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1.
Hum Resour Health ; 20(1): 67, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women make up a significant proportion of workforce in healthcare. However, they remain underrepresented in leadership positions relating to healthcare for a multitude of reasons: balancing personal and work duties, favoritism toward men, lack of support from colleagues and mentors, as well as other factors. This study aims to recognize the contribution made by women in the Bahraini healthcare sector by determining the gender distribution in Bahrain's medical schools, government hospitals, Ministry of Health, and National Health Regulatory Authority. METHODS: Data were collected from the Bahraini Ministry of Health, National Health Regulatory Authority, Salmaniya Medical Complex, King Hamad University Hospital, Bahrain Defence Force Royal Medical Services, the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences in the Arabian Gulf University, and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland-Bahrain. Only physicians who held a Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery and a valid license to practice from NHRA were eligible to participate. Descriptive statistics were used to derive the frequencies and percentages of physicians with the following leadership positions: (1) top administrative positions (e.g., Chief executive officer); (2) heads of departments; (3) heads of committees; and (4) academic positions (e.g., Professor). Data were also collected from the two medical schools in Bahrain to see the trend in female enrollment into medical schools since 2004. RESULTS: The results of the study indicated that leadership positions were mostly held by males in Bahrain (59.4% vs. 40.6%). However, Bahraini males and females equally dominated academic positions. Male physicians also dominated surgical specialties; however, female Bahraini physicians slightly surpassed male Bahraini physicians at the specialist and consultant levels (female to male: 11.9% vs. 10.4% and 33.2% vs. 30.4%, respectively). Furthermore, more females were reported to have general licenses. A trend analysis since 2004 showed that female medical students' representation was higher than males over the years. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the increasing trend of women's participation and contribution to medicine in Bahrain. The data indicated continued growth in the number of female medical students and physicians. As such, it is likely that females will have a bigger impact on healthcare in the future with potential to hold more leadership positions in Bahrain.


Assuntos
Liderança , Médicas , Barein , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Faculdades de Medicina , Recursos Humanos
2.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 63(8): 934-936, 2022.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058865

RESUMO

The female physician career symposium entitled "Thinking about the Careers of Diverse Female Physician" was held at the 2021 annual meeting. Herein, I introduced my carrier not only to female but also male physicians to establish their unique original carrier path and recognize their worth of existence. Until reaching the final goal of your research and job, you will always be in an uphill course with some valley to be overcome by efforts. Similarly, life is always uphill, and the time of marriage and child-rearing is inevitably a valley to be filled with support by your environment and originality to appeal to the worth of existence.


Assuntos
Médicas , Médicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Transplantation ; 106(9): 1699-1702, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International Liver Transplantation Society (ILTS) has placed a strong focus on achieving gender equality and equity in liver transplant (LT). We aimed to understand gender distribution in leadership positions among LT physicians around the world and within ILTS. METHODS: In 2019, the ILTS Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion Committee distributed a survey to obtain granular data on gender and characteristics of transplant physicians as well as those in leadership positions in each center. Additionally, data were collected on the gender composition of the ILTS membership, council, chairpersons, and committees and from the United Network for Organ Sharing. RESULTS: Data were collected from 243 transplant centers. Thirty-two (13.2%) had at least 1 woman as the director of LT, chief of transplant surgery, or chief of transplant hepatology. Of the 243 centers, 133 reported the age and gender of the leadership personnel. Women physicians comprised 152 of the 833 transplant surgeons (18.2%) and 298 of the 935 hepatologists (31.9%). Among the 1331 ILTS physician members, 588 (44.2%) provided gender information in their member profiles, and 155 (26.3%) identified themselves as women. Of the 26 ILTS leadership positions, 7 (26.9%) were held by women. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis of worldwide gender distribution in the LT physician workforce showed notable gender disparity in LT leadership around the globe and within the ILTS. These data provide a launching point for promoting and achieving gender equality and equity in LT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Médicas , Cirurgiões , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 21(8): 303-308, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946849

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Diversity, equity, and inclusion have been recognized as important drivers of excellence and innovation in the physician workforce. Given the historical underrepresentation of women in medicine, gender diversity is of interest. In this cross-sectional study, we sought to quantify leadership representation of female physicians in primary care sports medicine settings, including primary care sports medicine fellowship programs, select sports medicine societies, and select sports medicine-related scientific journals. Data were collected by querying the corresponding web site for each fellowship program, society, and journal and analyzed in a descriptive manner. Results showed that fewer female physicians hold primary care sports medicine leadership roles than men do. This work establishes a baseline for female representation in primary care sports medicine leadership; efforts should continue to increase the presence of women in leadership positions.


