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1.
Virology ; 575: 74-82, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084546

RESUMO

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is a newly discovered picornavirus in the Senecavirus genus. SVV-001 strain has shown promise as an oncolytic virus against tumors with neuroendocrine features. There is a need to use a structure-based approach to develop virus-like particles capable to mimicking the architecture of naturally occurring empty capsids that can be used as vaccines or as carriers for targeted cancer treatment. However, these empty capsids are inherently less stable, and tedious to purify. This warrants investigation into factors which confer the SVV capsid stability and into combining this knowledge to recombinantly express stable SVV VLPs. In this study, we isolated a thermostable mutant of SVV by thermal selection assays and we characterized a single mutation located in a capsid protein. The cryo-EM map of this mutant showed conformational shifts that facilitated the formation of additional hydrogen bonds and aromatic interactions, which could serve as capsid stabilizing factors.


Assuntos
Vírus Oncolíticos , Picornaviridae , Capsídeo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Picornaviridae/genética
2.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016275

RESUMO

Increasing amounts of data indicate that bats harbor a higher viral diversity relative to other mammalian orders, and they have been recognized as potential reservoirs for pathogenic viruses, such as the Hendra, Nipah, Marburg, and SARS-CoV viruses. Here, we present the first viral metagenomic analysis of Pipistrellus pygmaeus from Uppsala, Sweden. Total RNA was extracted from the saliva and feces of individual bats and analyzed using Illumina sequencing. The results identified sequences related to 51 different viral families, including vertebrate, invertebrate, and plant viruses. These viral families include Coronaviridae, Picornaviridae, Dicistroviridae, Astroviridae, Hepeviridae, Reoviridae, Botourmiaviridae, Lispviridae, Totiviridae, Botoumiaviridae, Parvoviridae, Retroviridae, Adenoviridae, and Partitiviridae, as well as different unclassified viruses. We further characterized three near full-length genome sequences of bat coronaviruses. A phylogenetic analysis showed that these belonged to alphacoronaviruses with the closest similarity (78-99% at the protein level) to Danish and Finnish bat coronaviruses detected in Pipistrellus and Myotis bats. In addition, the full-length and the near full-length genomes of picornavirus were characterized. These showed the closest similarity (88-94% at the protein level) to bat picornaviruses identified in Chinese bats. Altogether, the results of this study show that Swedish Pipistrellus bats harbor a great diversity of viruses, some of which are closely related to mammalian viruses. This study expands our knowledge on the bat population virome and improves our understanding of the evolution and transmission of viruses among bats and to other species.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Picornaviridae , Vírus de Plantas , Vírus de RNA , Animais , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Mamíferos , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/genética , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Vírus de RNA/genética , Suécia , Viroma
3.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016340

RESUMO

Enterovirus (EV) 71 caused episodes of outbreaks in China and Southeast Asia during the last few decades. We have previously reported that EV71 induces reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Co-immunoprecipitation-proteomic analysis revealed that enteroviral 2B protein interacted with mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel 3 (VDAC3). Knockdown (KD) of VDAC3 expression specifically inhibited enteroviral replication. Single-round viral replication was also inhibited in KD cells, suggesting that VDAC3 plays an essential role in replication. Consistent with this, VDAC3 gene KD significantly reduced the EV71-induced mitochondrial ROS generation. Exogenous 2B expression could induce the mitochondrial ROS generation that was significantly reduced in VDAC3-KD cells or in the Mito-TEMPO-treated cells. Moreover, VDAC3 appears to be necessary for regulation of antioxidant metabolism. VDAC3 gene KD led to the enhancement of such pathways as hypotaurine/taurine synthesis in the infected cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that 2B and VDAC3 interact to enhance mitochondrial ROS generation, which promotes viral replication.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A , Picornaviridae , Enterovirus Humano A/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Picornaviridae/metabolismo , Proteômica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Canais de Ânion Dependentes de Voltagem/genética , Canais de Ânion Dependentes de Voltagem/metabolismo
4.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0112122, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000840

