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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 93-108, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914043

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the disease COVID-19 that has decimated the health and economy of our planet. The virus causes the disease not only in people but also in companion and wild animals. As yet we do not know why the virus is highly successful in causing the pandemic within 3 months of its first report. Lack of a voice on how to handle the pandemic impacted the management of the disease globally. Publication of the importance of masks and social distancing in preprint servers reduced the spread of the disease and deaths associated with it. Very few countries have invested in science and research and development and that has impacted the development of therapies for the pandemic. Though vaccination against COVID-19 started in December 2020, slower rate of immunizations has resulted in rapid spread of the mutant strains of SARS-CoV-2. Lack of transparency and accountability coupled with anergic leadership was responsible for the high incidence of disease and death associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Pandemias , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 169-178, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936403

RESUMO

Objectives. To assess the association between individual-level adherence to social-distancing and personal hygiene behaviors recommended by public health experts and subsequent risk of COVID-19 diagnosis in the United States. Methods. Data are from waves 7 through 26 (June 10, 2020-April 26, 2021) of the Understanding America Study COVID-19 survey. We used Cox models to assess the relationship between engaging in behaviors considered high risk and risk of COVID-19 diagnosis. Results. Individuals engaging in behaviors indicating lack of adherence to social-distancing guidelines, especially those related to large gatherings or public interactions, had a significantly higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis than did those who did not engage in these behaviors. Each additional risk behavior was associated with a 9% higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.13). Results were similar after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and local infection rates. Conclusions. Personal mitigation behaviors appear to influence the risk of COVID-19, even in the presence of social factors related to infection risk. Public Health Implications. Our findings emphasize the importance of individual behaviors for preventing COVID-19, which may be relevant in contexts with low vaccination. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):169-178. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306565).


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Higiene , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Distanciamento Físico , Adulto , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118273, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634404

RESUMO

Public places favor the transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to dense population, large personal mobility, and higher contact opportunities. In order to protect the health of general public in operating public places during COVID-19 pandemic, this study proposed general precautions and control strategies from perspective of operation management, social distancing, cleaning and disinfection, and personal protection. In addition, with regard of risk level, specific precautions and control strategies were proposed for living service places, outdoor places, and confined places. The comprehensive application of above recommendations could effectively interrupt the spread of COVID-19, and protect the health of general public in public places. This study proposed general and specific precautions and control strategies in public places during COVID-19, and suggested further improvement of pandemic response.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Desinfecção , Humanos , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 298-302, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491581

RESUMO

For preventing the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and hand hygiene played crucial roles. These measures may also have affected the expansion of other infectious diseases like respiratory tract infections (RTI) and gastro-intestinal infections (GII). Therefore, we aimed to investigate non-COVID-19 related RTI and GII during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with a diagnosis of an acute RTI (different locations) or acute GII documented anonymously in 994 general practitioner (GP) or 192 pediatrician practices in Germany were included. We compared the prevalence of acute RTI and GII between April 2019-March 2020 and April 2020-March 2021. In GP practices, 715,440 patients were diagnosed with RTI or GII in the nonpandemic period versus 468,753 in the pandemic period; the same trend was observed by pediatricians (275,033 vs. 165,127). By GPs, the strongest decrease was observed for the diagnosis of influenza (-71%, p < 0.001), followed by acute laryngitis (-64%, p < 0.001), acute lower respiratory infections (bronchitis) (-62%, p < 0.001), and intestinal infections (-40%, p < 0.001). In contrast, the relatively rare viral pneumonia strongly increased by 229% (p < 0.001). In pediatrician practices, there was a strong decrease in infection diagnoses, especially influenza (-90%, p < 0.001), pneumonia (-73%, p < 0.001 viral; -76%, p < 0.001 other pneumonias), and acute sinusitis (-66%, p < 0.001). No increase was observed for viral pneumonia in children. The considerable limitations concerning social life implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic to combat the spread of SARS-CoV-2 also resulted in an inadvertent but welcome reduction in other non-Covid-19 respiratory tract and gastro-intestinal infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
6.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26(spe): e20210208, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1292780

