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1.
Phytother Res ; 35(9): 4629-4631, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390288

RESUMO

Pica is an eating disorder characterized by craving for nonfood items, such as dirt, clay, detergents, soap, stone, and paper. It occurs in children who start feeling the world with the oral cavity. The exact etiology of this disorder is still unknown; nonetheless, its treatment and prevalence vary according to patients' behavior and characteristics. We aim to present a case report of a patient with pica who was treated with Persian Traditional Medicine. This treatment was performed using four doses of 15 ml Punica granatum extract after every meal for 3 weeks while fasting before breakfast. The patient's appetite improve within 3 weeks, with remarkable improvement in pica symptoms. Punica granatum extract seems to be effective in controlling pica.


Assuntos
Pica , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Romã (Fruta) , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Pica/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(6): 532-542, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402460

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews available assessment instruments for three of the feeding and eating disorder diagnostic categories: avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), pica, and rumination disorder (RD). It includes an overview of the current status of screening tools, questionnaire measures, and diagnostic instruments. RECENT FINDINGS: Screening instruments are available for all three disorders; however, for pica and RD, these typically include single screening items only and do not cover any specific features of these presentations. Only one questionnaire suitable for clinical populations is included, covering ARFID only. Standardized diagnostic interviews are limited to two covering both pica and RD, only one of which provides further clinical information. Of the five diagnostic instruments for ARFID described here, two include diagnostic items as well as allowing more detailed assessment of clinical features. SUMMARY: There are a limited number of assessment measures available for all three disorders, with instruments for ARFID being the greatest in number and widest in terms of scope. A commonly encountered difficulty is that many assessment instruments do not adequately cover diagnostic exclusion criteria, which raises the likelihood of false positive findings. All currently available measures require further study to determine their reliability and validity.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Evitação ou Restrição da Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Síndrome da Ruminação , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pica/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 793: 148513, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171800

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are used in industrial and commercial products due to their amphiphilic properties. Birds have been utilized as biomonitoring species due to their environmental pollutant vulnerability and wide distribution. The Oriental Magpie (Pica serica) is a representative residential species inhabiting terrestrial environments. In this study, we measured PFAS concentrations in Magpie liver tissue (n = 253) collected from 12 Korean regions in 2004 and 2017. The predominant compounds were perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS; mean: 23.8 ng/g wet weight), perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA; 2.79 ng/g), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA: 2.11 ng/g). We observed significant correlations between Magpie PFAS measurements, indicating similar sources and bioaccumulation processes. Adult females showed significantly lower PFOS concentrations than adult males and young males and females, indicating that avian sex is a crucial physiological factor of PFAS accumulation. PFOS, perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA) concentrations in urban regions were significantly higher than rural regions. PFOS concentrations in Magpie livers increased significantly between sampling years, whereas C11-C13 carboxylic acids (PFCAs) decreased. This suggests that urbanization and population are major factors in Magpie PFAS accumulation. Almost all hepatic PFOS concentrations were below the threshold values proposed by previous studies, implying limited risks. Our findings suggest that the Oriental Magpies are PFAS sentinel in residential environments. This is the first comprehensive report on biomonitoring of PFASs using the Oriental Magpie.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pica , República da Coreia
4.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(11): 4831-4846, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041654