RESUMO

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is a new pathogen associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease (PIVD) in recent years. However, SVV-host interaction is still unclear. In this study, through LC-MS/MS analysis and coimmunoprecipitation analysis, DHX30 was identified as a 3Cpro-interacting protein. 3Cpro mediated the cleavage of DHX30 at a specific site, which depends on its protease activity. Further study showed that DHX30 was an intrinsic antiviral factor against SVV that was dependent on its helicase activity. DHX30 functioned as a viral-RNA binding protein that inhibited SVV replication at the early stage of viral infection. RIP-seq showed comparatively higher coverage depth at SVV 5'UTR, but the distribution across SVV RNA suggested that the interaction had low specificity. DHX30 expression strongly inhibited double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) production. Interestingly, DHX30 was determined to interact with 3D in an SVV RNA-dependent manner. Thus, DHX30 negatively regulated SVV propagation by blocking viral RNA synthesis, presumably by participating in the viral replication complex. IMPORTANCE DHX30, an RNA helicase, is identified as a 3Cpro-interacting protein regulating Seneca Valley virus (SVV) replication dependent on its helicase activity. DHX30 functioned as a viral-RNA binding protein that inhibited SVV replication at the early stage of virus infection. DHX30 expression strongly inhibited double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) production. In addition, 3Cpro abolished DHX30 antiviral effects by inducing DHX30 cleavage. Thus, DHX30 is an intrinsic antiviral factor that inhibits SVV replication.


Assuntos
Picornaviridae , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Animais , Antivirais , Cromatografia Líquida , Picornaviridae/genética , Suínos , Doença Vesicular Suína , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 955671, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35958608

RESUMO

Seneca Valley virus (SVV), a non-enveloped positive single-stranded virus can cause vesicular disease in swine. However, the mechanisms by which SVV activates an innate immune response remain unknown. Mitofusin-2 (MFN2), a mitochondria-shaping protein regulating mitochondrial fusion and fission, plays a crucial role in innate immune responses. But, the roles of Mfn2 in SVV infection have not been elucidated. Here, we show that SVV inhibited Mfn2 expression and NLRP3 inflammasome, activating RIG-I/IRF7 signaling pathway to increase IFN-λ3 expression. Overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited RIG-I/IRF7 signaling pathway, thus decreasing IFN-λ3 expression and promoting SVV replication. Interestingly, overexpression of Mfn2 also activated NLRP3 inflammasome but did not inhibit SVV proliferation. That may mean the RIG-I/IRF7 signaling pathway plays a more important role in SVV proliferation in PK-15 cells. This study could provide important insights into the modulation of host metabolism during SVV infection and provide a strong theoretical basis for a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanism and immune activation mechanism of SVV.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Picornaviridae , Animais , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Suínos , Replicação Viral
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 951984, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911774

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA), also known as Seneca Valley virus, is a recently discovered picornavirus that can cause swine vesicular disease, posing a great threat to the global swine industry. It can replicate efficiently in cells, but the molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. This study determined the host's differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) during SVA infection using dimethyl labeling based on quantitative proteomics. Among the DE proteins, DDX21, a member of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp)-box RNA helicase (DDX) family, was downregulated and demonstrated inhibiting SVA replication by overexpression and knockdown experiment. To antagonize this antiviral effect of DDX21, SVA infection induces the degradation of DDX21 by 2B and 3C proteins. The Co-IP results showed that 2B and 3C did not interact with DDX21, suggesting that the degradation of DDX21 did not depend on their interaction. Moreover, the 3C protein protease activity was necessary for the degradation of DDX21. Furthermore, our study revealed that the degradation of DDX21 by 2B and 3C proteins of SVA was achieved through the caspase pathway. These findings suggest that DDX21 was an effective antiviral factor for suppressing SVA infection and that SVA antagonized its antiviral effect by degrading DDX21, which will be useful to guide further studies into the mechanism of mutual regulation between SVA and the host.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Picornaviridae , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Caspases , Picornaviridae/genética , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0180122, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938790

RESUMO

Diarrhea is one of the most important problems associated with the production of piglets, which have a wide range of possible pathogens. This study identified a strain of porcine sapelovirus (PSV) by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies as the pathogen among fecal samples in a pig herd. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PSV isolates shared a unique polyprotein and clustered with Chinese isolates identified before 2013. The PSV strain was then isolated and named GS01. The in vitro and in vivo biological characteristics of this virus were then described. Our pathogenicity investigation showed that GS01 could cause an inflammatory reaction and induce serious diarrhea in neonatal piglets. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation and characterization of PSV in western China. Our results demonstrate that the PSV GS01 strain is destructive to neonatal piglets and might show an expanded role for sapeloviruses. IMPORTANCE Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) infection leads to severe polioencephalomyelitis with high morbidity and mortality, resulting in significant economic losses. In previous studies, PSV infections were always subclinical or only involved a series of mild symptoms, including spinal cord damage, inappetence, diarrhea, and breathless. However, in our study, we isolated a novel PSV by virome analysis. We also determined the biological characteristics of this virus in vitro and in vivo. Our study showed that this novel PSV could cause an inflammatory response and induce serious diarrhea in neonatal piglets. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation and characterization of PSV in western China. These findings highlight the importance of prevention for the potential threats of PSV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Picornaviridae , Picornaviridae , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Diarreia/veterinária , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Suínos , Viroma
8.
Cell Rep ; 40(1): 111030, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793627