Assuntos
Médicas , Medicina Esportiva , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde
7.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 119(2): 307-316, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has placed a tremendous burden on physicians worldwide, especially women physicians, affected by increased workload and loss of quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of life, burnout and spirituality of Brazilian women physicians directly or indirectly providing care to COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Prospective, observational study performed from July 28 to September 27, 2020, in Brazil, with women physicians from 47 specialities, the most frequent being cardiology (22.8%), with no age restriction. They voluntarily answered an online survey with questions on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, quality of life (WHOQOL-brief), spirituality (WHOQOL-SRPB), and statements from the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Statistical analysis used the R software, beta regression, classification trees, and polychoric correlation matrix, with a 5% of significance level. RESULTS: Of the 769 respondents, 61.6% reported signs of burnout. About 64% reported wage loss of up to 50% during the pandemic. Some reported lack of energy for daily tasks, frequent negative feelings, dissatisfaction with capability for work, and caring for others not adding meaning to their lives. Negative feelings correlated negatively with satisfaction with sexual life and personal relations, and energy for daily tasks. The inability to remain optimistic in times of uncertainty correlated positively with feeling unsafe daily and not acknowledging that caring for others brings meaning to life. CONCLUSION: This study showed a high frequency of burnout among Brazilian women physicians who answered the survey during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, they presented with a relatively good quality of life and believed that spirituality comforted and reassured them in hard times.


FUNDAMENTO: A COVID-19 adicionou um fardo enorme sobre os médicos ao redor do mundo, especialmente as mulheres médicas, que são afetadas pelo aumento da carga de trabalho e pela perda da qualidade de vida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da pandemia de COVID-19 na qualidade de vida, burnout e espiritualidade de médicas brasileiras que atendem pacientes com COVID-19 direta ou indiretamente. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo, observacional realizado de 28 de julho a 27 de setembro de 2020, no Brasil, com mulheres médicas de 47 especialidades, a mais frequente sendo a cardiologia (22,8%), sem restrição de idade. Elas responderam voluntariamente um questionário online com questões sobre características demográficas e socioeconômicas, qualidade de vida (WHOQOL-brief) e espiritualidade (WHOQOL-SRPB) e enunciados do Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. A análise estatística utilizou o software R, regressão beta, árvores de classificação e matriz de correlação policórica, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Das 769 respondentes, 61,6% relataram sinais de burnout. Cerca de 64% relataram perda salarial de até 50% durante a pandemia. Algumas relataram falta de energia para as tarefas diárias, sentimentos negativos frequentes, insatisfação com a capacidade para o trabalho, e que cuidar de outras pessoas não agregava sentido às suas vidas. Os sentimentos negativos correlacionaram-se negativamente com a satisfação com a vida sexual, a satisfação com as relações pessoais e a energia para as tarefas diárias. A incapacidade de permanecer otimista em tempos de incerteza correlacionou-se positivamente com a sensação de insegurança no dia a dia e com o não reconhecimento de que cuidar de outras pessoas trouxesse sentido à vida. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostrou uma alta frequência de burnout entre as médicas brasileiras que responderam ao questionário durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Apesar disso, apresentavam uma qualidade de vida relativamente boa e acreditavam que a espiritualidade trazia-lhes conforto e segurança nos momentos difíceis.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , COVID-19 , Pandemias , Médicas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Médicas/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Espiritualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Anesth Analg ; 135(2S Suppl 1): S14-S17, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839828

RESUMO

This special article briefly discusses the role of women as the new journal Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia (now Anesthesia & Analgesia [A&A]) began in 1922. It was a time of a few women physicians, and they were usually isolated from the world of mainstream medicine and its predominantly male practitioners The journal's founders, Frank McMechan and his wife Laurette of Cincinnati, were committed to developing an organization for everyone, and women physicians were welcomed early on. Three women physicians even served as the presidents of various anesthesia organizations early in the formation of the present national organization. This acceptance of women was to change as medical education and practice evolved to embrace scientific medicine, after the Flexner Report of 1910 documented the deficiencies of American medicine. Mrs McMechan made the most important contributions by a woman because she cared totally for Dr McMechan, after he experienced disabling and very severe arthritis. He became dependent on his wife for most activities, including the simple act of eating. He could not function without her; she kept him going physically for another 27 years after the onset of his very debilitating illness. After her husband's death in 1939, Mrs McMechan served an executive function, keeping the organization going and maintaining production of the journal. This article also briefly discusses the life of the first woman physician to publish an article in A&A, Frances Edith Haines, MD, of Chicago. Haines published several articles in the journal; the first was in 1922, in the second journal issue. She was the president of the Mid-Western Association of Anesthetists, an affiliated organization, in 1926. She also served in World War I as a contract physician anesthetist for the US Army; she was the first woman contract surgeon to go overseas, to Limoges, France. Her adventure-filled and bold life changed as she aged and developed financial problems. She tried, but failed, to get financial help from the government and the military for her war service, and she died in 1966. These women are examples of women physicians involved with the journal, as it began in 1922. As the number of women physicians has increased recently, some past problems, such as difficulty with getting admitted to medical schools, for example, have improved. However, there are still many issues for women in medicine, including in our specialty.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Anestesiologia , Militares , Médicas , Idoso , Anestesiologistas , Anestesiologia/história , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Médicas/história
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 902294, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35865248

