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1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278752, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602996

RESUMO

Valvometry, the electronic measurement of bivalve shell opening and closing, has been demonstrated to be a valuable biomonitoring technique in previous ecological and environmental studies. Valvometric data has been shown to relate significantly to pollution, predation, animal stress and feeding activity. However, there is a need for valvometric techniques applicable to coral reef environments, which may provide critical insights into reef resilience to ocean warming and acidification. Giant clams are endemic to coral reefs and hold great promise as valvometric recorders of light availability, productivity and other environmental variables. Despite this promise, prior valvometric work on giant clams has been limited by specialized hardware less accessible to developing countries where many coral reefs are found. Here we report on an open-source approach that uses off-the-shelf components to monitor smooth giant clam (Tridacna derasa) valve opening behavior, and tests this approach in the simulated reef environment of the Biosphere 2 Ocean. Valvometric data corroborates the influence of light availability on diurnal behavior of giant clams. The clams basked during daylight hours to expose their photosymbionts to light, and adopted a partially-closed defensive posture at night. The animals showed variations in the frequency of complete closures, with most occurring during night-time hours when the animals prioritize filter-feeding activity, clapping their valves to expel pseudofeces from their gills. Closure frequency showed a significant relation to pH and a significant lagged relationship to chlorophyll-a productivity, which are both a function of algal productivity in the Biosphere 2 Ocean tank. These results suggest that the animals fed on phytoplankton following periodic bloom events in the Biosphere 2 Ocean during the experiment. We propose that giant clams exhibit behavioral plasticity between individuals and populations, and advocate for the more widespread use of valvometry to enable comparative studies of reef environment and animal health.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Bivalves , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Fitoplâncton , Ecossistema
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 769, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641538

RESUMO

During winter, the dry, cool air brought by prevailing northeasterly trade winds leads to surface ocean heat loss and convective mixing in the northern Arabian Sea. The current paradigm is that the convective mixing process leads to the injection of nutrients up into the surface waters and exert a dominant control on winter productivity. By combining a variety of observations, atmospheric reanalysis and model simulations, we unraveled the processes responsible for the observed year-to-year chlorophyll-a variations in the northern Arabian Sea. Our findings suggest that the atmospheric high-pressure systems that traverse the northern Arabian Sea every winter and spring disrupt winter convective mixing and create an array of environmental conditions conducive to trigger phytoplankton blooms. The arrival of an atmospheric high with the anticyclonic flow in the northern Arabia Sea sets the stage for a sequence of events culminating in intermittent mixed-layer restratification due to buoyancy gain aided by increased specific humidity, supplemented with abundant sunlight due to clear skies, and suppressed turbulent mixing owing to weak winds. These combined with the mixed layer that is shallower than the euphotic zone and the influx of nutrients into the euphotic zone brought by convective mixing between the calm periods, caused unprecedented high concentrations of chlorophyll-a in the northern Arabian Sea.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Fitoplâncton , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila A , Estações do Ano , Pressão Atmosférica
3.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 398, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693848

RESUMO

Since its inception, the theory of alternative equilibria in shallow lakes has evolved and been applied to an ever wider range of ecological and socioecological systems. The theory posits the existence of two alternative stable states or equilibria, which in shallow lakes are characterised by either clear water with abundant plants or turbid water where phytoplankton dominate. Here, we used data simulations and real-world data sets from Denmark and north-eastern USA (902 lakes in total) to examine the relationship between shallow lake phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a) and nutrient concentrations across a range of timescales. The data simulations demonstrated that three diagnostic tests could reliably identify the presence or absence of alternative equilibria. The real-world data accorded with data simulations where alternative equilibria were absent. Crucially, it was only as the temporal scale of observation increased (>3 years) that a predictable linear relationship between nutrient concentration and chlorophyll-a was evident. Thus, when a longer term perspective is taken, the notion of alternative equilibria is not required to explain the response of chlorophyll-a to nutrient enrichment which questions the utility of the theory for explaining shallow lake response to, and recovery from, eutrophication.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Lagos , Clorofila A , Biomassa , Fitoplâncton , Água , Eutrofização , Fósforo
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1991): 20222021, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695036