RESUMO

The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2C protein shares conserved motifs with enterovirus 2Cs despite low sequence identity. Here, we determine the crystal structure of an FMDV 2C fragment to 1.83 Å resolution, which comprises an ATPase domain, a region equivalent to the enterovirus 2C zinc-finger (ZFER), and a C-terminal domain harboring a loop (PBL) that occupies a hydrophobic cleft (Pocket) in an adjacent 2C molecule. Mutations at ZFER, PBL, and Pocket affect FMDV 2C ATPase activity and are lethal to FMDV infectious clones. Because the PBL-Pocket interaction between FMDV 2C molecules is essential for its functions, we design an anti-FMDV peptide derived from PBL (PBL-peptide). PBL-peptide inhibits FMDV 2C ATPase activity, binds FMDV 2C with nanomolar affinity, and disrupts FMDV 2C oligomerization. FMDV 2C targets lipid droplets (LDs) and induces LD clustering in cells, and PBL-peptide disrupts FMDV 2C-induced LD clustering. Finally, we demonstrate that PBL-peptide exhibits anti-FMDV activity in cells.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Picornaviridae , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/metabolismo , Picornaviridae/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
9.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(3): 185-192, 2022 07 13.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831961

RESUMO

Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) are ubiquitous and are one of the main causative agents of viral infections in children. NPEVs most commonly infect newborns and young children, due to their lack of antibodies. In children, clinical manifestations can range from acute febrile illness to severe complications that require hospitalization and lead in some cases to disability or death. NPEV infections can have severe consequences, such as polio-like diseases, serous meningitis, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, etc. The most promising strategy for preventing such diseases is vaccination. No less than 53 types of NPEVs have been found to circulate in Russia. However, of epidemic importance are the causative agents of exanthemic forms of the disease, aseptic meningitis and myocarditis. At the same time, the frequency of NPEV detection in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation is characterized by uneven distribution and seasonal upsurges. The review discusses the epidemic significance of different types of enteroviruses, including those relevant to the Russian Federation, as well as current technologies used to create enterovirus vaccines for the prevention of serious diseases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Miocardite , Picornaviridae , Vacinas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 852473, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35782136

RESUMO

Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is the causative pathogen of reproductive obstacles, acute diarrhea, respiratory distress, or severe polioencephalomyelitis in swine. Nevertheless, the pathogenicity and pathogenic mechanism of PSV infection are not fully understood, which hinders disease prevention and control. In this study, we found that PSV was sensitive to type I interferon (IFN-ß). However, PSV could not activate the IFN-ß promoter and induce IFN-ß mRNA expression, indicating that PSV has evolved an effective mechanism to block IFN-ß production. Further study showed that PSV inhibited the production of IFN-ß by cleaving mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) and degrading melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) through viral 3Cpro. In addition, our study demonstrated that PSV 3Cpro degrades MDA5 and TBK1 through its protease activity and cleaves MAVS through the caspase pathway. Collectively, our results revealed that PSV inhibits the production of type I interferon to escape host antiviral immunity through cleaving and degrading the adaptor molecules.


