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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(6): 760-762, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376767

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction The high muscular strength in the hip joint is the foundation of jumping ability. Isometric resistance training includes the process of takeoff and landing, recruiting a more extensive set of muscle groups. Objective Analyze the isometric resistance training effects on lower limb muscle activity, including the coactivation of the antagonist's muscles. Methods By mathematical statistics, weight-bearing isometric resistance training effects on lower extremity maximal muscle strength and explosive power were observed. Changes in coactivation and preactivation levels of lower extremity antagonist muscles data are evaluated and compared before and after isometric resistance training. Results The peak angular velocity of the joints at the hip and ankle in the isometric resistance training group is significantly higher than the control group. There was no significant difference in the peak angular velocity of the knee between the groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Isometric resistance training can shorten the return period, shorten the amortization period, and increase the energy conversion capacity in the muscle-tendon complex. Evidence level II; Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the results.


RESUMO Introdução A elevada força muscular na articulação do quadril é o que fundamenta a habilidade do salto. O treino resistido isométrico inclui o processo de decolagem e aterrissagem, recrutando um conjunto maior de grupos musculares. Objetivo Analisar os efeitos do treino isométrico resistido sobre a atividade muscular dos membros inferiores, incluindo a coativação dos músculos antagonistas. Métodos Por meio de estatísticas matemáticas, observa-se o efeito do treino isométrico resistido com sustentação de peso na força muscular máxima das extremidades inferiores e sua potência explosiva. Os dados das mudanças nos níveis de coativação e pré-ativação dos músculos antagonistas dos membros inferiores são avaliados e comparados antes e após o treino isométrico resistido. Resultados O pico de velocidade angular das articulações no quadril e tornozelo do grupo de treino isométrico resistido é significativamente maior do que no grupo controle. Não houve diferença significativa no pico de velocidade angular do joelho entre os dois grupos (P<0,05). Conclusão O treino isométrico resistido pode encurtar o período de retorno, encurtar o período de amortização e aumentar a capacidade de conversão de energia no complexo músculo-tendíneo. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação de resultados.


RESUMEN Introducción La elevada fuerza muscular en la articulación de la cadera es lo que fundamenta la capacidad de saltar. El entrenamiento de resistencia isométrica incluye el proceso de despegue y aterrizaje, reclutando un conjunto mayor de grupos musculares. Objetivo Analizar los efectos del entrenamiento de resistencia isométrica en la actividad muscular de las extremidades inferiores, incluyendo la coactivación de los músculos antagonistas. Métodos Mediante la estadística matemática, se observó el efecto del entrenamiento de resistencia isométrica con carga de peso sobre la fuerza muscular máxima de las extremidades inferiores y su potencia explosiva. Los datos de los cambios en los niveles de coactivación y preactivación de los músculos antagonistas de las extremidades inferiores se evalúan y comparan antes y después del entrenamiento de resistencia isométrica. Resultados La velocidad angular máxima de las articulaciones en la cadera y el tobillo en el grupo de entrenamiento de resistencia isométrica es significativamente mayor que en el grupo de control. No hubo diferencias significativas en la velocidad angular máxima de la rodilla entre los dos grupos (P<0,05). Conclusión El entrenamiento de resistencia isométrica puede acortar el periodo de retorno, reducir el periodo de amortización y aumentar la capacidad de conversión de energía en el complejo músculo-tendón. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de resultados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Atletas , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273856, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099264

RESUMO

In modern developed societies, heavy physical demands are decreasing and getting replaced by longer periods of static, low-exertion activities such as sitting or standing. To counteract this lack of physical activity, more and more people are engaging in physical activity through exercise and training. Virtually opposite training modalities are endurance and strength. We asked if back muscle endurance capacity is influenced by training mode. 38 healthy male subjects (age range 19-31 years, mean age 22.6 years) were investigated: sedentary (Control, n = 12), endurance trained (ET, n = 13), and strength trained participants (ST, n = 13). They underwent a ten-minutes isometric extension task at 50% of their upper body weight. Surface EMG was measured in the low-back region utilizing quadratic 4*4 monopolar electrode montages per side. Relative amplitude and mean frequency changes were analysed with respect to electrode position and group during the endurance task. Eight ST subjects failed to complete the endurance task. Relative amplitude and frequency changes were largest in the ST group, followed by Control and ET groups (amplitude: F 6.389, p 0.004, frequency: F 11.741, p<0.001). Further, independent of group largest amplitude increase was observed for the most upper and laterally positioned electrodes. Mean frequency changes showed no systematic spatial distribution pattern. Although, in the light of an aging population, strength training has its merits our results question the functional suitability of frequent and isolated high-impact strength training for everyday endurance requirements like doing the dishes. Fatigue related amplitude elevations are systematically distributed in the back region, showing least fatigue signs for the most caudal and medial, i.e. the lumbar paravertebral region.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Região Lombossacral/fisiologia , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145222