RESUMO

Consumption of geophagic materials can be detrimental to human health. These materials, which are harvested from the natural environment, can contain high concentrations of potentially harmful elements and minerals. In this study, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of geophagic rock materials consumed by the local population in Baringo town, in Kenya, was conducted to assess its possible health effects. Twelve representative samples were purchased from an open market in Baringo town for this investigation. Optical and scanning electron microscope as well as X-ray diffractometer was used to determine the mineralogy as well as the morphology of the minerals present in the studied samples. The material is composed of about 10 to 20% coarse to very coarse (0.38-3.00 mm) and semi-rounded to angular crystals of quartz, feldspars, and amphiboles, together with lithic fragments occurring in a fine-grained matrix. X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to determine the major and trace elements composition, respectively. The analyses show that elements such as Si, Fe, Mn, Al, Hg, Cr, Cd, and Pb are particularly above their recommended daily allowances. This study assumes 100% bioavailability of elements in the geophagic materials, in the absence of a bioaccessibility test. Therefore, the consumption of some of the revealed elements, based on this assumption, can be detrimental due to possible short- and/or long-term health effects. From a mineralogical point of view, the presence of feldspar and quartz with Moh's hardness of 6 and 7, respectively, and their coarse and angular morphology may cause damage to the dental enamel and the gastrointestinal tract. From a geochemical point of view, the high concentrations of the revealed chemical elements can have various health effects including, but not limited to neurotoxic effects, which are critical in prenatal exposure, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer amongst other serious diseases.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Oligoelementos , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Pica , Gravidez , Solo , Oligoelementos/análise
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980550

RESUMO

We report a case of severe hypokalaemia and moderate hypophosphataemia from clay ingestion. A 60-year-old woman presented with flaccid paralysis. Investigations revealed a serum potassium level of 1.8 mmol/L, phosphate level of 0.56 mmol/L and creatine kinase level of 30 747 IU/L. She had marked proximal and distal muscle weakness due to severe hypokalaemia and concurrent hypophosphataemia, which likely contributed to the onset of rhabdomyolysis. The patient subsequently admitted to significant pica, most likely secondary to an associated iron deficiency. We conclude that the ingested clay acted as a potassium and phosphate binder. Although we did not investigate the content of the clay in this case, it has been reported that clay can bind potassium in vitro and is rich in minerals such as aluminium that could play a role in the binding of phosphate, although the exact mechanism remains unclear. The patient recovered fully and outpatient follow-up at 6 months and again at 40 months confirmed no electrolyte abnormality, myopathy nor any further geophagia.


Assuntos
Hipopotassemia , Hipofosfatemia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Hipofosfatemia/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatos , Pica/complicações , Potássio
6.
Int J Cancer ; 149(6): 1274-1283, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004024

RESUMO

Geophagia, the intentional practice of consuming soil, occurs across the African esophageal cancer corridor, particularly during pregnancy. We investigated whether this practice is linked to endemic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in this region. We conducted ESCC case-control studies in Tanzania, Malawi and Kenya. Cases were patients with incident histologically/clinically confirmed ESCC and controls were hospital patients/visitors without digestive diseases. Participants were asked if they had ever eaten soil (never/regularly/pregnancy-only). Odds ratios (OR) are adjusted for sex, age, tobacco, alcohol, country, religion and marital status. Overall, 934 cases (Malawi 535, Tanzania 304 and Kenya females 95) and 995 controls provided geophagia information. Among controls, ever-geophagia was common in women (Malawi 49%, Kenya 43% and Tanzania 29%) but not in men (10% Malawi, <1% Tanzania). In women, ESCC ORs were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.22) for regular versus never geophagia and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.22) for pregnancy-only versus never. Findings were stronger based on comparisons of cases with hospital visitor controls and were null using hospital patients as controls. In conclusion, geophagia is too rare to contribute to the male ESCC burden in Africa. In women, the practice is common but we did not find consistent evidence of a link to ESCC. The study cannot rule out selection bias masking modest effects. Physical effects of geophagia do not appear to have a large impact on overall ESCC risk. Research with improved constituent-based geophagia exposure assessment is needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Pica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
7.
Cir Cir ; 89(3): 309-313, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037603