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender a ausência de rituais fúnebres na pandemia de COVID-19 no processo de viver o luto das famílias brasileiras que perderam entes queridos por COVID-19. Método: pesquisa qualitativa documental realizada em três jornais disponibilizados online. Foram analisadas 67 reportagens, divididas em duas categorias; a primeira trata dos sofrimentos psicológicos derivados do isolamento social, como ansiedade, depressão, solidão e medo; e a segunda trata das diferentes manifestações do luto e o efeito psicológico das perdas em meio à pandemia. Resultado: a ritualização da morte é indissociável do processo de elaboração das perdas. A ausência de rituais fúnebres, aliada ao distanciamento social, repercute de forma desafiadora para a sociedade e para os profissionais da saúde mental. Estratégias não presenciais de demonstração de afeto e elaboração da perda podem amenizar o isolamento imposto pela pandemia. Conclusões e implicações para a prática: o processo de viver humano é repleto de ritos de passagem e a ritualística na morte-morrer se mostra necessária para a vivência da despedida, da certeza do distanciamento ocorrido entre entes e família. Implica em modos resolutivos de registro emocional, mental e mesmo físico da expressão pública de sofrimento do enlutado e do não esquecimento do Ser à morte. Impacta na prática assistencial para o acolhimento, orientação e elaboração das perdas para a manutenção de vida saudável das pessoas enlutadas, o que propõe argumentos teórico-reflexivos no cuidado em saúde mental e na guarida de pessoas enlutadas decorrentes da pandemia


Objective: to understand the absence of funeral rituals in the process of living the grief process of Brazilian families who lost loved ones by COVID-19. Method: this is a qualitative documental research carried out in three newspapers available online. Sixty-seven reports were analyzed, divided into two categories; the first deals with psychological suffering derived from social isolation, such as anxiety, depression, loneliness and fear; and the second deals with the different manifestations of grief and the psychological effect of losses amidst the pandemic. Result: the ritualization of death is inseparable from the process of elaboration of the losses. The absence of funeral rituals combined with social dictatorship can have a challenging impact on society and mental healthcare professionals. Non-presential strategies for showing affection and elaborating the loss can ease the isolation imposed by the pandemic. Conclusions and implications for practice: the human living process is full of rites of passage and death-dying rituals prove to be necessary for the experience of farewell, of the certainty of the distance between loved ones and family. It implies resolving modes of emotional, mental and even physical recording of the public expression of the griever's suffering and not forgetting the Being's to death. It impacts care practice for reception, guidance and elaboration of losses for the maintenance of a healthy life for grievers, which proposes theoretical-reflective arguments in mental healthcare and in the shelter of grievers resulting from the pandemic


Objetivo: comprender la ausencia de rituales funerarios en el proceso de dolor de las familias brasileñas que perdieron a sus seres queridos por COVID-19. Método: una investigación documental cualitativa realizada en tres periódicos disponibles en línea. Se analizaron 67 informes, divididos en dos categorías; el primero trata sobre el sufrimiento psicológico derivado del aislamiento social, como la ansiedad, la depresión, la soledad y el miedo; y el segundo trata de las diferentes manifestaciones del dolor y el efecto psicológico de las pérdidas en medio de la pandemia. Resultado: la ritualización de la muerte es inseparable del proceso de elaboración de las pérdidas. La ausencia de rituales funerarios combinada con la dictadura social puede tener un impacto desafiante en la sociedad y los profesionales de la salud mental. Las estrategias no presenciales para mostrar afecto y explicar la pérdida pueden aliviar el aislamiento impuesto por la pandemia. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica: el proceso del vivir humano está lleno de ritos de paso y los rituales de la muerte-morir resultan necesarios para la experiencia de la despedida, de la certeza de la distancia entre los seres queridos y la familia. Implica resolver modos de registro emocional, mental e incluso físico de la expresión pública del sufrimiento del doliente y del no olvido del Ser hasta la muerte. Incide en la práctica asistencial para la recepción, orientación y elaboración de las pérdidas para el mantenimiento de una vida sana de las personas en dolor, el cual propone argumentos teórico-reflexivos en la atención de la salud mental y en el refugio de personas en dolor producto de la pandemia


