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1.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 82(1): 105-118, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919163

RESUMO

This is the first investigation of the bioavailability of PCBs associated with paint chips (PC) dispersed in sediment. Bioavailability of PCB-containing PC in sediment was measured using ex situ polyethylene passive samplers (PS) and compared to that of PCBs from field-collected sediments. PC were mixed in freshwater sediment from a relatively uncontaminated site with no known PCB contamination sources and from a contaminated site with non-paint PCB sources. PC < 0.045 mm generated concentrations in the PS over one order of magnitude higher than coarser chips. The bioavailable fraction was represented by the polymer-sediment accumulation factor (PSAF), defined as the ratio of the PCB concentrations in the PS and organic carbon normalized sediment. The PSAF was similar for both field sediments. The PSAFs for the field sediments were ~ 50-60 and ~ 5 times higher than for the relatively uncontaminated sediment amended with PC for the size fractions 0.25-0.3 mm and < 0.045 mm, respectively. These results indicate much lower bioavailability for PCBs associated with PC compared to PCBs associated with field-collected sediment. Such information is essential for risk assessment and remediation decision-making for sites where contamination from non-paint PCBs sources is co-located with PCB PC.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arocloros , Disponibilidade Biológica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Pintura , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113895, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634724

RESUMO

Copper leached from recreational vessel antifouling paints can pose a threat to aquatic organisms. To date, leaching rates have mainly been studied in seawater and brackish water. The aim of this study was to investigate the copper input from antifouling paints to freshwater using field and laboratory studies. Therefore, a large sailing area in Berlin was sampled. According to a risk assessment, the use of copper containing antifouling paints in Berlins is predicted to have no significant impact on aquatic organisms. An exception was found in sport boat marinas where, in dependence on the boat number, the sediment copper concentrations were up to 2 times higher than the German environmental quality standard for sediments. The most important result revealed by the laboratory batch tests is that the copper leaching rate in freshwater is much lower compared to seawater and brackish water. The dissolution of copper from antifouling paints into freshwater is overestimated up to now. Nevertheless, the leached copper from antifouling paints is the second largest anthropogenic copper source in the urban area of Berlin and the third largest anthropogenic copper source in German freshwaters.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Berlim , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Cobre/análise , Água Doce , Pintura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150377, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818813

RESUMO

Despite the efforts of the International Marine Organization (IMO), through the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Antifouling Systems on Ships to ban the use of TBT-based antifouling paints (September 2008), and the Rotterdam Convention (RC) to forbid the trade of tributyltin (TBT), the situation does not seem to have significantly changed since 2014 when TBT-based paints were shown to be still being manufactured in the United States and offered for sale in stores throughout the Caribbean and Central America. In fact, this study shows that seven years later the same situation not only persists, but may have an even more global distribution than previously thought.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Compostos de Trialquitina , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Pintura , Navios
4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 265: 120260, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507033

RESUMO

This paper presents the study of selected painted fragments from different contexts of Ostia Antica city, dating between 2nd century BCE and the end of the 1st century CE. The aim is to identify the raw materials used and to understand the execution techniques through a non-invasive protocol including techniques based either on multiband imaging (Visible-VIS, Ultraviolet induced Luminescence - UVL and Visible Induced Luminescence - VIL) and single spot analyses (Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy- FORS and portable X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry - XRF). The most representative and interesting fragments were sampled for further studies with laboratory techniques such as optical microscopy (OM) and electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared and micro-Raman Spectroscopies (FT-IR and µRaman). The extensive use of non-invasive techniques, even working on fragments, is proved to be the most robust and effective approach enabling the analysis of a high number of areas, dramatically increasing the statistical meaning of the collected data. The elaboration of such a huge number of data allows highlighting differences and similarities, thus achieving a more realistic overview of the materials composition and addressing the sampling to the more significant and complex areas.