RESUMO

Background: Patient bias and prejudice directed against physicians from diverse backgrounds is a frequent occurrence in healthcare. Female physicians have long experienced discrimination in the healthcare system based on their gender alone. The dynamic known as Patient Prejudice toward Providers (PPtP) is disproportionately affecting female physicians because it is frequently compounded by sexism. Aim: The goal of this study was to explore the impact of PPtP on female resident and attending physicians. Methods: Using transcribed one-on-one interviews from a larger study of PPtP affecting resident and attending physicians, ten interviews with female physicians (resident and attending) from diverse ethnic backgrounds and countries of training at a large academic medical center were analyzed. The authors independently reviewed the interviews using an iterative process within and across interviews to inductively identify repeating words, phrases, and concepts relevant to the study aim. Results: Demographics of the ten participants included age (mean 34.6 years), ethnicity (6 Asian, 2 Hispanic, 2 African), and country of training (10% IMG vs. 90% US trained). Four of the interviewees were residents and six were attendings. Themes that emerged from the analysis included experiencing "A Gendered Continuum of Abuse," "Establishing a Higher Standard of Competency," "Overcoming the Stereotype of the White Male Physician," "The Physicality of Self Identity," and "The Need to be Protective of Minoritized Trainees." All participants agreed that these perceptions created an adverse environment at the workplace and impacted on patient care. Conclusions: Discrimination of physicians based on their gender or their race/ethnicity has been reported. This study highlights the compounded effects of patient prejudice on female minoritized physicians. Organizations and individuals should identify and implement strategies to address the impact of PPtP and sexism in order to create an environment where all women can thrive professionally.


Assuntos
Médicas , Médicos , Adulto , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Preconceito , Local de Trabalho
11.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 59(2): 161-163, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830022

Assuntos
Médicas , Feminino , Humanos
14.
Updates Surg ; 74(3): 803-816, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657559

RESUMO

Many studies documented the "glass ceiling" effect for women in surgery: achievements in academic and leadership positions are not consistent with the percentage of female surgeons in practice. A solid surgical case volume and expertise in high-complexity cases are required to pursue leadership positions. The aim of the study was to determine whether part of the difficulties encountered by female surgeons may lie in reduced surgical opportunities. This is the first study to investigate this issue in Italy. An online survey, conceived and promoted by Women in Surgery Italia, was administered through the RedCap platform, between November and December 2020, and female surgeons actively working in Italian academic and non-academic hospitals were invited to answer anonymously. A multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the role of different factors on two main variables: overall procedures done and a sub-analysis of complex cases performed as first surgeon. 1810 respondents were included; the women who responded participated in 3% fewer cases on average, when compared to the mean staff case volume, and were significantly more often listed as the assistant surgeon and as primary surgeons in low-complexity cases. 36.5% of the respondents declared that at least one female physician on staff had to abandon the operatory room (OR) and does not regularly perform any surgical procedure. 73% female surgeons would like to spend more hours in the OR. While acquiring skills and surgical autonomy, many obstacles still exist for female surgeons. A portion of women are relegated to non-surgical activities, irrespective of their specialty, and these results confirm the theory that gender-biased underemployment still exists in surgical fields.


Assuntos
Médicas , Cirurgiões , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Am Coll Surg ; 234(6): 1064-1072, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exploring the lived experiences of surgeons is necessary to understand the changing culture of surgery and the unique challenges of being a woman in surgery. Surgeons have significant experiences and observations best discovered through qualitative study. The purpose of this study is to identify the similarities and differences between the experiences of men and women surgeons after initiation of mandatory microaggression training. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with female and male surgeons and residents were done following a year-long series of training sessions on the detrimental effects of microaggression. Participants were selected using a convenience sampling method. MAXQDA coding software (Verbi) was used to evaluate interview transcripts with thematic analysis. RESULTS: Nineteen surgeons and surgical residents were interviewed. The participants were of equal gender identification, with the majority being attending surgeons. Multiple themes highlighted similarities and differences between male and female participants. Differences were noted in identification of a sensitive personality, family planning considerations, and experiences of bias. Similarities were related to the personality traits required to be successful in surgery, the sacrifice inherent to a surgical career, and the war rhetoric used to describe the comradery of residency. CONCLUSION: The challenges and rewards of surgery are similar for women and men, but women have additional stressors, including gender-based bias, microaggression, and family planning. These stressors take up energy, decreasing the mental space available for additional roles and affecting the work environment. Microaggression education can incite necessary discussions of bias and provide women with an opportunity to reflect on and share their experiences.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Médicas , Cirurgiões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sexismo
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2213337, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583866