Assuntos
Humanos , Luto , Família/psicologia , Morte , Pandemias , Rituais Fúnebres/psicologia , COVID-19 , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Distanciamento Físico
7.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26(spe): e20210179, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1292850

RESUMO

Objetivo: O estudo objetivou compreender as repercussões da pandemia da Covid-19 no cuidado de lactentes prematuros, na perspectiva de mães e profissionais de saúde. Método: Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas nos meses de junho e julho de 2020, por meio de ligação telefônica, com 14 mães e quatro profissionais de saúde do serviço de follow-up de uma maternidade pública da Paraíba, Brasil. Resultados: A partir da análise temática indutiva, os impactos da pandemia no cuidado ao lactente nascido prematuro, foram: sobrecarga e afastamento dos profissionais dos serviços de saúde, desativação temporária da unidade mãe canguru, descontinuidade da assistência ao prematuro, medo materno de expor a criança à Covid-19 e baixa condição socioeconômica. Foram elencadas estratégias de enfrentamento para o cuidado dos lactentes durante a pandemia, como: maior espaçamento das consultas, acompanhamento por meio telefônico e cumprimento das medidas de biossegurança. Conclusão e implicações para a prática: A pandemia exigi adaptações na assistência, tornando necessárias novas formas de cuidado a essas crianças, como exemplo, as consultas de acompanhamento remotas, a fim de garantir o seu direito à vida e saúde


Objective: The study aimed at understanding the repercussions of the Covid-19 pandemic in the care of premature infants, from the perspective of mothers and health professionals. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the months of June and July 2020, over the telephone, with 14 mothers and four health professionals from the follow-up service of a public maternity hospital in Paraíba, Brazil. Results: From the inductive thematic analysis, the impacts of the pandemic on the care of premature infants were as follows: overload and distancing of health service professionals, temporary deactivation of the Kangaroo mother unit, discontinuity of care for the premature infant, maternal fear of exposing the child to Covid-19 and low socioeconomic status. Coping strategies for the care of infants during the pandemic were listed, such as: greater spacing between consultations, phone follow-up and compliance with biosafety measures. Conclusion and implications for the practice: The pandemic required adaptations in care, which make new forms of care necessary for these children, such as remote follow-up consultations, in order to guarantee their right to life and health


Objetivo: El estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender las repercusiones de la pandemia de Covid-19 en la atención de bebés prematuros, desde la perspectiva de las madres y los profesionales de la salud. Método: Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas en los meses de junio y julio de 2020, por medio de llamadas telefónicas, a 14 madres y cuatro profesionales de la salud del servicio de seguimiento de una maternidad pública en Paraíba, Brasil. Resultados: A partir del análisis temático inductivo, los efectos de la pandemia en la atención de bebés prematuros fueron los siguientes: sobrecarga y distanciamiento de profesionales de los servicios de salud, inhabilitación temporal de la unidad Madre Canguro, discontinuidad de la atención al bebé prematuro, miedo materno a exponer al niño al Covid-19 y nivel socioeconómico bajo. Se enumeraron estrategias de afrontamiento para la atención infantil durante la pandemia, tales como: mayor intervalo entre consultas, seguimiento telefónico y cumplimiento de medidas de bioseguridad. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: La pandemia requirió adaptaciones en la atención, que hacen necesarias nuevas formas de atención para estos niños, como las consultas de monitoreo remoto, para garantizar su derecho a la vida y a la salud


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Lactente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , COVID-19 , Cuidado do Lactente , Mães , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Consulta Remota , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Cobertura Vacinal , Medo , Método Canguru , Higiene das Mãos , Distanciamento Físico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle
8.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26(spe): e20210250, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1343017