RESUMO

Black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) extract (KPE), extracted from KP, a member of the ginger family that grows in Thailand, has a good promotion effect on cellular energy metabolism and therefore has been used to enhance exercise performance and treatment of obesity in previous studies. However, the effect of single-dose administration of KPE on endurance capacity has not been thoroughly studied, and whether the positive effect of KPE on cellular energy metabolism can have a positive effect on exercise capacity in a single dose is unknown. In the present study, we used a mouse model to study the effects of acute KPE administration 1 h before exercise on endurance capacity and the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of our study was to determine whether a single administration of KPE could affect endurance performance in mice and whether the effect was produced through a pro-cellular energy metabolic pathway. We found that a single administration of KPE (62.5 mg/kg·bodyweight) can significantly prolong the exercise time to exhaustion. By measuring the mRNA expression of Hk2, Slc2a4 (Glut4), Mct1, Ldh, Cd36, Cpt1ß, Cpt2, Lpl, Pnpla2 (Atgl), Aco, Acadm (Mcad), Hadh, Acacb (Acc2), Mlycd (Mcd), Pparg, Ppargc1a (Pgc-1α), Tfam, Gp, Gs, Pfkm, Pck1 (Pepck), G6pc (G6pase), Cs, and Pfkl in skeletal muscle and liver, we found that acute high-concentration KPE administration significantly changed the soleus muscle gene expression levels (p < 0.05) related to lipid, lactate, and glycogen metabolism and mitochondrial function. In gastrocnemius muscle and liver, glycogen metabolism-related gene expression is significantly changed by a single-dose administration of KPE. These results suggest that KPE has the potential to improve endurance capacity by enhancing energy metabolism and substrate utilization in muscles and liver.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Zingiberaceae , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Lactatos/metabolismo , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Resistência Física , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274880, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112609

RESUMO

The genetic profile that is needed to identify talents has been studied extensively in recent years. The main objective of this investigation was to approach, for the first time, the study of genetic variants in several polygenic profiles and their role in elite endurance and professional football performance by comparing the allelic and genotypic frequencies to the non-athlete population. In this study, genotypic and allelic frequencies were determined in 452 subjects: 292 professional athletes (160 elite endurance athletes and 132 professional football players) and 160 non-athlete subjects. Genotyping of polymorphisms in liver metabolisers (CYP2D6, GSTM1, GSTP and GSTT), iron metabolism and energy efficiency (HFE, AMPD1 and PGC1a), cardiorespiratory fitness (ACE, NOS3, ADRA2A, ADRB2 and BDKRB2) and muscle injuries (ACE, ACTN3, AMPD1, CKM and MLCK) was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Nucleotide Primer Extension (PCR-SNPE). The combination of the polymorphisms for the "optimal" polygenic profile was quantified using the genotype score (GS) and total genotype score (TGS). Statistical differences were found in the genetic distributions between professional athletes and the non-athlete population in liver metabolism, iron metabolism and energy efficiency, and muscle injuries (p<0.001). The binary logistic regression model showed a favourable OR (odds ratio) of being a professional athlete against a non-athlete in liver metabolism (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.28-3.01; p = 0.002), iron metabolism and energy efficiency (OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.42-3.43; p < 0.001), and muscle injuries (OR: 2.70; 95% CI: 1.75-4.16; p < 0.001) in the polymorphisms studied. Genetic distribution in professional athletes as regards endurance (professional cyclists and elite runners) and professional football players shows genetic selection in these sports disciplines.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Actinina/genética , Atletas , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Perfil Genético , Humanos , Ferro , Nucleotídeos , Resistência Física/genética
5.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145185