RESUMO

A large fraction of marine primary production is performed by diverse small protists, and many of these phytoplankton are phagotrophic mixotrophs that vary widely in their capacity to consume bacterial prey. Prior analyses suggest that mixotrophic protists as a group vary in importance across ocean environments, but the mechanisms leading to broad functional diversity among mixotrophs, and the biogeochemical consequences of this, are less clear. Here we use isolates from seven major taxa to demonstrate a tradeoff between phototrophic performance (growth in the absence of prey) and phagotrophic performance (clearance rate when consuming Prochlorococcus). We then show that trophic strategy along the autotrophy-mixotrophy spectrum correlates strongly with global niche differences, across depths and across gradients of stratification and chlorophyll a. A model of competition shows that community shifts can be explained by greater fitness of faster-grazing mixotrophs when nutrients are scarce and light is plentiful. Our results illustrate how basic physiological constraints and principles of resource competition can organize complexity in the surface ocean ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Eucariotos , Eucariotos/fisiologia , Fitoplâncton , Clorofila A , Oceanos e Mares
5.
PeerJ ; 11: e14501, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36620747

RESUMO

Background: Phytoplankton is the base of majority of ocean ecosystems. It is responsible for half of the global primary production, and different phytoplankton taxa have a unique role in global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phytoplankton abundance and diversity are highly susceptible to climate induced changes, hence monitoring of phytoplankton and its diversity is important and necessary. Methods: Water samples for phytoplankton and photosynthetic pigment analyses were collected in boreal winter 2017, along transect in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) and the California Current System (CCS). Phytoplankton community was analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy and photosynthetic pigments by high-performance liquid chromatography. To describe distinct ecosystems, monthly average satellite data of MODIS Aqua Sea Surface temperature and Chlorophyll a concentration, as well as Apparent Visible Wavelength were used. Results: A total of 207 taxa have been determined, mostly comprised of coccolithophores (35.5%), diatoms (25.2%) and dinoflagellates (19.5%) while cryptophytes, phytoflagellates and silicoflagellates were included in the group "others" (19.8%). Phytoplankton spatial distribution was distinct, indicating variable planktonic dispersal rates and specific adaptation to ecosystems. Dinoflagellates, and nano-scale coccolithophores dominated NPSG, while micro-scale diatoms, and cryptophytes prevailed in CCS. A clear split between CCS and NPSG is evident in dendogram visualising LINKTREE constrained binary divisive clustering analysis done on phytoplankton counts and pigment concentrations. Of all pigments determined, alloxanthin, zeaxanthin, divinyl chlorophyll b and lutein have highest correlation to phytoplankton counts. Conclusion: Combining chemotaxonomy and microscopy is an optimal method to determine phytoplankton diversity on a large-scale transect. Distinct communities between the two contrasting ecosystems of North Pacific reveal phytoplankton groups specific adaptations to trophic state, and support the hypothesis of shift from micro- to nano-scale taxa due to sea surface temperatures rising, favoring stratification and oligotrophic conditions.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Dinoflagelados , Fitoplâncton/química , Ecossistema , Clorofila A
6.
Water Res ; 230: 119563, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621276

RESUMO

To control eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems, enhancing nitrogen removal in the constructed wetland (CW) by upgrading conventional CW to aeration CW is commonplace. However, regulatory efforts have only focused on reducing dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) discharge and disregarding dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Here, we used experimental mesocosms to investigate the effect of aeration mode on the characteristics of effluent DON in CW. The results showed that intermittent aeration is prone to introduce large amounts of DON and bioavailable DON (ABDON) in the effluents, although it greatly decreases effluent total nitrogen (TN). Analysis of DON fluorescent components and molecular characteristics indicated that suddenly shifting the environment from anoxic condition to aerobic condition in the intermittent aeration CW (IACW) would stimulate microorganisms to release tryptophan and simple aromatic proteins-like substances, which does not occur in the limited continuous aeration CW (CACW). Consequently, the abundance of DON resembling lipids, proteins/amino sugars, and carbohydrates-like molecules in IACW were about 2.1 times higher than that in CACW. Bioassay results showed that Selenastrum capricornutum and Microcystis aeruginosa incubated with effluent from IACW both generate larger phytoplankton biomass than that with CACW effluent, even though IACW effluent contains less TN than its counterpart. Moreover, Microcystis aeruginosa can simultaneously utilize DON and DIN, while Selenastrum capricornutum seem to utilize the DON only when DIN was not available. This result implies that increasing DON discharge may also influence phytoplankton composition and stimulate harmful phytoplankton species. Overall, this study indicates that upgrading CW solely depending on DIN removal level cannot ensure a mitigation of nitrogen-related eutrophication, and more efforts should be paid to curb DON discharge.