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender as percepções de profissionais da educação sobre as violências contra crianças e adolescentes em contexto de pandemia pela Covid-19. Método: pesquisa com abordagem qualitativa, ancorada no Paradigma Complexo, realizada com sete profissionais da educação entre setembro e outubro de 2020. A coleta de dados se deu por entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas em plataforma virtual gratuita, sendo os dados analisados tematicamente. Resultados: emergiram dois temas finais "Violência e pandemia" e "(Não) percepção de possibilidades de atuação". A violência contra crianças e adolescentes é vislumbrada como fenômeno multidimensional pelos participantes. Pelas especificidades de maior ocorrência nas famílias, as alterações da vida impostas pela pandemia, em especial, o afastamento escolar, podem implicar no aumento de casos e maior dificuldade para identificação de violências contra essa população. Os impactos à saúde mental de crianças e adolescentes nesse período foi reforçado. Conclusão e implicações para a prática: apesar da compreensão de maior exposição às violências durante a pandemia, os profissionais não conseguiram propor estratégias para enfrentamento. Novos estudos sobre o tema com diferentes atores envolvidos, e articulação intersetorial para enfrentamento do fenômeno, são necessários


Objective: to understand the education professionals' perception about violence against children and adolescents in the COVID-19 pandemic context. Method: a research study with a qualitative approach, anchored in the Complex Paradigm, carried out with collection took place through semi-structured interviews carried out on a free virtual platform, and the data were thematically analyzed. Results: Two final themes emerged: "Violence and the pandemic" and "(Non)perception of action possibilities". Violence against children and adolescents is seen as a multidimensional phenomenon by the participants. Due to the specificities that occur more frequently in families, the life changes imposed by the pandemic, especially distancing from the school, can lead to an increase in the number of cases and to greater difficulty identifying violence against this population. The impacts on children's and adolescents' mental health during this period were reinforced. Conclusion and implications for the practice: despite the understanding of greater exposure to violence during the pandemic, the professionals were unable to propose coping strategies. New studies on the subject matter with different actors involved are needed, as well as intersectoral articulation to face the phenomenon


Objetivo: comprender las percepciones de los profesionales de la educación sobre la violencia contra niños y adolescentes en el contexto de pandemia por Covid-19. Método: investigación con enfoque cualitativo, anclada en el Paradigma Complejo, realizada con siete profesionales de la educación entre septiembre y octubre de 2020. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas realizadas en una plataforma virtual libre, y los datos fueron analizados temáticamente. Resultados: Surgieron dos temas finales "Violencia y pandemia" y "(No) percepción de posibilidades de actuación". La violencia contra niños y adolescentes es vista por los participantes como un fenómeno multidimensional. Debido a las especificidades que ocurren con mayor frecuencia en las familias, los cambios en la vida que impone la pandemia, especialmente el alejamiento de las escuelas, pueden conllevar un aumento de casos y una mayor dificultad para identificar la violencia contra esta población. Se reforzaron los impactos en la salud mental de niños y adolescentes durante este período. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: a pesar de comprender que se manifiesta una mayor exposición a la violencia durante la pandemia, los profesionales no pudieron proponer estrategias de afrontamiento. Se advierte la necesidad de contar con nuevos estudios sobre el tema, que incluyan a los diferentes actores involucrados, con articulación intersectorial para enfrentar el fenómeno


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Proteção da Criança , Professores Escolares , COVID-19 , Apoio Social , Educação à Distância , Notificação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Relações Familiares , Acesso à Internet , Distanciamento Físico
9.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 113949, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872171