RESUMO

During the off-season, cyclists reduce their volume and intensity of training in order to recover the body from the high workload during the competitive season. Some studies have examined the effects of the off-season on cardiovascular, metabolic, and performance levels but have not evaluated oxygen metabolism, acid-base status, and electrolytes in cyclists. Therefore, our main objective was to analyze these markers in the off-season period (8 weeks) via finger capillary blood gasometry in well-trained cyclists. We found an increase in oxygen saturation (sO2) and oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) (p ≤ 0.05) and a decrease in fat oxidation at maximum fat oxidation (FatMax) (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, we observed a decreasing trend of VO2 in the ventilatory threshold 2 (VT2) and maximum oxygen consumption (VO2MAX) (p ≤ 0.06) after the off-season in well-trained cyclists. Negative correlations were found between the pre-post off-season differences in the VO2 at ΔFatMax and ΔHCO3- (bicarbonate ion) and between power generated at the ΔeFTP (functional power threshold) and the ΔVO2MAX with the pH (r ≥ -0.446; p ≤ 0.05). After the off-season period, well-trained cyclists had increased markers of oxygen metabolism, decreased fat oxidation at low exercise intensities, and decreased VO2 at the VT2 and VO2MAX. Relationships were found between changes in the ΔeFTP and VO2MAX with changes in the pH and between the pH and HCO3- with changes in La-.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Oxiemoglobinas , Bicarbonatos , Biomarcadores , Teste de Esforço , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio , Resistência Física , Estações do Ano
6.
J Sports Sci Med ; 21(3): 446-457, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36157384

RESUMO

The current study analyzes the suitability and reliability of selected neurophysiological and vegetative nervous system markers as biomarkers for exercise and recovery in endurance sport. Sixty-two healthy men and women, endurance trained and moderately trained, performed two identical acute endurance tests (running trial 1 and running trial 2) followed by a washout period of four weeks. Exercise protocol consisted of an acute running trial lasting 60 minutes. An intensity corresponding to 95% of the heart rate at individual anaerobic threshold for 40 minutes was followed by 20 minutes at 110%. At pre-exercise, post-exercise, three hours post-exercise and 24 hours post-exercise, experimental diagnostics on Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heart rate variability (HRV), Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT), and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) were performed. Significant changes over time were found for all parameters (p < .05). Furthermore, there was an approached statistical significance in the interaction between gender and training status in BDNF regulation (F(3) = 2.43; p = 0.06), while gender differences were found only for LF/HF-ratio (3hPoEx, F(3) = 3.40; p = 0.002). Regarding the reliability, poor ICC-values (< 0.5) were found for BDNF, Stroop sensitivity and pNN50, while all other parameters showed moderate ICC-values (0.5-0.75). Plasma-BDNF, SCWT performance, pain perception and all HRV parameters are suitable exercise-sensitive markers after an acute endurance exercise. Moreover, pain perception, SCWT reaction time and all HRV parameters show a moderate reliability, others rather poor. In summary, a selected neurophysiological and vegetative marker panel can be used to determine exercise load and recovery in endurance sports, but its repeatability is limited due to its vaguely reliability.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Corrida , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Corrida/fisiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to verify the effects of running-specific strength training alone, endurance training alone, and concurrent training on recreational endurance athletes' performance and selected anthropometric parameters. METHOD: Thirty male recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned using a blocking technique to either a running-specific strength training group (RSSTG), an endurance training group (ETG), or a concurrent training group (CTG). RSSTG performed three strength-training sessions per week orientated to running, ETG underwent three endurance sessions per week, and CTG underwent a 3-day-per-week concurrent training program performed on non-consecutive days, alternating the strength and endurance training sessions applied to RSSTG and ETG. The training protocol lasted 12 weeks and was designed using the ATR (Accumulation, Transmutation, Realization) block periodization system. The following assessments were conducted before and after the training protocol: body mass (BM), body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), lean mass (LM), countermovement jump (CMJ), 1RM (one-repetition maximum) squat, running economy at 12 and 14 km/h (RE12 and RE14), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), and anaerobic threshold (AnT). RESULTS: RSSTG significantly improved the results in CMJ, 1RM squat, RE12, and RE14. ETG significantly improved in RE12, RE14, VO2max, and AnT. Finally, CTG, obtained significant improvements in BFP, LM, CMJ, 1RM squat, RE12, RE14, VO2max, and AnT. RSSTG obtained improvements significantly higher than ETG in CMJ, 1RM squat, and RE14. ETG results were significantly better than those attained by RSSTG in AnT. Moreover, CTG marks were significantly higher than those obtained by ETG in CMJ and RE14. CONCLUSION: Performing a 12-week concurrent training program integrated into the ATR periodization system effectively improves body composition and performance variables that can be obtained with exclusive running-specific strength and endurance training in recreational runners aged 30 to 40. Running-specific strength training enhances maximum and explosive strength and RE, whereas exclusive endurance training improves VO2max, AnT, and RE. Performing concurrent training on non-consecutive days effectively prevents the strength and endurance adaptations attained with single-mode exercise from being attenuated. The ATR periodization system is useful in improving recreational endurance athletes' performance parameters, especially when performing concurrent training programs.