Assuntos
Pinturas , Pintura , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Análise Espectral Raman
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150375, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563907

RESUMO

Non-fibrous microplastics sampled by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) Survey throughout the North Atlantic Ocean during 2018 have been recorded and a selection (n = 17, or 16.7%) physically and chemically characterised. The average abundance of non-fibrous particles captured by the plankton silks and detectable by microscopy was estimated to be around 0.01 m-3, with the highest concentrations evident in shelf seas of northwest Europe. Amongst the samples analysed, median size was 180 µm and, based on visible properties (e.g., brittleness, layering) and infra-red spectra, all but one were identified as flakes of paint. Semi-quantitative analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with a collimated beam revealed that six flakes from European shelf seas were Cu-based antifouling formulations (without evidence of organo-Sn compounds), and five with a broader geographical distribution were Pb-based formulations of likely marine origin. Other elements regularly detected included Cr, Fe, Ti and Zn that were present in pigments or as contaminants from the underlying substrate. After fibres, paint flakes appear to be the most abundant type of microplastic in the oceans that, because of the abundance and mobility of metallic additives, deserve closer scientific attention.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Oceano Atlântico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pintura , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 686122, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760859

RESUMO

Various control interventions have been effective in the control of arthropod vectors to a certain extent; still, sustained vector control is an existing problem globally. Insecticide-based formulations have been found to be useful, however the proper delivery of active molecules to target vectors is important. Currently, synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin (DM) has been microencapsulated in the emulsion paint binder and evaluated for long-term effectiveness against dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Different compositions of emulsion binder were prepared by varying the content of monomer and DM. A selection was made for the composition yielding the best combination of properties like solid content, intrinsic viscosity, and DM content. Developed formulation was tested against laboratory-reared and pathogen-free Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Encapsulation of DM in emulsion binder during polymerization showed a uniform distribution. The optimized formulation was stable and did not have a considerable plasticizing effect. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that grain-like micro crystals of DM and surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) were uniformly distributed on the formulation surface. The best optimized formulation was highly effective against dengue vector Ae. aegypti and found to provide efficacy for up to 18 months of application. The knockdown time (KDT) values KDT10 and KDT50 were 7.4 min (95% CI: 5.6-9.1) and 22.1 min (95% CI: 19.7-24.3) respectively, whereas 24 h corrected mortality was 90% (95% CI: 82.5-97.5) after 18 months of application (T18). The probit model used to determine knockdown values did not deviate from the linearity and displayed normal distribution of knockdown % with time for different formulations (p ≥ 0.1). Presently developed DM microencapsulated emulsion binder was stable, smooth, and uniform. The binder displayed excellent anti-insect property and was capable of providing long-term effectiveness against dengue vectors Ae. aegypti. Such a formulation after field-scale evaluation could be very useful in attaining long-term protection from arthropod vectors.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Animais , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Emulsões , Resistência a Inseticidas , Mosquitos Vetores , Nitrilas , Pintura , Piretrinas
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770474

RESUMO

Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP) is a powerful measurement technique to obtain pressure distribution on a model of interest by measuring the emission intensity of the PSP coating with a camera. Since a PSP coating is prepared by applying a solution containing an organic solvent, generally, by sprayer, the properties such as the pressure- and the temperature-sensitivity depends on the skill of the person applying it. This fabrication process is one of the barriers to use of the PSP technique because of the legal restrictions on the use of organic solvents. Thus, a sticker-like PSP coating is useful because it does not require the use of organic solvent and the applying skill. In this study, we have fabricated freestanding Pressure-Sensitive Nano-Sheet (PSNS) by a sacrificial layer process using a spin-coating method. We employed Pt(II) meso-tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphine (PtTFPP) as a pressure-sensitive dye and poly(1-trimethylsilyl-propyne) (PTMSP) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) as a polymer binder; thus, the PSNS samples based on PTMSP and PLLA were prepared. The pressure- and the temperature-sensitivity, the lifetime of the luminescence, and the quantum yield of the fabricated PSNS have been investigated. The pressure-sensitivity of PTMSP-based PSNS is higher than that of PLLA-based PSNS. Conversely, the quantum yield of PLLA-based PSNS is higher than that of PTMSP-based PSNS.