RESUMO

Social distancing policies (SDPs) implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have led to temporal and spatial shifts in water demand across cities. Water utilities need to understand these demand shifts to respond to potential operational and water-quality issues. Aided by a fixed-effects model of citywide water demand in Austin, Texas, we explore the impacts of various SDPs (e.g., time after the stay home-work safe order, reopening phases) using daily demand data gathered between 2013 and 2020. Our approach uses socio-technical determinants (e.g., climate, water conservation policy) with SDPs to model water demand, while accounting for spatial and temporal effects (e.g., geographic variations, weekday patterns). Results indicate shifts in behavior of residential and nonresidential demands that offset the change at the system scale, demonstrating a spatial redistribution of water demand after the stay home-work safe order. Our results show that some phases of Texas's reopening phases had statistically significant relationships to water demand. While this yielded only marginal net effects on overall demand, it underscores behavioral changes in demand at sub-system spatial scales. Our discussions shed light on SDPs' impacts on water demand. Equipped with our empirical findings, utilities can respond to potential vulnerabilities in their systems, such as water-quality problems that may be related to changes in water pressure in response to demand variations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Água , Humanos , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , Políticas , Dinâmica Populacional , SARS-CoV-2 , Abastecimento de Água
10.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960804

RESUMO

There is strong evidence associating the indoor environment with transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 can spread by exposure to droplets and very fine aerosol particles from respiratory fluids that are released by infected persons. Layered mitigation strategies, including but not limited to maintaining physical distancing, adequate ventilation, universal masking, avoiding overcrowding, and vaccination, have shown to be effective in reducing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 within the indoor environment. Here, we examine the effect of mitigation strategies on reducing the risk of exposure to simulated respiratory aerosol particles within a classroom-style meeting room. To quantify exposure of uninfected individuals (Recipients), surrogate respiratory aerosol particles were generated by a breathing simulator with a headform (Source) that mimicked breath exhalations. Recipients, represented by three breathing simulators with manikin headforms, were placed in a meeting room and affixed with optical particle counters to measure 0.3-3 µm aerosol particles. Universal masking of all breathing simulators with a 3-ply cotton mask reduced aerosol exposure by 50% or more compared to scenarios with simulators unmasked. While evaluating the effect of Source placement, Recipients had the highest exposure at 0.9 m in a face-to-face orientation. Ventilation reduced exposure by approximately 5% per unit increase in air change per hour (ACH), irrespective of whether increases in ACH were by the HVAC system or portable HEPA air cleaners. The results demonstrate that mitigation strategies, such as universal masking and increasing ventilation, reduce personal exposure to respiratory aerosols within a meeting room. While universal masking remains a key component of a layered mitigation strategy of exposure reduction, increasing ventilation via system HVAC or portable HEPA air cleaners further reduces exposure.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Distanciamento Físico , Ventilação , Ar Condicionado , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
11.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261065, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curtailing physical contact between individuals reduces transmission and spread of the disease. Social distancing is an accepted and effective strategy to delay the disease spread and reduce the magnitude of outbreaks of pandemic COVID-19. However, no study quantified social distancing practice and associated factors in the current study area. Therefore, the study aimed to assess social distancing practice and associated factors in response to COVID-19 pandemic in West Guji Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2020. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A Community based cross-sectional study design was conducted among randomly selected 410 household members of Bule Hora Town, West Guji Zone. Data were collected by pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire adapted from previous peer reviewed articles. The data were coded and entered in to Epi data version 3.5 and analyzed by SPSS version 23. The bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions analysis was done to identify factors associated with social distancing practice. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and p value <0.05 were used to declare statistical significance. RESULT: Out of 447 planned samples, 410 participants were successfully interviewed and included into final analysis; making the response rate of 91.7%. The median (±IQR) age of study participants was 28(±9) years. In this study, 38.3% [95% CI: 33.5%, 43.1%)] of the study participants have good social distancing practices for the prevention of COVID-19. Age group 26-30 years [AOR = 2.56(95% CI: 1.18-5.54)] and 31-35 years [AOR = 3.57(95%CI: 1.56-8.18)], employed [AOR = 6.10(95%CI: 3.46-10.74)],poor knowledge [AOR = 0.59 (95% CI:0.36-0.95)], negative attitude [AOR = 0.55 (95% CI:0.31-0.95)] and low perceived susceptibility [AOR = 0.33(95%CI: 0.20-0.54)] were significantly associated with good social distancing practice. CONCLUSION: Social distancing practice is relatively poor in the study area. The knowledge and attitude level of participants were identified to be the major factors for the observed poor social distancing practice. Sustained efforts to improve awareness and attitudes towards COVID-19 prevention might improve adherence to social distancing practices.