Assuntos
Treino Aeróbico , Treinamento de Força , Corrida , Atletas , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Consumo de Oxigênio , Resistência Física , Treinamento de Força/métodos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078556

RESUMO

(1) Speed endurance training (inducing a high blood lactate concentration) delays excitation-contraction coupling impairment, thus providing more space for high-frequency fatigue to occur in the early stage of maximal concentric actions. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the maintenance type of speed endurance training may shift peripheral fatigue from low-frequency to high-frequency fatigue after the 15 s long Wingate test. (2) Six students of physical education performed the corresponding training for six weeks. Before and after this period, they were tested for low- and high-frequency fatigue after the 15 s long Wingate test; additionally, their blood lactate concentrations, maximal cycling power, work, fatigue index, and muscle twitch responses were also tested. (3) The training increased the maximal cycling power and work (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively) with minor changes in the mean fatigue index and blood lactate concentration (both p > 0.05). Low-frequency dominant fatigue before the training showed a trend toward high-frequency dominant fatigue after the training (p > 0.05). (4) The results showed that the 15 s Wingate test failed to induce significant high-frequency fatigue. Even though it displayed a substantial fatigue index, the changes in favor of high-frequency fatigue were too small to be relevant.


Assuntos
Treino Aeróbico , Fadiga , Humanos , Ácido Láctico , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078686

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mental fatigue induced by a demanding cognitive task and impaired physical performance in endurance due to a higher perception of effort. A total of 12 healthy adults and volunteers, who had previously practiced endurance activities for 4 to 8 h per week, performed a one-hour cognitive task involving either the process of response inhibition (Stroop task) or not (visualization of a documentary as control task), then 20 min of pedaling on a cycle ergometer at a constant perception of effort while cardio-respiratory and neuromuscular functions were measured. The Stroop task induces subjective feelings of mental fatigue (vigor: 3.92 ± 2.61; subjective workload: 58.61 ± 14.57) compared to the control task (vigor: 5.67 ± 3.26; p = 0.04; subjective workload: 32.5 ± 10.1; p = 0.005). This fatigue did not act on the produced perceived effort, self-imposed, and did not affect the cardio-respiratory or neuromuscular functions during the subsequent physical task whose type was medium-term endurance. Regardless of the mental condition, the intensity of physical effort is better controlled when the participants in physical activity control their perception of effort. Mental fatigue does not affect subsequent physical performance but estimated perceived exertion, which increases with the intensity and duration of the exercise.


Assuntos
Fadiga Mental , Esforço Físico , Adulto , Humanos , Fadiga Mental/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Teste de Stroop
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078762

RESUMO

Elite masters endurance athletes are considered models of optimal healthy aging due to the maintenance of high cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) until old age. Whereas a drop in VO2max in masters athletes has been broadly investigated, the modifying impact of training still remains a matter of debate. Longitudinal observations in masters endurance athletes demonstrated VO2max declines between -5% and -46% per decade that were closely related to changes in training volume. Here, using regression analyses, we show that 54% and 39% of the variance in observed VO2max decline in male and female athletes, respectively is explained by changes in training volume. An almost linear VO2max decrease was observed in studies on young and older athletes, as well as non-athletes, starting a few days after training cessation, with a decline of as much as -20% after 12 weeks. Besides a decline in stroke volume and cardiac output, training cessation was accompanied by considerable reductions in citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activity (reduction in mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity). This reduction could largely be rescued within similar time periods of training (re)uptake. It is evident that training reduction or cessation leads to a considerably accelerated VO2max drop, as compared to the gradual aging-related VO2max decline, which can rapidly nullify many of the benefits of preceding long-term training efforts.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Envelhecimento , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Consumo de Oxigênio , Resistência Física , Volume Sistólico
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142051