Assuntos
Interferon Tipo I , Picornaviridae , Animais , Antivirais , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 271: 109487, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714527

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA), formerly known as Seneca Valley virus, belongs to the genus Senecavirus in the family Picornaviridae. SVA has a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome, which is actually an mRNA that initiates translation via its own internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The SVA IRES has been demonstrated to be the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-like IRES, containing eight stem-loop domains: domain (D)II, DIIIa, DIIIb, DIIIc, DIIId1, DIIId2, DIIIe and DIIIf. In this study, stem-forming motifs (SFMs) in the eight domains were independently subjected to site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) to construct eight SVA minigenomes for dual-luciferase reporter assay. The result suggested that except the DII, the other seven domains were closely evolved in the IRES activity. Subsequently, a full-length SVA cDNA clone tagged with a reporter gene was genetically modified to construct eight SFM-mutated ones, separately transfected into BSR-T7/5 cells in an attempt to rescue replication-competent SVAs. Nevertheless, no virus was successfully rescued from its own cDNA clone, implying each of the putative domains necessary in SVA IRES for viral replication. Further, we attempted to rescue replication-competent SVA via pairwise transfection of cDNA clones. Out of 28 combinations of co-transfection, four were demonstrated to be able to rescue replication-competent SVAs. Sanger sequencing showed that all four viruses had the wild-type IRES genotype, suggesting the occurrence of putative copy-choice recombination between two IRES-modifying genomes.


Assuntos
Picornaviridae , RNA Viral , Animais , DNA Complementar , Sítios Internos de Entrada Ribossomal/genética , Picornaviridae/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Transfecção/veterinária
12.
J Virol ; 96(13): e0073622, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727031

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA) is an emerging picornavirus infecting porcine of all age groups and causing foot and mouth disease (FMD)-like symptoms. One of its key enzymes is the 3C protease (3Cpro), which is similar to other picornaviruses and essential for virus maturation by controlling polyprotein cleavage and RNA replication. In this study, we reported the crystal structure of SVA 3Cpro at a resolution of 1.9 Å and a thorough structural comparison against all published picornavirus 3Cpro structures. Using statistical and graphical visualization techniques, we also investigated the sequence specificity of the 3Cpro. The structure revealed that SVA 3Cpro adopted a typical chymotrypsin-like fold with the S1 subsite as the most conservative site among picornavirus 3Cpro. The surface loop, A1-B1 hairpin, adopted a novel conformation in SVA 3Cpro and formed a positively charged protrusion around S' subsites. Correspondingly, SVA scissile bonds preferred Asp rather than neutral amino acids at P3' and P4'. Moreover, SVA 3Cpro showed a wide range tolerance to P4 residue volume (acceptable range: 67 Å3 to 141 Å3), such as aromatic side chain, in contrast to other picornaviruses. In summary, our results provided valuable information for understanding the cleavage pattern of 3Cpro. IMPORTANCE Picornaviridae is a group of RNA viruses that harm both humans and livestock. 3Cpro is an essential enzyme for picornavirus maturation, which makes it a promising target for antiviral drug development and a critical component for virus-like particle (VLP) production. However, the current challenge in the development of antiviral drugs and VLP vaccines includes the limited knowledge of how subsite structure determines the 3Cpro cleavage pattern. Thus, an extensive comparative study of various picornaviral 3Cpro was required. Here, we showed the 1.9 Å crystal structure of SVA 3Cpro. The structure revealed similarities and differences in the substrate-binding groove among picornaviruses, providing new insights into the development of inhibitors and VLP.


Assuntos
Cisteína Endopeptidases , Picornaviridae , Proteases Virais 3C , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Picornaviridae/metabolismo , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
13.
Infect Genet Evol ; 103: 105315, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714764

RESUMO

Virus surveillance by wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) in two Arizona municipalities in Maricopa County, USA (~700,000 people), revealed the presence of six canine picornavirus (CanPV) variants: five in 2019 and one in 2021. Phylogenetic analysis suggests these viruses might be from domestic dog breeds living within or around the area. Phylogenetic and pairwise identity analyses suggest over 15 years of likely enzootic circulation of multiple lineages of CanPV in the USA and possibly globally. Considering <10 CanPV sequences are publicly available in GenBank as of June 2, 2022, the results provided here constitute an increase of current knowledge on CanPV diversity and highlight the need for increased surveillance.