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Autoeficácia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260386, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to radical changes in social distancing awareness and affected social relationships. Owing to large-scale lockdown, home quarantine and social distancing requirements, it was anticipated that sexual activities would be severely impacted. However, retrospective self-report studies showed that pornography use and autoerotism increased during the pandemic. AIM: This study used big-data databases available on the Internet to investigate factors that modulated pornography use during the pandemic. METHODS: Daily relative search volume (RSV) data from Google Trends for the period from 24 February 2020 to 13 July 2020 were extracted. Pornhub traffic data were extracted from the Pornhub Insights website, for the period from 24 February 2020 to 13 July 2020. The parameter was defined as 'percent change in traffic compared to an average day in 2019'. The number of daily new cases of COVID-19 was extracted from the database on Our World in Data. OUTCOME MEASURES: The normality of the data was examined using the Shapiro-Wilk test. All variables included in this study were non-normally distributed. Therefore, non-parametric tests or parametric tests with bootstrapping were adopted where appropriate. RESULTS: According to Google Trends, the RSV for 'pornography' increased after late March 2020, which is close to the date when the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. The number of daily new cases of COVID-19 was positively correlated with the traffic of Pornhub, a popular pornography website, and the RSV for 'pornography'. Moderation analysis demonstrated a significant main effect of daily new cases of COVID-19 and the RSV for 'social distancing' in predicting Pornhub traffic/RSV for 'pornography'. Furthermore, the RSV for 'social distancing' significantly moderated the relationship between daily new cases and Pornhub traffic/RSV for 'pornography'. A stronger COVID-pornography use association was observed with increased social distancing awareness. CONCLUSION: Increased pornography consumption during the pandemic was observed, and it was associated with the severity of the pandemic. Social distancing awareness could be a key factor influencing interest in and use of pornography. Further studies on the changes in sexual desire and birth-rate control are worthwhile because long-term public health may be affected by the changes in sexual behaviour during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Literatura Erótica , Uso da Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Big Data , COVID-19/psicologia , Humanos , Distanciamento Físico , Análise de Regressão
14.
J Bras Pneumol ; 47(6): e20210229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of social distancing resulting from COVID-19 in hospitalizations for infections of the upper airways (URTI), such as acute laryngitis, tracheitis, and otitis media in children aged 0 to 9 years in Brazil, considering that they share the same forms of transmission. METHODS: Data on hospitalizations for acute airway changes and their complications in children <9 years old were obtained from the Database of the Brazilian Department of Public Health Informatics for the period 2015 to 2020. These data were also analyzed by macroregions of Brazil (North, Northeast, Southeast, South, and Midwest). The effect of the social distancing strategy on the increase of acute laryngitis, tracheitis, otitis media, and mastitis, as absolute and relative reductions, was calculated by analyzing the annual calculation of 2015-2019 vs 2020. RESULTS: All the hospitalizations compared in the Unified Health System (SUS) for laryngitis and acute tracheitis and otitis media decreased, considering all states of Brazil. The largest reduction in hospitalization reduction was in the North, with -94% in 2015-2019 vs 2020 in cases of laryngitis and acute tracheitis, and in the Midwest, with - 85% in 2015-2019 vs 2020 in cases of otitis media. CONCLUSION: Hospitalizations for laryngitis, acute tracheitis, and acute otitis media in children <9 years old decreased between March and July 2020 in Brazil, when social distancing measures were adopted due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Laringite , Mastoidite , Otite Média , Traqueíte , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Laringite/epidemiologia , Otite Média/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Traqueíte/epidemiologia
15.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(6): 1079-1090, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This research examines social distancing changes over time, and by region of the United States after the COVID-19 pandemic began. METHODS: We utilized information on social distancing from the Google Community Mobility Reports. We performed one-way repeated-measure analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) to examine the overall changes in the 6 types of social distancing from baseline to the 12-week follow-up (March 1 to May 24, 2020). We applied a 2-way RM-ANOVA to evaluate the effects of time and 4 regions on social distancing. RESULTS: According to one-way RM-ANOVA results, social distancing tended to increase until Time 3 (March 30 to April 12) and 4 (April 13 to April 26), before decreasing again, regardless of the area. The 2-way RM-ANOVA results revealed that the social distancing variations in the 6 area types over time were statistically significant in each region, along with the interaction of regions and time. Compared to other regions, social distancing was the highest in the Northeast area, except in park areas. CONCLUSIONS: We found that social distancing can be influenced not only by contagion changes, but also by regional differences. Understanding the features of social distancing can play a significant role in helping society build a promising COVID-19 prevention model.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 670485, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34926361