RESUMO

Aim-The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the Burpee exercise on the endurance and short-term memory of adolescents aged 15-16 years. Methods-The experiment was performed in a coeducational school in Kirov (Russia). The four-month study involved 52 adolescents of both genders. During the study period, 30 physical education lessons were held in each class. Adolescents from the control group were involved in a typical program (also aimed at improving endurance), and adolescents from the experimental group additionally performed the Burpee exercise. Endurance in adolescents was assessed by means of an "all-out" Running 2000 m test, and short-term memory was assessed by means of the Jacobs test (tests were performed before and after the programs). Results-An analysis of variance revealed an interaction effect (F = 28.733, ηp2 = 0.578 and p < 0.001, and F = 104.353, ηp2 = 0.676 and p < 0.001 for the Running 2000 m test and the Jacobs test, respectively). The control group improved by 1.9% (p > 0.05) in the Running 2000 m and by 5.5% (p > 0.05) in the Jacobs test. In the experimental group, both improved significantly by 8.6% (p < 0.05) in the Running 2000 m test and by 26.0% (p < 0.05) in the Jacobs test. Conclusion-The Burpee exercise could be included in physical education classes to improve endurance and short-term memory in 15-16-year-old.


Assuntos
Consumo de Oxigênio , Resistência Física , Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Educação Física e Treinamento
12.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275179, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166425

RESUMO

The effects of genetic polymorphisms on muscle structure and function remain elusive. The present study tested for possible associations of 16 polymorphisms (across ten candidate genes) with fittness and skeletal muscle phenotypes in 17- to 37-year-old healthy Caucasian male endurance (n = 86), power/strength (n = 75) and team athletes (n = 60), and non-athletes (n = 218). Skeletal muscle function was measured with eight performance tests covering multiple aspects of muscular fitness. Along with body mass and height, the upper arm and limb girths, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured. Genotyping was conducted on DNA extracted from blood. Of the 16 polymorphisms studied, nine (spanning seven candidate genes and four gene families/signalling pathways) were independently associated with at least one skeletal muscle fitness measure (size or function, or both) measure and explained up to 4.1% of its variation. Five of the studied polymorphisms (activin- and adreno-receptors, as well as myosine light chain kinase 1) in a group of one to three combined with body height, age and/or group explained up to 20.4% of the variation of muscle function. ACVR1B (rs2854464) contributed 2.0-3.6% to explain up to 14.6% of limb proximal girths. The G allele (genotypes AG and GG) of the ACVR1B (rs2854464) polymorphism was significantly overrepresented among team (60.4%) and power (62.0%) athletes compared to controls (52.3%) and endurance athletes (39.2%), and G allele was also most consistently/frequently associated with muscle size and power. Overall, the investigated polymorphisms determined up to 4.1% of the variability of muscular fitness in healthy young humans.


Assuntos
Atletas , Exercício Físico , Ativinas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/genética , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Oxigênio , Resistência Física/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274082, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual variability in traditional cardiovascular risk factor responses to different exercise modalities has not been directly addressed in humans using a randomized cross-over design. METHODS: Body weight and body mass index, resting blood pressure, blood glucose, insulin and lipids were assessed in 68 healthy untrained adults (26±6 years) who underwent three-months of exercise training targeted at improving cardiopulmonary fitness (endurance) and skeletal muscle function (resistance), separated by three-months washout. RESULTS: There were significant increases in weight and body mass index following resistance (+0.8 kg, P<0.01; and +0.26 kg/m2, P<0.01, respectively), but not endurance (+0.1 kg, P = 0.75; and +0.03 kg/m2, P = 0.70, respectively). Although no significant group changes resulted from training in other cardiovascular risk factors, the positive response rate for all variables ranged from 27-49% for resistance and 42-58% for endurance. Between 39-59% of individuals who did not respond to resistance nonetheless responded to endurance, and 28-54% who did not respond to endurance responded to resistance. CONCLUSION: Whilst, on average, 12 weeks of resistance or endurance did not change most cardiovascular risk factors, many subjects showed robust positive responses. Exercise modality had an impact on the proportion of subjects who responded to training, and non-response to one mode of training did not imply non-response to the alternate mode. Although the effect of exercise on a single risk factor may be modest, the effect on overall cardiovascular risk profile can be dramatic. STUDY REGISTRATION: The study was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, which was published prior to recruitment and randomization (ACTRN12616001095459).