Assuntos
Fitoplâncton , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Ecossistema , Áreas Alagadas , Nitrogênio/análise
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 261, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598707

RESUMO

Coastal zones support the most productive marine ecosystems, yet they are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic stressors such as dredging. In this study, we investigated how seasonal variation and dredging activities conducted during the construction of a harbor and submarine base (Sepetiba Bay, RJ, Brazil) affected the phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages. The observed temporal variability at five different sites over 10 years revealed that dredging exceeds the expected influence of dry and rainy seasons on plankton abundance and diversity. In general, the abundance of both groups increased during dredging due to the resuspension of nutrients and benthic organisms. This increase was particularly evident in the dinoflagellate Scrippsiellaa cuminata, the diatoms Thalassiosira rotula and Nitzschia longissima, and the herbivorous zooplankton Acartia clausii and Pseudevadne tergestina. Moreover, season and dredging activities synergistically influenced plankton assemblages, resulting in larger seasonal variations during dredging activities. After the end of the harbor construction, plankton abundance decreased and remained low until the end of the monitoring, which may indicate persistent changes in the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning of impacted areas.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Plâncton , Animais , Estações do Ano , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fitoplâncton , Zooplâncton
8.
Elife ; 122023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691727

RESUMO

Unicellular algae, termed phytoplankton, greatly impact the marine environment by serving as the basis of marine food webs and by playing central roles in the biogeochemical cycling of elements. The interactions between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria affect the fitness of both partners. It is becoming increasingly recognized that metabolic exchange determines the nature of such interactions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain underexplored. Here, we investigated the molecular and metabolic basis for the bacterial lifestyle switch, from coexistence to pathogenicity, in Sulfitobacter D7 during its interaction with Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan bloom-forming phytoplankter. To unravel the bacterial lifestyle switch, we analyzed bacterial transcriptomes in response to exudates derived from algae in exponential growth and stationary phase, which supported the Sulfitobacter D7 coexistence and pathogenicity lifestyles, respectively. In pathogenic mode, Sulfitobacter D7 upregulated flagellar motility and diverse transport systems, presumably to maximize assimilation of E. huxleyi-derived metabolites released by algal cells upon cell death. Algal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was a pivotal signaling molecule that mediated the transition between the lifestyles, supporting our previous findings. However, the coexisting and pathogenic lifestyles were evident only in the presence of additional algal metabolites. Specifically, we discovered that algae-produced benzoate promoted the growth of Sulfitobacter D7 and hindered the DMSP-induced lifestyle switch to pathogenicity, demonstrating that benzoate is important for maintaining the coexistence of algae and bacteria. We propose that bacteria can sense the physiological state of the algal host through changes in the metabolic composition, which will determine the bacterial lifestyle during interaction.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Rhodobacteraceae , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Fitoplâncton/microbiologia
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 327, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692619

RESUMO

Phytoplankton composition and abundance are considered among the bioindicators of variations in water quality, due to its sensitivity and rapid responses to changes in environmental parameters. The selection and scaling of the Microalgal Predominant Microbial Consortium (MPMC) were based on live samples collected from the Santiago Apóstol Swamp (SAS) and the Arroyo Grande de Corozal (AGC). The inoculum was scaled in a phycoculture plant, and the inoculation process was performed in the AGC that flows into the SAS. The phytoplankton community monitoring was performed from May 2019 to September 2021. In the process, a total of 1,652,258 gallons were inoculated. Precisely, 103 and 124 species were found in the AGC and SAS, respectively. By evaluating the physical, chemical, and microbiological variables in SAS in a multitemporal way based on the inoculation of the MPMC, it is possible to identify the variables that presented the greatest reduction. The density of SAS presented associations with dissolved oxygen, thermotolerant coliforms, Enterococci, pH, phosphorus, nitrates, speed, and Secchi. The AGC and SAS presented high trophic levels (eutrophication). This contamination by organic matter is probably due to the discharges of the domestic tributaries. The diversity of microalgae and cyanobacteria found in this study allows us to know the anthropogenic impact. The density of microalgae showed the positive impact of the treatment with MCPM, where there was a decrease in the species that denote organic contamination. The phytoremediation treatment was effective in terms of the changes observed in the physicochemical variables, and these changes were directly due to the efficiency of the treatment and not the natural behavior of the water sources in the region.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Fitoplâncton , Áreas Alagadas , Colômbia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Região do Caribe , Eutrofização
10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280827, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693065