Assuntos
Pintura , Polímeros , Humanos , Luminescência , Solventes , Temperatura
8.
Anal Chem ; 93(44): 14851-14858, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714624

RESUMO

The implementation of high-resolution mass spectrometry systems offers new possibilities for the analysis of complex art samples such as historical oil paintings. However, these multicomponent systems generate large and complex data sets that require advanced visualization tools to aid interpretation, especially when no chromatographic separation is performed. In the context of this research, it was crucial to propose a data analysis tool to identify the products generated during the synthesis, drying, and aging of historical pigments. This study reports for the first time a nontraditional mass defect analysis of oil paint samples containing a fugitive brominated-organic pigment, eosin or geranium lake, by using direct infusion electrospray ionization in combination with a high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The use of nontraditional Kendrick mass defect plots is presented in this study as a processing and visualization tool to recognize brominated species based on their specific mass defect and isotope pattern. The results demonstrate that this approach could provide valuable molecular compositional information on the degradation pathways of this pigment. We anticipate that mass defect analysis will become highly relevant in future degradation studies of many more historical organic pigments.


Assuntos
Pintura , Pinturas , Corantes , Isótopos , Espectrometria de Massas
9.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(38): 10854-10865, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524824

RESUMO

Most of the artwork and cultural heritage objects are stored in museums under conditions that are difficult to monitor. While advanced technologies aim to control and prevent the degradation of cultural heritage objects in line with preventive conservation measures, there is much to be learned in terms of the physical processes that lead to the degradation of the synthetic polymers that form the basis of acrylic paints largely used in contemporary art. In museums, stored objects are often exposed to temperature and relative humidity fluctuations as well as airborne pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The glass transition of acrylic paints is below room temperature; while low temperatures may cause cracking, at high temperatures the sticky surface of the paint becomes vulnerable to pollutants. Here we develop fully atomistic models to understand the structure of two types of acrylic copolymers and their interactions with VOCs and water. The structure and properties of acrylic copolymers are slighlty modified by incorporation of a monomer with a longer side chain. With favorable solvation free energies, once absorbed, VOCs and water interact with the polymer side chains to form hydrogen bonds. The cagelike structure of the polymers prevents the VOCs and water to diffuse freely below the glass transition temperature. In addition, our model forms the foundation for developing mesoscopic and continuum models that will allow us to access longer time and length scales to further our understanding of the degradation of artwork.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Pintura , Polímeros , Temperatura
10.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113714, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547570

RESUMO

Solid blasting waste generated from coating removal during ship repair and maintenance poses environmental challenges. This paper presents a review of the generation, characterization, and treatment of blasting waste in the ship repair industry. The quantities, properties, and environmental impacts of the generated blasting waste are summarized and analyzed, and the results indicate that blasting waste has a high generation rate and/or high toxicity. As alternatives to landfill, available blasting waste treatment methods include hydrometallurgical leaching, physical/physicochemical separation, thermal treatment, and direct utilization in the production of building materials. The advantages and disadvantages of these treatments are reviewed and compared. The production of building materials from blasting waste is currently attractive owning to its economic benefits and technical simplicity, whereas recycling blasting waste for high-value applications is gradually gaining research interest. The high dependence of the choice and performance of treatment methods on the waste type and characteristics is highlighted. The results emphasize the interest in conducting more research on physiochemical and thermal properties and the environmental effects of blasting waste. This review suggests that future research should focus more on paint waste management because of the restricted application of dry abrasive blasting and the development of nonabrasive blasting methods in the ship repair industry.