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El uréter retrocavo es una anomalía congénita rara que requiere manejo quirúrgico. OBJETIVO: Reportar los resultados en el manejo laparoscópico para uréter retrocavo y hacer una revisión bibliográfica. MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, transversal, en pacientes con diagnóstico de uréter retrocavo que fueron sometidos a plastia laparoscópica de uréter retrocavo. RESULTADOS: Cuatro pacientes sometidos a plastia laparoscópica por diagnóstico de uréter retrocavo, 1 hombre y 3 mujeres, con una media de edad de 40.7 años. La media del tiempo operatorio fue de 138.2 minutos. La pérdida de sangre cuantificada transoperatoria media fue de 23.7 ml. Ningún paciente presentó complicaciones transoperatorias ni posoperatorias. Los pacientes permanecieron hospitalizados hasta su egreso una media de 2.5 días. Todos los pacientes presentaron mejoría de su sintomatología. CONCLUSIONES: El uréter retrocavo es una condición rara y aún no existe un consenso sobre su diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento. El manejo quirúrgico laparoscópico es una opción para el tratamiento de estos pacientes. INTRODUCTION: The retrocave ureter is a rare congenital anomaly that requires surgical management. OBJECTIVE: Report the results in laparoscopic management for retrocave ureter and literature review. METHOD: Retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study in patients with a diagnosis of retrocave ureter who were sometimes a laparoscopic retrocave ureter. RESULTS: Four patients sometimes underwent laparoscopic plasty for diagnosis of retrocave ureter, 1 man and 3 women, with a mean age of 40.7 years. The mean operative time was 138.2 minutes. The mean intraoperative quantified blood loss was 23.7 ml. No patient presented transoperative or postoperative complications. The patients remained hospitalized until their progress with an average of 2.5 days. All patients visualize improvement in their symptoms. CONCLUSION: The retrocave ureter is a rare condition and there is still no consensus on its diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Laparoscopic surgical management is an option for the treatment of these patients.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Pica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Cir Cir ; 89(3): 347-353, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037612

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Describir las complicaciones transoperatorias y posoperatorias en pacientes operadas de histerectomía total laparoscópica. MÉTODO: Serie de casos del servicio de ginecología de la Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia No. 3 del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, de las pacientes sometidas a histerectomía total laparoscópica de diciembre de 2015 a diciembre de 2018. Se documentaron el peso uterino, el índice de masa corporal, la edad, la comorbilidad, el uso de dióxido de carbono y las complicaciones. Se usaron frecuencias, proporciones, medidas de tendencia central y dispersión. RESULTADOS: Se reportan 79 pacientes de 44.2 ± 7.5 años, tiempo de cirugía de 104.3 ± 32.7 minutos y promedio de sangrado 102.8 ± 62.3 ml. Presentaron complicaciones transoperatorias seis (7.6%): dos (2.5%) lesión vesical, una (1.3%) lesión intestinal, una (1.3%) hemorragia de muñón y dos (2.5%) más conversión a laparotomía exploradora (una por tamaño uterino > 14 cm y otra por hallazgo de tumor ovárico de aspecto maligno). Siete pacientes (8.8%) tuvieron complicaciones posoperatorias: cuatro (5.1%) fueron reintervenidas (tres por hemorragia y una por dehiscencia de cúpula vaginal) y tres (3.7%) tuvieron colección vaginal. CONCLUSIONES: La tasa de complicaciones perioperatorias en esta serie coincide con la reportada en otros estudios. El tiempo quirúrgico y el sangrado fueron ligeramente menores, pese al poco tiempo de madurez del programa. OBJECTIVE: Describe the intraoperative and postoperative complications in patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH). METHOD: Cases series carried out in the gynecology service of Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia No. 3, Centro Medico Nacional La Raza, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, of all patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy from December 2015 to December 2018. Uterine weight, body mass index, age, comorbidities, CO2 use, and complications were documented. Frequencies, proportions, central tendency and dispersion measures were used. RESULTS: 79 patients are reported. Mean age was 44.2 ± 7.5 years. Surgery time was 104.3 ± 32.7 minutes, and bleeding 102.8 ± 62.3 mL. Six (7.6%) had intraoperative complications: two (2.5%) bladder injury, one (1.3%) bowel injury, one (1.3%) stump hemorrhage, and two (2.6%) where converted to exploratory laparotomy: one for uterine size > 14 cm, and one because malignant ovarian tumor was suspected. Seven patients (8.8%) had postoperative complications: four (5.1%) were re operated: 3 due to hemorrhage and 1 due to vaginal dome dehiscence; three (3.7%) had vaginal collection. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of perioperative complications reported in this series coincides with that reported in other studies. Surgery time and bleeding were slightly minors regardless of program's youth.