RESUMO

In large areas of the ocean, iron concentrations are insufficient to promote phytoplankton growth. Numerous studies have been conducted to characterize the effect of iron on algae and how algae cope with fluctuating iron concentrations. Fertilization experiments in low-iron areas resulted primarily in diatom-dominated algal blooms, leading to laboratory studies on diatoms comparing low- and high-iron conditions. Here, we focus on the short-term temporal response following iron addition to an iron-starved open ocean diatom, Thalassiosira oceanica. We employed the NanoString platform and analyzed a high-resolution time series on 54 transcripts encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis, N-linked glycosylation, iron transport, as well as transcription factors. Nine transcripts were iron-responsive, with an immediate response to the addition of iron. The fastest response observed was the decrease in transcript levels of proteins involved in iron uptake, followed by an increase in transcript levels of iron-containing enzymes and a simultaneous decrease in the transcript levels of their iron-free replacement enzymes. The transcription inhibitor actinomycin D was used to understand the underlying mechanisms of the decrease of the iron-responsive transcripts and to determine their half-lives. Here, Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), plastocyanin (PETE), ferredoxin (PETF) and cellular repressor of EA1-stimulated genes (CREGx2) revealed longer than average half-lives. Four iron-responsive transcripts showed statistically significant differences in their decay rates between the iron-recovery samples and the actD treatment. These differences suggest regulatory mechanisms influencing gene transcription and mRNA stability. Overall, our study contributes towards a detailed understanding of diatom cell biology in the context of iron fertilization response and provides important observations to assess oceanic diatom responses following sudden changes in iron concentrations.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Fotossíntese
11.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280880, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693074

RESUMO

Fine-grained organic-rich sediments (FGORS) are accumulating in estuaries worldwide, with multi-faceted negative ecosystem impacts. A pilot experiment was carried out in a residential canal of the Indian River Lagoon estuary (IRL, Florida, USA) using an aeration treatment intended to mitigate the harmful ecological effects of organic-rich sediment pollution. Planktonic and benthic communities were monitored, and environmental data collected throughout the aeration process. Results were compared against control conditions to evaluate the efficacy of aeration in the mitigation of FGORS. During the aeration process, hurricane Irma impacted the study area, bringing heavy rainfall and spawning a brown tide event (Aureoumbra lagunensis). The overall thickness and volume of FGORS, and the organic content of surface sediments did not change during the aeration treatment. Dissolved oxygen was higher and ammonium concentrations were lower in aeration canal bottom water compared to the control canal. During treatment, aeration did facilitate benthic animal life when temperatures dropped below 25°C, likely due to water column mixing and the increased capacity of water to hold dissolved gasses. In general, aeration did not significantly change the planktonic community composition relative to the control canal, but, during the post-bloom period, aeration helped to weaken the brown tide and phytoplankton densities were 35-50% lower for A. lagunensis in aeration canal surface water compared to the control canal. Aeration has important management applications and may be useful for mitigating algal blooms in flow-restricted areas and promoting benthic communities in cooler environments.


Assuntos
Estuários , Fitoplâncton , Animais , Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Plâncton , Água , Sedimentos Geológicos , Monitoramento Ambiental
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675187