RESUMO

For many individuals, the media function as a primary source of information about preventative measures to combat COVID-19. However, a considerable number of citizens believe that the media coverage about pandemics is exaggerated. Although the perception of media exaggeration may be highly consequential for individual health behaviors, we lack research on the drivers and consequences of this perception. In a two-wave panel study, we examined associations between trust in science, perceptions of media exaggeration about COVID-19, and social distancing behavior during the lockdown in Austria (N T2 = 416). Results showed that trust in science at T1 led to less perceptions of media exaggeration about COVID-19 at T2. Furthermore, consistent with the theory of psychological reactance, perceptions of media exaggeration about COVID-19 at T1 caused less social distancing behavior at T2. Thus, findings suggest that trust in science may positively affect individuals' social distancing behavior by decreasing perceived media exaggeration about COVID-19 over time. Implications for research on media effects in times of COVID-19 and conclusions for journalists are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Confiança
18.
Gac Sanit ; 35 Suppl 2: S455-S458, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic put enormous socio-economic pressures on most countries all over the world. In order to contain the spread of the coronavirus, governments implemented both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions. This simple modeling work aims to quantify the effect of three levels of social distancing and large-scale testing on daily COVID-19 cases in Malaysia, Republic of Korea, and Japan. METHOD: The model uses a Stepwise Multiple Regression (SWMR) method for selecting lagged mobility index and testing correlated with daily cases based on a 0.05 level of significance. RESULT: The models's predictability ranges are from 75% to 92%. It is also found that the mobility index plays a more important role, in comparison to testing rates, in determining daily confirmed cases. CONCLUSION: Behavioral changes that support physical distancing measures should be practiced to slow down the COVID-19 spreads.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , República da Coreia , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(51)2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903654

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic presented enormous data challenges in the United States. Policy makers, epidemiological modelers, and health researchers all require up-to-date data on the pandemic and relevant public behavior, ideally at fine spatial and temporal resolution. The COVIDcast API is our attempt to fill this need: Operational since April 2020, it provides open access to both traditional public health surveillance signals (cases, deaths, and hospitalizations) and many auxiliary indicators of COVID-19 activity, such as signals extracted from deidentified medical claims data, massive online surveys, cell phone mobility data, and internet search trends. These are available at a fine geographic resolution (mostly at the county level) and are updated daily. The COVIDcast API also tracks all revisions to historical data, allowing modelers to account for the frequent revisions and backfill that are common for many public health data sources. All of the data are available in a common format through the API and accompanying R and Python software packages. This paper describes the data sources and signals, and provides examples demonstrating that the auxiliary signals in the COVIDcast API present information relevant to tracking COVID activity, augmenting traditional public health reporting and empowering research and decision-making.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Assistência Ambulatorial/tendências , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Distanciamento Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Viagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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