Assuntos
Histerectomia , Pica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799387

RESUMO

In the present study, the Eurasian magpie (Pica pica), was evaluated as a possible bioindicator of environmental pollution by heavy metals (HMs). Levels of Ni, Pb, Cd, and Hg in feathers of 64 magpies (31 males and 33 females) were measured by ICP-MS technique. Plasmatic biomarkers of oxidative stress (OS) were also assessed. The birds were captured in the province of Parma (Italy), in different capture sites within 1 km from urban area (UZ), and farther than 5 km from urban area (RZ). Median HM levels were 0.68 mg/kg (0.18-2.27), 2.80 mg/kg (0.41-17.7),

Assuntos
Plumas , Metais Pesados , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Plumas/química , Feminino , Itália , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Pica
11.
Transfusion ; 61(7): 2090-2098, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pica is characterized as repeatedly eating or chewing a non-nutritious substance including, but not limited to ice, clay and dirt, starch, raw pasta, chalk, coal, paint, or paper. Pica symptoms can be intense and addiction-like and disrupt quality of life. It is strongly linked to iron deficiency. Since substantial iron loss occurs during blood donation, blood donors may be susceptible to development of pica behaviors. METHODS: We investigated demographic, clinical, hematological, and biochemical factors associated with pica using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis in a cohort of 11,418 racially diverse blood donors. Pica was defined by questionnaire responses as consuming at least 8 oz of ice daily and/or consumption of non-ice substances regardless of the amount and frequency. RESULTS: Pica was present in 2.2% of the donors. The sensitivity and specificity of pica in iron-deficient donors were 36% and 82%, respectively. Lower ferritin (p = .001), non-Asian race (p < .001), higher red cell distribution width (p < .001), younger age, and restless legs syndrome (p = .008) were independently associated with pica. Female sex is associated with iron deficiency but was not an independent predictor of pica suggesting that iron deficient males and females were equally susceptible to the development of pica behaviors. Donors with normal ferritin levels also reported pica, reinforcing the role of non-iron related factors in its presentation. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified demographic, clinical, and biochemical predictors of pica that help identify those most at risk for developing pica behaviors, and thereby assist in its clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Pica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Índices de Eritrócitos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Ferritinas/análise , Humanos , Gelo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Pica/etiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Wisconsin/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Avian Med Surg ; 35(1): 28-36, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892586

RESUMO

A physiological equilibrium exists between pro- and antioxidant factors. When the oxidant factors exceed the capacity of their removal or inactivation, oxidative stress (OS) occurs. The OS levels were assayed in plasma obtained from 2 bird species. Blood samples were collected from 20 healthy domestic chicken hens, 10 living in an intensive farming environment and 10 free-range, and from 18 healthy Eurasian magpies (Pica pica; 7 females and 11 males, with an estimated age of >1 year of age). For OS biomarker assessment, the determinable reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) were measured, and the plasmatic antioxidant test (PAT) was performed; the OS index (OSI) was then calculated (d-ROMs/PAT × 1000) as a parameter of overall oxidative stress. Moreover, lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring plasmatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. A hematological evaluation was also performed on each bird with a hemocytometer, on which a blood sample was placed to obtain both a total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count. In hens, OSI and MDA levels were significantly higher (P = .04, and P = .004) in subjects from intensive farming (14.7 ± 7.1 and 27.2 ± 10.4 nmol/mL) than in those bred in rural conditions (5.6 ± 10.3 and 8.2 ± 13.3 nmol/mL). In magpies, a positive correlation between the total WBC count and OS was found, and both d-ROMs and OSI were significantly higher (P = .03) in subjects with a total WBC count greater than the median value (20.4 × 103 cells/µL) with respect to those with a total WBC count less than the median value. The results generated from this study indicate that higher OS levels occurred in hens bred in an intensive indoor farm environment compared with outdoor free-range conditions. Possibly the higher OS levels could be related to the higher stocking density and dust levels found in the indoor facility. Additionally, the correlation between OS biomarker levels in magpies and total WBC count suggests that OS level is influenced by immune response, in agreement with previous studies. Collectively, present data seem to be promising for the application of OS measurement in avian medicine for health and animal welfare monitoring.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Pica , Animais , Antioxidantes , Feminino , Masculino , Malondialdeído , Estresse Oxidativo
13.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(3): e77-e80, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645270