Assuntos
Picornaviridae , Animais , Arizona/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/genética , Águas Residuárias
14.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632606

RESUMO

As an emergent picornavirus pathogenic to pigs, Senecavirus A (SVA) can replicate in pig kidneys and proliferates well in porcine kidney epithelial PK-15 cells. Here, tandem mass tags (TMT) labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the proteome dynamic changes in PK-15 cells during SVA infection. In total, 314, 697 and 426 upregulated differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) and 131, 263 and 342 downregulated DEPs were identified at 12, 24 and 36 hpi, respectively. After ensuring reliability of the proteomic data by quantitative PCR and Western blot testing of five randomly selected DEPs, Mx1, eIF4E, G6PD, TOP1 and PGAM1, all the DEPs were subjected to multiple bioinformatics analyses, including GO, COG, KEGG and STRING. The results reveal that the DEPs were mainly involved in host innate and adaptive immune responses in the early and middle stages of SVA infection, while the DEPs mainly participated in various metabolic processes in the late stage of infection. Finally, we demonstrated that Mx1 protein exerts antiviral activity against SVA by interacting with VP1 and VP2 proteins dependent on its GTPase, oligomerization and interaction activities, while Mx1 interacts with VP3 only depending on its oligomerization activity. Collectively, our study provides valuable clues for further investigation of SVA pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo , Proteômica , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Picornaviridae , Proteômica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632674

RESUMO

Since 2016, frequent outbreaks of egg-reducing syndromes caused by an unknown virus in duck farms have resulted in huge economic losses in China. The causative virus was isolated and identified as a novel species in Avihepatovirus of the picornavirus family according to the current guidelines of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICVT), and was named the duck egg-reducing syndrome virus (DERSV). The DERSV was most closely related to wild duck avihepatovirus-like virus (WDALV) with 64.0%, 76.8%, 77.5%, and 70.7% of amino acid identities of P1, 2C, 3C, and 3D proteins, respectively. The DERSV had a typical picornavirus-like genomic structure, but with the longest 2A region in the reported picornaviruses so far. Importantly, the clinical symptoms were successfully observed by artificially infecting ducks with DERSV, even in the contact exposed ducks, which suggested that DERSV transmitted among ducks by direct contact. The antibody levels of DERSV were correlated with the emergence of the egg-reducing syndromes in ducks in field. These results indicate that DERSV is a novel emerging picornavirus causing egg-reducing syndrome in ducks.


Assuntos
Patos , Picornaviridae , Animais , Genoma Viral , Peptídeos/genética , Filogenia , Síndrome
16.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632797

RESUMO

Synonymous codon bias in the viral genome affects protein translation and gene expression, suggesting that the synonymous codon mutant plays an essential role in influencing virulence and evolution. However, how the recessive mutant form contributes to virus evolvability remains elusive. In this paper, we characterize how the Senecavirus A (SVA), a picornavirus, utilizes synonymous codon mutations to influence its evolution, resulting in the adaptive evolution of the virus to adverse environments. The phylogenetic tree and Median-joining (MJ)-Network of these SVA lineages worldwide were constructed to reveal SVA three-stage genetic development clusters. Furthermore, we analyzed the codon bias of the SVA genome of selected strains and found that SVA could increase the GC content of the third base of some amino acid synonymous codons to enhance the viral RNA adaptive evolution. Our results highlight the impact of recessive mutation of virus codon bias on the evolution of the SVA and uncover a previously underappreciated evolutionary strategy for SVA. They also underline the importance of understanding the genetic evolution of SVA and how SVA adapts to the adverse effects of external stress.


Assuntos
Uso do Códon , Picornaviridae , Códon , Vírus de DNA/genética , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/genética
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 865744, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573771

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi) is a major form of antiviral defense in host cells, and Ago2 and Dicer are the major proteins of RNAi. The Senecavirus A (SVA) is a reemerging virus, resulting in vesicular lesions in sows and a sharp decline in neonatal piglet production. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 technology was used to knock out Ago2 and Dicer genes in BHK-21 cell lines used for SVA vaccine production. Cell clones with homozygous frameshift mutations of Ago2 and Dicer genes were successfully identified. The two knockout cell lines were named BHK-DicerΔ- and BHK-Ago2Δ-. Results showed that the two genes' knockout cell lines were capable of stable passage and the cell growth rate did not change significantly. The replication rate and virus titers of SVA were significantly increased in knockout cell lines, indicating that RNAi could inhibit SVA replication. In addition, compared with normal cells, autophagy was significantly enhanced after SVA-infected knockout cell lines, while there was no significant difference in autophagy between the knockout and normal cell lines without SVA. The results confirmed that SVA could enhance the autophagy in knockout cells and promote viral replication. The two knockout cell lines can obtain viruses with high viral titers and have good application prospects in the production of SVA vaccine. At the same time, the RNAi knockout cell lines provide convenience for further studies on RNAi and SVA resistance to RNAi, and it lays a foundation for further study of SVA infection characteristics and screening of new therapeutic drugs and drug targets.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Picornaviridae , Animais , Autofagia , Vírus de DNA , Feminino , Picornaviridae/genética , Interferência de RNA , Suínos , Replicação Viral
18.
Braz J Microbiol ; 53(3): 1701-1706, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35554870