RESUMO

In numerous studies, researchers have explored the interactions between fungi and their hosting biota in terrestrial systems, while much less attention has been paid to the counterpart interactions in aquatic, and particularly marine, ecosystems. Despite the growing recognition of the potential functions of fungi in structuring phytoplankton communities, the current insights were mostly derived from phytoplankton hosts, such as diatoms, green microalgae, and cyanobacteria. Dinoflagellates are the second most abundant group of phytoplankton in coastal marine ecosystems, and they are notorious for causing harmful algal blooms (HABs). In this study, we used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to capture global snapshots of specific fungal assemblages associated with laboratory-cultured marine dinoflagellate. We investigated a total of 13 clonal cultures of the dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum that were previously isolated from 5 geographic origins and have been maintained in our laboratory from several months to more than 14 years. The total recovered fungal microbiome, which consisted of 349 ASVs (amplicon sequencing variants, sequences clustered at a 100% sequence identity), could be assigned to 4 phyla, 18 classes, 37 orders, 65 families, 97 genera, and 131 species. The fungal consortium displayed high diversity and was dominated by filamentous fungi and ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts. A core set of three genera among all the detected fungi was constitutively present in the K. veneficum strains isolated from geographically distant regions, with the top two most abundant genera, Thyridium and Pseudeurotium, capable of using hydrocarbons as the sole or major source of carbon and energy. In addition, fungal taxa previously documented as endophytes in other hosts were also found in all tested strains of K. veneficum. Because host-endophyte interactions are highly variable and strongly case-dependent, these fungal taxa were not necessarily genuine endosymbionts of K. veneficum; instead, it raised the possibility that dinoflagellates could potentially serve as an alternative ecological niche for the colonization of fungal endophytes. Our findings lay the foundation for further investigations into the potential roles or functions of fungi in the regulation of the growth dynamics and HABs of marine dinoflagellates in the field.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Micobioma , Humanos , Dinoflagelados/genética , Endófitos , Ecossistema , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Fitoplâncton
13.
Chemosphere ; 315: 137746, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608885

RESUMO

In recent years, paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have been prevalent in the coastal waters of Qinhuangdao, the west coast of the Bohai Sea, China. The content of PSTs in shellfish often exceeded the regulatory limit of 800 µg STX equivalent (eq.) kg-1, which poses a serious threat to human health. In this study, two surveys were conducted in May 2021 and May 2022 to investigate the distribution of PSTs in the coastal waters of Qinhuangdao. Seawater, surface sediment, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other marine organism samples were collected, and the composition and concentration of PSTs were analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results showed that multiple PST components were detected in all seawater samples collected at different depths, mainly including GTX1/4, GTX2/3, dcGTX2, STX and C1/2, and the highest concentration of PSTs reached 244 ng STX eq. L-1. The sediment samples also contained low levels of C1/2 and GTX2/3. Trace amounts of C1/2 and GTX1-4 were detected in phytoplankton and zooplankton. Moreover, all bivalve shellfish samples were found to contain PSTs, and the scallop Azumapecten farreri and the ark clam Anadara kagoshimensis showed relatively high concentrations of 607 and 497 µg STX eq. kg-1, respectively. In addition, low levels of PSTs were also found in some non-traditional PST vectors, including whelk Rapana venosa, octopus Amphioctopus ovulum, goby Ctenotrypauchen chinensis, and greenling Hexagrammos agrammus. Results of this study improve the understanding of the distribution of PSTs in seawater and marine organisms and the potential risk of persistent PSTs in seawater to marine ecosystems and human health.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Pectinidae , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Humanos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Ecossistema , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Bivalves/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Fitoplâncton/química , China , Água do Mar , Zooplâncton
14.
Mar Environ Res ; 184: 105855, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610306

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms caused by Heterocapsa bohaiensis have broken out in aquaculture areas near Liaodong Bay, China, since 2012, resulting in mass mortality of Eriocheir sinensis larvae and substantial economic loss. Chlorella pyrenoidosa is a local phytoplankton species that is found in aquaculture ponds. However, the reason why H. bohaiensis dominated and proliferated in the phytoplankton community remains unknown. Previous studies have revealed the toxicity and hemolytic activity of H. bohaiensis. It is suspected that the out-competition of H. bohaiensis to C. pyrenoidosa was associated with toxicity. Filtrate and bi-algal cultures were investigated to determine the interspecific competition between H. bohaiensis and C. pyrenoidosa in this study. Filtrate experiments revealed that H. bohaiensis showed no toxin allelopathy in C. pyrenoidosa. However, the C. pyrenoidosa filtrates had significant allelopathic effects on the growth of H. bohaiensis. The bi-algal culture experiments and the simulation showed that the dominant species were dependent on the initial cell density ratios of the species and nutrient ratios. Therefore, H. bohaiensis achieved competitive advantage through exploitation competition but not allelopathy. The results contribute to the reasons for the occurrence of H. bohaiensis blooms in a further study.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Dinoflagelados , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Fitoplâncton , Ecologia
15.
Mar Environ Res ; 184: 105852, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566575