RESUMO

Trichobezoar is a rare condition that occurs mostly in young women with psychiatric disorders such as trichotillomania and trichophagia. We report the case of a giant gastric trichobezoar in a 21-year-old woman who presented with chronic abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. Abdominal examination revealed a large epigastric mass. Endoscopic and imaging findings were highly suggestive of a gastric trichobezoar. Surgical extraction of the huge hair mass was successfully performed through an open gastrotomy. Postoperatively, history of a neglected chronic depression with suicidal ideation was diagnosed. Consequently, the patient was referred to the psychiatric department for mental healthcare, to prevent trichobezoar recurrences.


Assuntos
Bezoares/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Estômago/diagnóstico por imagem , Bezoares/psicologia , Bezoares/cirurgia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Gastroscopia , Humanos , Laparotomia , Pica/psicologia , Estômago/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tricotilomania/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(2): 295-298, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605923

RESUMO

Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration (FBA), a common pediatric presentation to emergency departments, is still a public healthcare problem affecting children all over the world. There are several types of foreign bodies reported from different parts of the world, including both organic or nonorganic substances. Pica, another interesting clinical entity, is characterized by persistent eating of nonnutritive substances, which is inappropriate for the maturation stage of the individual. A 3-year-old pediatric patient was admitted to our emergency department with a 3-day history of coughing and new onset respiratory distress. A chest X-ray was performed and it showed a suspicious radiopaque foreign body in the localization of left bronchi. Urgent rigid bronchoscopy was performed. The foreign body in the left main bronchi was, surprisingly, a 0.5-1 cm diameter, irregularly shaped stone particle. The laboratory evaluations and patient history revealed the diagnosis of severe iron deficiency anemia and accompanying pica. Stone aspiration, as an FBA, is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of pica. Iron deficiency anemia accompanied by pica should be diagnosed and treated in the early stage of the disease because of their complications. According to our knowledge and literature search, this is the first case of stone aspiration as a complication of severe iron deficiency anemia and pica.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Brônquios/diagnóstico por imagem , Broncoscopia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Pica/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Pediatrics ; 147(2)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pica, the repeated ingestion of nonfood items, can be life-threatening. Although case reports describe pica in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID), there has been little systematic study of pica prevalence. We assessed pica in children 30 to 68 months of age (median = 55.4 months) with and without ASD. METHODS: Our sample from the Study to Explore Early Development, a multisite case-control study, included children with ASD (n = 1426), children with other developmental disabilities (DDs) (n = 1735), and general population-based controls (POPs) (n = 1578). We subdivided the ASD group according to whether children had ID and the DD group according to whether they had ID and/or some ASD characteristics. Standardized developmental assessments and/or questionnaires were used to define final study groups, subgroups, and pica. We examined pica prevalence in each group and compared ASD and DD groups and subgroups to the POP group using prevalence ratios adjusted for sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: Compared with the prevalence of pica among POPs (3.5%), pica was higher in children with ASD (23.2%) and DD (8.4%), and in the following subgroups: ASD with ID (28.1%), ASD without ID (14.0%), DD with ID (9.7%), DD with ASD characteristics (12.0%), and DD with both ID and ASD characteristics (26.3%); however, pica prevalence was not elevated in children with DD with neither ID nor ASD characteristics (3.2%). Between-group differences remained after adjustment (adjusted prevalence ratio range 1.9-8.0, all P <.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pica may be common in young children with ASD, ASD characteristics, and ID. These findings inform the specialized health care needs of these children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Pica/diagnóstico , Pica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Masculino , Pica/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Microb Ecol ; 82(1): 215-223, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471174