RESUMO

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is the only representative member of the Senecavirus genus of the Picornaviridae family. Since 2014, SVV has been identified as a causative agent of vesicular disease outbreaks in pigs of different ages from Brazil, the USA, Canada, China, Thailand, Colombia, Vietnam, and India. From May 2020, several pig herds, from the Brazilian states Parana and Santa Catarina reported vesicular disease in different pig categories. This study aimed to report the third wave of SVV outbreaks in pig herds in southern Brazil. A total of 263 biological samples from 150 pigs in 18 pig herds were evaluated. The samples were obtained from pigs with clinical signs of vesicular disease (n = 242) and asymptomatic animals (n = 21). Seneca Valley virus RNA was detected in 96 (36.5%) of the biological samples evaluated, with 89 samples from symptomatic and 7 from asymptomatic pigs. The data show that asymptomatic pigs, but in viremia, are possible sources of infection and can act as carriers and possibly spreaders of SVV to the herd. In this study, we report the third wave of vesicular disease outbreaks caused by SVV in different categories of pigs from herds located in southern Brazil.


Assuntos
Infecções por Picornaviridae , Picornaviridae , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267145, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486625

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a picornavirus that produces a highly transmissible vesicular disease that can devastate meat and dairy production to such an extent that FMDV-free countries commit significant economic resources to maintain their FMDV-free status. Senecavirus A (SVA), also a picornavirus, causes vesicular disease in swine that is indistinguishable from FMDV. Since 2015, SVA outbreaks have been reported around the world requiring FMDV-free countries to investigate these cases to rule out FMDV. Understanding the pathogenesis of the SVA and its ability to transmit to naïve populations is critical to formulating control and prevention measures, which could reduce FMDV investigations. The primary objective of this study was to determine the infectious dose of SVA in market weight and neonatal pigs. A 2011 SVA isolate was serially hundred-fold diluted to create four challenge inoculums ranging from 106.5 to 100.5 TCID50/ml. Four market weight pigs individually housed were intranasally inoculated with 5 mL of each dose (n = 16). Serial ten-fold dilutions were used to create 6 challenge inoculums ranging from 105.5 to 100.5 TCID50/ml for neonatal pigs. Again, four animals in individual housing were challenged orally with 2 mL of each dose (n = 24). Detection of SVA by PCR in collected samples and/or neutralizing antibody response was utilized to classify an animal as infected. The minimum infectious dose for this study in market weight animals was 1,260 TCID50/ml (103.1 TCID50/ml) and for neonates it was 316 TCID50/ml (102.5 TCID50/ml). Knowledge of the infectious dose of SVA can guide biosecurity and disinfection measures to control the spread of SVA.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Picornaviridae , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Suínos
20.
Virol J ; 19(1): 65, 2022 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is a picornavirus that causes vesicular disease in swine. Clinical characteristics of the disease are similar to common viral diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, porcine vesicular disease virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus, which can cause vesicles in the nose or hoof of pigs. Therefore, developing tools for detecting SVV infection is critical and urgent. METHODS: The neutralizing antibodies were produced to detect the neutralizing epitope. RESULTS: Five SVV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAb), named 2C8, 3E4, 4C3, 6D7, and 7C11, were generated by immunizing mouses with ultra-purified SVV-LNSY01-2017. All five monoclonal antibodies exhibited high neutralizing titers to SVV. The epitopes targeted by these mAbs were further identified by peptide scanning using GST fusion peptides. The peptide 153QELNEE158 is defined as the smallest linear neutralizing epitope. The antibodies showed no reactivity to VP2 single mutants E157A. Furthermore, the antibodies showed no neutralizing activity with the recombinant virus (SVV-E157A). CONCLUSIONS: The five monoclonal antibodies and identified epitopes may contribute to further research on the structure and function of VP2 and the development of diagnostic methods for detecting different SVV strains. Additionally, the epitope recognized by monoclonal antibodies against VP2 protein may provide insights for novel SVV vaccines and oncolytic viruses development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Vacinas , Animais , Epitopos , Camundongos , Peptídeos , Picornaviridae , Suínos
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