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Cross-Over , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos
14.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145075

RESUMO

While the popularity of distance running is growing worldwide, endurance runners' dietary challenges associated with their prolonged training and racing activities have not yet been fully understood. The present investigation was conducted with the aim of examining the association between race distance and dietary intake of distance runners. A total of 317 runners initially participated, and after data clearance, 211 endurance runners (57% females) were finally considered the study sample. Runners were assigned to three race distance groups: 10-km (n = 74), half-marathon (n = 83), and marathon/ultra-marathon (n = 54). An online survey was used to collect data; dietary intake was monitored using a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire, including 53 food groups categorized in 14 basic and three umbrella clusters. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between race distance groups in consumption of most food clusters except for "fruits and vegetables" and "total of protein", with a predominance of 10-km runners compared to half-marathoners and (ultra-)marathoners (p ≤ 0.05). Age was a significant predictor for the consumption of only five (out of 17) food clusters (p ≤ 0.05), including "fruit and vegetables", "unprocessed meat", "processed meat", "eggs", and "plant protein". Future investigations with a larger sample size and more differentiated (sub)groups may help provide comparable data to develop a better understanding of the dietary behaviors among shorter versus longer distance runners.


Assuntos
Resistência Física , Corrida , Ingestão de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Verduras
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954937

RESUMO

A triathlon is an endurance event in which athletes need an efficient hydration strategy since hydration is restricted at different stages. However, it seems that seawater intake can be a suitable hydration alternative for this type of endurance event. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of seawater hydration during a triathlon on cytokine production. Fifteen trained male triathletes (age = 38.8 ± 5.62 years old; BMI = 22.58 ± 2.51 kg/m2) randomly performed three triathlons, one of them consuming seawater (Totum SPORT, Laboratories Quinton International, S.L., Valencia, Spain), the other one consuming tap water ad libitum, and the last a physiologic saline solution as placebo. The triathlon consisted of an 800 m swim, a 90 km bike ride, and a 10 km run. Blood samples were taken at rest and after training, where markers of inflammation, hemoglobin, and hematocrit concentration were assessed. While the seawater was not ergogenic, it significantly increased the release of IL-6 and apelin post-exercise. However, no differences were found between the fractalkine, IL-15, EPO, osteonectin, myostatin, oncostatin, irisin, FSTL1, osteocrin, BDNF, and FGF-21 values over those of the placebo group. The present study demonstrates that hydration with seawater stimulates myokine production, which could lead to improved performance recovery after exercise.


Assuntos
Proteínas Relacionadas à Folistatina , Corrida , Adulto , Apelina , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272668, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984831

RESUMO

Ultramarathon running is a sport that is growing in popularity. Competing in an ultramarathon event is physiologically taxing on the human body, and it should not be surprising that not all individuals who enroll for an event ultimately finish. While many factors can contribute to this phenomenon, it is likely that nutritional and hydration strategies play a large role between finishing and not finishing an ultramarathon. No published paper has systematically reviewed the effects of nutritional and hydration strategies during ultramarathon events between finishers and non-finishers. This paper details our intended protocol with the following steps that create the flow of the systematic review: 1) Determine the review question and Participant, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome, Study Design (PICOS) criteria; 2) Create inclusion and exclusion criteria; 3) Create and follow a search strategy; 4) Document sources that are included and excluded according to the pre-determined eligibility criteria; 5) Assess final sources for risk of bias; 6) Extract pertinent data from final full-text articles and synthesize the information; and 7) Disseminate findings of the systematic review.


