training or competitive seasons. However, the relationship between subjective physical exertions and wellness status during short-term overseas training camps (OTCs) has not been extensively investigated. This study aimed to examine the perceived responses of physical exertions [session-RPE (sRPE), training monotony, and training strain] and wellness status (fatigue, sleep, delayed onset muscle soreness, stress, and mood) measures in elite young adult futsal players from four separate OTCs with different training tasks. Twenty-seven U-20 male national team futsal players voluntarily participated in this study. The players recruited for OTCs were based on their performance during domestic training camps and the tactical demand of the team. The task of each OTCs was defined as: 1) 1st OTC = game-based camp (n = 14); 2) 2nd and 3rd OTC = training-based camp (n = 20 and n = 17, respectively); and 3) 4th OTC = pre-tournament camp (n = 14). The OTCs consisted of 11 training sessions (18.9 hours) and 16 friendly matches (23.8 hours). During daily training sessions and friendly matches, sRPE was used to quantify training load (TL). Additionally, a five-elements general wellness questionnaire was used to evaluate daily wellness status in the morning. The results demonstrated that the mean and sum sRPE in the game-based OTCs were significantly lower compared to the mean sRPE [p < 0.01, effect size (ES) = -4.8; p < 0.01, ES = -2.9] and sum sRPE in the training-based OTCs (p < 0.01, ES = -3.6; p < 0.01, ES = -3.1). The mean (p = 0.01; ES = -2.0) and sum sRPE (p < 0.01; ES = -3.4) in the game-based OTC were also lower than that in the pre-tournament OTC. Conversely, the wellness scores in the game-based OTC were higher compared to the training-based (p = 0.01; ES = 1.8) and the pre-tournament OTCs (p < 0.01; ES = 1.6). There was a negative relationship between mean and sum sRPE and all wellness scores (mean sRPE = r = -0.441 ~ -0.575, p < 0.001; sum sRPE = r = -0.41 ~ -0.559, p < 0.001). Our findings suggested that responses to training sessions, derived from mean and sum sRPE and wellness scores, are dependent upon the task-specific nature of OTCs among elite futsal players. Utilization of mean and sum sRPE and wellness measures to monitor the psychophysiological health during short-term OTCs is recommended.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Futebol , Esportes , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fadiga , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 32(3): 204-213, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294923

RESUMO

Dietary intake and physical activity impact performance and adaptation during training. The aims of this study were to compare energy and macronutrient intake during British Army Officer Cadet training with dietary guidelines and describe daily distribution of energy and macronutrient intake and estimated energy expenditure. Thirteen participants (seven women) were monitored during three discrete periods of military training for 9 days on-camp, 5 days of field exercise, and 9 days of a mixture of the two. Dietary intake was measured using researcher-led food weighing and food diaries, and energy expenditure was estimated from wrist-worn accelerometers. Energy intake was below guidelines for men (4,600 kcal/day) and women (3,500 kcal/day) during on-camp training (men = -16% and women = -9%), field exercise (men = -33% and women = -42%), and combined camp and field training (men and women both -34%). Carbohydrate intake of men and women were below guidelines (6 g·kg-1·day-1) during field exercise (men = -18% and women = -37%) and combined camp and field training (men = -33% and women = -39%), respectively. Protein intake was above guidelines (1.2 kcal·kg-1·day-1) for men and women during on-camp training (men = 48% and women = 39%) and was below guidelines during field exercise for women only (-27%). Energy and macronutrient intake during on-camp training centered around mealtimes with a discernible sleep/wake cycle for energy expenditure. During field exercise, energy and macronutrient intake were individually variable, and energy expenditure was high throughout the day and night. These findings could be used to inform evidenced-based interventions to change the amount and timing of energy and macronutrient intake around physical activity to optimize performance and adaptations during military training.


Assuntos
Militares , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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