RESUMO

We explored picophytoplankton in the surface (0 m) and bottom (2.3-8.7 m) layers of a shallow (<10 m) eutrophic coastal system (Isahaya Bay, Japan). We found that picophytoplankton (principally Synechococcus) constituted the major phytoplankton in spring and summer. The chlorophyll a (chl.a) concentration in the 0.7-2.0-µm picophytoplankton fraction (hereinafter 'pico-sized chl. a') and picophytoplankton abundance in Isahaya Bay were higher than those in other eutrophic coastal waters. The pico-sized chl. a concentration and the picophytoplankton abundance counted with an epifluorescence microscope was up to 49.31 µg L-1 and 1.9 × 106 cells mL-1, respectively. Higher contributions of pico-sized chl. a to the total chl. a were evident in summer (up to 63.5%), relative to spring (up to 32.1%), at both depths. Picophytoplankton abundance and the pico-sized chl. a concentration was positively correlated with water temperature and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentrations. Thus, both temperature and DIP may be major controllers of picophytoplankton in Isahaya Bay. The pico-sized chl. a concentration and picophytoplankton cell number at the bottom layer were positively correlated with those in the surface layer, suggesting that picophytoplankton in bottom layers may have sunk from the surface layers. The results imply that the picophytoplankton affects the biogeochemical processes in the bottom of Isahaya Bay more than previously thought. This may be true not only for this estuary but also for other eutrophic coastal seas.


Assuntos
Fitoplâncton , Água , Biomassa , Clorofila A , Estações do Ano , Clorofila/metabolismo
16.
Mar Environ Res ; 183: 105841, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512865

RESUMO

Prorocentrum donghaiense blooms occur annually in the East China Sea coastal waters, degrading ecosystem functions and impeding economic development. Dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus (DON and DOP) are the main components in the marine nutrient pools and are closely related to harmful algal blooms. From April to June 2019, a survey was conducted along the East China Sea coast (Sansha and Lianjiang counties) to investigate the relationship between dissolved organic nutrients and P. donghaiense bloom. Our findings showed that dinoflagellates dominated the phytoplankton community, and dissolved organic nutrients were the major factors influencing community structure during the P. donghaiense bloom. Redundancy analysis indicated that P. donghaiense abundance was primarily affected by DON in the Sansha area while it was primarily affected by DON and DOP in the Lianjiang area. Correlation analysis also confirmed a strong positive correlation between dissolved organic nutrients and P. donghaiense abundance both in the Sansha and Lianjiang coastal areas (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a culture experiment was carried out during the bloom to further investigate the effect of dissolved organic nutrients on the phytoplankton community structure. After 10 days of culture, dinoflagellates' relative abundance decreased from 97.1% to 28.2% in the inorganic treatment, whereas dinoflagellates continued to dominate the phytoplankton community in the organic treatment (76.9%). As a result, we propose that dissolved organic nutrients are responsible for the P. donghaiense bloom outbreak and promote the phytoplankton community shift from diatoms to dinoflagellates.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Ecossistema , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Fitoplâncton , China , Fósforo , Nutrientes , Nitrogênio
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 863: 160671, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481138

RESUMO

Large-scale application of desalination technology can result in impacts to the marine biota, such as phytoplankton and zooplankton, basal components of marine trophic webs. In this context, our perspective aimed to summarize the impacts of effluent discharges from desalination plants on phytoplankton and zooplankton in order to identify the main gaps and challenges in this theme, propose solutions, and provide recommendations for future work. We identified two main approaches to assess the desalination impacts: laboratory experiments and field studies. Most of these studies were conducted in areas impacted by effluent discharges using the BACI (before, after, and control-impact) approach. They primarily aimed to set out the impacts of hypersaline brine on the surrounding environment and, to a lesser extent, the high-temperature effluents and contaminants from desalination plants. Moreover, phytoplankton was more sensitive to effluent discharges than zooplankton. The main changes observed were a decrease in primary productivity, a loss in diversity, and a change in the community structure of planktonic populations due to the dominance of saline-tolerant groups, which highlights the importance improving treatment or dilution of effluent discharges to minimize the impacts over whole neritic trophic webs, which depend on phytoplankton. From the impacts related to effluent discharges analyzed herein, RO technology was related to most cases of negative impact related to salinity modifications. However, coagulants were related to negative effects in all study cases. Future work should focus on escalate the impacts of such effluents on other trophic levels that could be directly or indirectly impacted as well as on how to improve the quality of effluent discharges. Also, we highlight the importance of further baseline and long-term monitoring studies to investigate desalination-induced changes and community resilience to these impacts, as well as studies to provide alternatives to the use of toxic chemicals in the pre-treatment phases.