RESUMO

Importance: Pervasive gender disparities exist in medicine regarding promotion, achievement of academic rank, and appointment to leadership positions. Fertility and childbearing concerns may contribute to these disparities. Objective: To assess fertility knowledge and concerns and evaluate barriers to family building and impact on academic attrition reported by female physicians. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study used mixed methods; first, structured 1:1 interviews exploring fertility knowledge and family-building concerns were conducted among 16 female physicians between November 2019 and May 2020. Transcripts were coded in Dedoose and used to develop a survey instrument with subsequent pilot testing conducted among 24 female physicians between April 2020 and September 2020. Data analysis was performed from January 2021 to March 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Fertility knowledge, perceptions of peer and institutional support surrounding childbearing, factors contributing to delayed childbearing, and impact of family planning on career decisions. Results: Among 16 women who completed qualitative interviews, 4 (25%) were Asian, 1 (6%) was Black, 1 (6%) was multiracial, and 10 (63%) were White; mean (SD) age was 34.9 (4.0) years. Evaluation of fertility knowledge revealed 3 notable themes: (1) inadequate formal fertility education, (2) informal learning through infertility experiences of patients, peers, or personal struggles, and (3) desire to improve medical education through early introduction and transparent discussions about infertility. Exploration of childbearing concerns similarly revealed several salient themes: (1) high incidence of delayed childbearing, (2) perceived lack of peer and administrative support, and (3) impact of family building on career trajectory. These themes were borne out in pilot testing of the survey instrument: of 24 female physicians (7 Asian women [27%], 1 Black woman [4%], 1 Hispanic or Latinx woman [4%], 1 multiracial woman [4%], 15 White women [58%]; mean [SD] age, 36.1 [6.7] years), 17 (71%) had delayed childbearing and 16 (67%) had altered their career for family-building reasons. Conclusions and Relevance: Qualitative interviews identified fertility and family building concerns among female physicians and were used to develop a tailored survey for women in medicine. These findings suggest that female physicians may delay childbearing and make substantial accommodations in their careers to support family building. A large-scale national survey is needed to better characterize the unique fertility, childbearing, and parenting needs of women in academic medicine to better understand how these concerns may contribute to academic attrition.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Medicina , Médicas , Adulto , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos
17.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 104(16): 1455-1461, 2022 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only 13.6% of orthopaedic surgeons in Canada are women, even though there is nothing inherent to the practice of orthopaedic surgery that favors men over women. Clearly, there is a need to identify, define, and measure the barriers faced by women in orthopaedic surgery. METHODS: An electronic survey was distributed to 330 female-identifying Canadian orthopaedic surgeons and trainees and included the validated Gender Bias Scale (GBS) and questions about career burnout. The barriers for women in Canadian orthopaedics were identified using the GBS. The relationships between the GBS and burnout were investigated. Open-text questions explored the barriers perceived by female orthopaedic surgeons. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 220 female orthopaedic surgeons and trainees (66.7%). Five barriers to gender equity were identified from the GBS: Constrained Communication, Unequal Standards, Male Culture, Lack of Mentoring, and Workplace Harassment. Career burnout correlated with the GBS domains of Male Privilege (r = 0.215; p < 0.01), Disproportionate Constraints (r = 0.152; p < 0.05), and Devaluation (r = 0.166; p < 0.05). Five main themes emerged from the open-text responses, of which 4 linked closely to the barriers identified in the GBS. Work-life integration was also identified qualitatively as a theme, most notably the difficulty of balancing disproportionate parental and childcare responsibilities alongside career aspirations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, 5 barriers to workplace equity for Canadian female orthopaedic surgeons were identified using the validated GBS and substantiated with qualitative assessment using a mixed-methods approach. Awareness of these barriers is a necessary step toward dismantling them and changing the prevailing culture to be fair and equitable for all. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A just and equitable orthopaedic profession is imperative to have healthy and thriving surgeons who are able to provide optimal patient care.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos , Médicas , Cirurgiões , Canadá , Feminino , Equidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
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