RESUMO

Here, we investigated the possible linkages among geophagy, soil characteristics, and gut mycobiome of indri (Indri indri), an endangered lemur species able to survive only in wild conditions. The soil eaten by indri resulted in enriched secondary oxide-hydroxides and clays, together with a high concentration of specific essential micronutrients. This could partially explain the role of the soil in detoxification and as a nutrient supply. Besides, we found that soil subject to geophagy and indris' faeces shared about 8.9% of the fungal OTUs. Also, several genera (e.g. Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium) commonly associated with soil and plant material were found in both geophagic soil and indri samples. On the contrary, some taxa with pathogenic potentials, such as Cryptococcus, were only found in indri samples. Further, many saprotrophs and plant-associated fungal taxa were detected in the indri faeces. These fungal species may be involved in the digestion processes of leaves and could have a beneficial role in their health. In conclusion, we found an intimate connection between gut mycobiome and soil, highlighting, once again, the potential consequent impacts on the wider habitat.


Assuntos
Indriidae , Lemur , Micobioma , Animais , Ecossistema , Pica , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(1): 91-112, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748302

RESUMO

One of the theories explaining the reasons for geophagy, which was proposed earlier by the authors of the article, consists in the assumption that animals need rare-earth elements (REE). In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the chemical composition of spring waters in the territory of the Caucasus Nature Reserve at three kudurs along the Achipsta River, as well as at the Mamaevsky kudur (southwestern slope of the Pshekish mountain). At the Mamaevsky kudur, we also studied the chemical composition of earth consumed by animals, and the species, age and gender composition, seasonal and daily activity of ungulate animals-visitors of the kudur. It was determined that the most active visitors of the Mamaevsky kudur were European bison (Bison bonasus) with one activity peak during the rut, in July. The frequency of visits to the kudur by red deer (Cervus elaphus) was 4 times lower with the highest peak activity in April and a lower peak in August. Only in one of four water sources at the Mamaevsky kudur there was an elevated concentration of Na (by 7 times). In the other three the concentration was comparable to the local river water. The waters of two "sodium-free" springs had increased concentrations of REE (by 5-8 times). Geophagic earths near the Mamaevsky springs are decomposition products of siltstone and sandstone shale rocks of the Jurassic age consisting of clay minerals (illite mixed with smectite, and chlorites)-from 42 to 45%, and quartz and feldspar (in total up to 50%) mixed with Fe and Ca carbonates. The chemical composition of acid extracts (0.1 N HCl, pH = 1.0) from consumed earth showed the highest extractability of Ca and Fe. In trace elements, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, V, light lanthanides, and Y are most actively extracted. Na is extracted at 0.03-0.1 g/kg. The sodium bicarbonate spring water consumed by animals at kudurs on the Achipsta River had Na contents 70-300 times, and REE contents 25-40 times higher than that in the river water. The revealed facts do not contradict the hypothesis that the desire for geophagy in animals in the Caucasus (in addition to the long-known "urge" for Na) can be also related to the properties of lanthanides group elements exchange in the body.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras/análise , Nascentes Naturais/química , Pica , Rios/química , Solo/química , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Federação Russa , Estações do Ano , Oligoelementos/análise
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