Assuntos
Fitoplâncton , Zooplâncton , Animais , Água do Mar/química , Salinidade
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 863: 160980, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539087

RESUMO

An unprecedented red Noctiluca scintillans (RNS) bloom in February 2021 in the Beibu Gulf, China was investigated using multi-sensor imagery. The location and spatial extent of the RNS patches were delineated based on the spectral signature. A combination of satellite remote sensing and numerical model data over the region was used to detect and monitor the development and progress of the RNS bloom and figure out the possible mechanism. Multi-sensor satellite imagery demonstrates a total coverage area of >20,000 km2 for the two-phase bloom event from Feb 13 to 26, with abrupt dissipation on Feb 17 and reappearance on Feb 20. Analysis of the initialization mechanism of the bloom suggests that nutrients conveyed from the western coast of Guangdong through Qiongzhou Strait and from convective transport in the offshore area together stimulated the outbreak of the bloom. The most distinctive finding is the negative correlation between the area of RNS patches and wind speed. The abrupt disappearance of the RNS bloom deserves further study.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Fitoplâncton , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Imagens de Satélites
19.
Water Res ; 229: 119469, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527869

RESUMO

Monitoring the long-term dynamics of lake phytoplankton can help understand their natural temporal variability, as well as assess potential impacts of interventions aimed at improving lake ecological condition. However, investigating long-term changes in lake ecosystems has received scant attention. In the present study, we analyzed a long-term dataset of phytoplankton communities collected from 1990 to 2013 from eleven of the 12 Rotorua Te Arawa lakes in New Zealand, to explore their responses to changing abiotic conditions. We used a sequential algorithm to examine the likelihood of regime shifts in abiotic and biotic factors during the study period that could be attributable to lake interventions. Our analysis suggests that lake interventions have improved the abiotic factors, whereas the response of biotic factors was less clear. Total phosphorus levels were implicated in the decline in lake condition, including in two lakes subject to lake interventions, and in four control lakes. Both abiotic and biotic factors showed diverse trends (e.g., increase, decrease or no change), and abiotic factors had more regime shifts than biotic factors. Shifts in biotic indices also displayed time lags to shifts in abiotic factors. Long-term responses of abiotic and biotic factors were also influenced by lake morphological characteristics and climatic variables. This latter finding underscores the importance of considering lake morphological characteristics and climate changes when planning management practices. A sound understanding of resilience and threshold of phytoplankton shifts to environmental changes are needed to assess the effectiveness of previous management strategies and prioritize the future conservation efforts toward water quality goals.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fitoplâncton , Lagos , Nova Zelândia , Qualidade da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental
20.
Oecologia ; 201(1): 183-197, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36520221

RESUMO

The effects of lake browning on trophic functioning of planktonic food webs are not fully understood. We studied the effects of browning on the response patterns of polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3/n-6 ratio in seston and compared them between boreal and temperate lakes. We also compared the regional differences and the effects of lake browning on the reliance of zooplankton on heterotrophic microbial pathways and the mass fractions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in zooplankton. Lake browning was associated with increasing phytoplankton biomass and concentrations of EPA and DHA in both temperate and boreal lakes, but the seston n-3/n-6 ratio was lower in temperate than boreal lakes, most likely due the differences in phytoplankton community composition. The browning-induced increase in phytoplankton biomass was associated with increased reliance of zooplankton on a heterotrophic microbial pathway for both cladocerans and copepods in boreal and temperate lakes. This increased reliance on the heterotrophic microbial diet was correlated with a decrease in the EPA and DHA mass fractions in temperate copepods and a decrease in the n-3/n-6 ratio in boreal cladocerans and copepods. Our results indicate that although phytoplankton responses to lake browning were similar across regions, this did not directly cascade to the next trophic level, where zooplankton responses were highly taxa- and region-specific. These results indicate that lake browning should be considered as an overarching moderator that is linked to, e.g., nutrient increases, which have more immediate consequences on trophic interactions at the phytoplankton-zooplankton interface.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Plâncton , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lagos , Cadeia Alimentar , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Zooplâncton , Biomassa
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