Assuntos
Resistência Física , Corrida , Humanos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Compr Physiol ; 12(4): 1-19, 2022 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950659

RESUMO

Although the benefits of regular physical activity on cardiovascular health are well established, the effects of strenuous endurance exercise (SEE) have been a matter of debate since ancient times. In this article, we aim to provide a balanced overview of what is known about SEE and the heart-from epidemiological evidence to recent cardiac imaging findings. Lifelong SEE is overall cardioprotective, with endurance master athletes showing in fact a youthful heart. Yet, some lines of research remain open, such as the need to elucidate the time-course and potential relevance of transient declines in heart function (or increases in biomarkers of cardiac injury) with SEE. The underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance of SEE-associated atrial fibrillation, myocardial fibrosis, or high coronary artery calcium scores also remain to be elucidated. © 2022 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 12:1-19, 2022.


Assuntos
Coração , Resistência Física , Adaptação Fisiológica , Arritmias Cardíacas , Atletas , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Resistência Física/fisiologia
18.
Motor Control ; 26(4): 661-676, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007879

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the acute effects of an incremental resistance test on psychomotor vigilance in 16 soccer players under-19 years old (age 16.42 ± 0.85 years). Borg 15-point subjective perception of effort scale, the psychomotor vigilance task test, and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test were used. Four evaluation sessions were conducted with different intensities of efforts (30%-40%, 60%-75%, 80%-90%, and 100%) on different days (counterbalanced order). A repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed in the reaction time of the psychomotor vigilance task. The results showed that participants responded faster during efforts between 80% and 90% of maximal oxygen uptake (501.20 ± 70.77 ms). From that threshold, the players decreased their performance through a longer reaction time (601.23 ± 85.05 ms; p value < .001). The main findings were that the reaction time performance was worse at the lowest and highest effort conditions (5 and 17 km/hr, respectively). This fact helps to focus on the importance of designing and proposing training tasks with medium-high efforts to provoke optimal reaction times in young soccer players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Adolescente , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Oxigênio , Resistência Física
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954647

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to investigate the role of trait emotional intelligence (EI) in recovery stress states in a mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) race. Recovery stress states of 13 finishers were assessed before, during, and immediately after the end of an extreme MUM, whereas emotional intelligence was assessed 2 days before the MUM race. Temporal evolutions of recovery stress states were examined. Stress states increased after the race whereas recovery states decreased in all participants. In addition, recovery states were influenced by the trait EI level assessed before the competition. Results supported the hypothesis that trait EI tends to have a positive effect by boosting recovery strategies. In this perspective, trait EI could have a protective role against stress and improve pre-competition mental preparation. High scores of trait EI (in comparison to low scores of trait EI) could have helped athletes to increase recovery states in order to improve their psychological adaptation to one of the most difficult races in the world.


Assuntos
Resistência Física , Corrida , Atletas , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Humanos , Corrida de Maratona , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia
20.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 54(10): 1690-1701, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975912

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Long-term development of endurance performance requires a proper balance between strain and recovery. Because responses and adaptations to training are highly individual, this study examined whether individually adjusted endurance training based on recovery and training status would lead to greater adaptations compared with a predefined program. METHODS: Recreational runners were divided into predefined (PD; n = 14) or individualized (IND; n = 16) training groups. In IND, the training load was decreased, maintained, or increased twice a week based on nocturnal heart rate variability, perceived recovery, and heart rate-running speed index. Both groups performed 3-wk preparatory, 6-wk volume, and 6-wk interval periods. Incremental treadmill tests and 10-km running tests were performed before the preparatory period ( T0 ) and after the preparatory ( T1 ), volume ( T2 ), and interval ( T3 ) periods. The magnitude of training adaptations was defined based on the coefficient of variation between T0 and T1 tests (high >2×, low <0.5×). RESULTS: Both groups improved ( P < 0.01) their maximal treadmill speed and 10-km time from T1 to T3 . The change in the 10-km time was greater in IND compared with PD (-6.2% ± 2.8% vs -2.9% ± 2.4%, P = 0.002). In addition, IND had more high responders (50% vs 29%) and fewer low responders (0% vs 21%) compared with PD in the change of maximal treadmill speed and 10-km performance (81% vs 23% and 13% vs 23%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PD and IND induced positive training adaptations, but the individualized training seemed more beneficial in endurance performance. Moreover, IND increased the likelihood of high response and decreased the occurrence of low response to endurance training.


Assuntos
Treino Aeróbico , Treinamento de Força , Corrida , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia
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