Assuntos
Navios , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Materiais de Construção , Pintura , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577281

RESUMO

Factors that cause nonuniformity in the luminescence lifetime of pressure-sensitive paints (PSPs) were investigated. The lifetime imaging method of PSP does not theoretically require wind-off reference images. Therefore, it can improve measurement accuracy because it can eliminate errors caused by the deformation or movement of the model during the measurement. However, it is reported that the luminescence lifetime of PSP is not uniform on the model, even under uniform conditions of pressure and temperature. Therefore, reference images are used to compensate for the nonuniformity of the luminescence lifetime, which significantly diminishes the advantages of the lifetime imaging method. In particular, fast-responding PSPs show considerable variation in luminescence lifetime compared to conventional polymer-based PSPs. Therefore, this study investigated and discussed the factors causing the nonuniformity of the luminescence lifetime, such as the luminophore solvent, luminophore concentrations, binder thickness, and spraying conditions. The results obtained suggest that the nonuniformity of the luminophore distribution in the binder caused by the various factors mentioned above during the coating process is closely related to the nonuniformity of the luminescence lifetime. For example, when the thickness of the binder became thinner than 8 µm, the fast-responding PSPs showed a tendency to vary significantly in the luminescence lifetime. In addition, it was found that the luminescence lifetime of fast-responding PSP could be changed in the depth direction of the binder depending on the coating conditions. Therefore, it is important to distribute the luminophore uniformly in the binder layer to create PSPs with a more uniform luminescence lifetime distribution.


Assuntos
Luminescência , Pintura , Temperatura
12.
Anal Methods ; 13(35): 3894-3899, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382972

RESUMO

A quantitative method for the determination of the following VOCs: acetone, dichloromethane, dimethyl carbonate, methyl acetate, tertiary butyl acetate, chlorobenzotrifluoride (4-CBTF) and propylene carbonate in paints was developed in support of Environment and Climate Change Canada's Automotive Refinishing Product and Architectural Coatings VOC Concentration Limits regulations. These compounds are excluded from the VOC definition by Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) regulations, and their content do not contribute to the overall VOC content in products for regulatory purposes. The method is based on Dynamic Headspace GC-MS. It was determined that activated carbon is the best trapping medium for these compounds. The technique has been compared to a currently used direct injection technique, with comparable results. Contrary to the direct injection method which requires complex sample handling prior to injection in the gas chromatograph, the dynamic headspace method practically eliminates the need for sample handling allowing for much shorter sample turnover and reducing the possibility of sampling handling errors.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Canadá , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Pintura , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372426

RESUMO

An artificial neural network (ANN) was constructed and trained for predicting pressure sensitivity using an experimental dataset consisting of luminophore content and paint thickness as chemical and physical inputs. A data augmentation technique was used to increase the number of data points based on the limited experimental observations. The prediction accuracy of the trained ANN was evaluated by using a metric, mean absolute percentage error. The ANN predicted pressure sensitivity to luminophore content and to paint thickness, within confidence intervals based on experimental errors. The present approach of applying ANN and the data augmentation has the potential to predict pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) characterizations that improve the performance of PSP for global surface pressure measurements.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Pintura , Humanos
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 172: 112895, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455348

RESUMO

To determine how bacterial communities succeed after the initial attachment of the bacterial biofilm adhesion using 16S rDNA meta-barcoding in plates coated with copper-based anti-fouling (AF) and non-AF (control) coatings as well as ambient seawater, coated plates were submerged in a marine environment in situ. Alteromonas genovensis (Gammaproteobacteria) in AF coating and Pacificibacter sp. (Alphaproteobacteria) in the control plate were initially abundant. In the AF coating, the abundance of A. genovensis decreased rapidly, whereas that of genus Phaeobacter (Alphaproteobacteria), Serratia (Gammaproteobacteria) and Cupriavidus (Betaproteobacteria) increased. Bacterial community in the control plate had a strong connection to pathogenic Vibrio spp. associated with the growth of invertebrates. Therefore, in the in situ AF coating experiment, A. genovensis accumulation was initially and intensively increased, and the bacteria responded to chemical antagonism, induced the proliferation of specific biofilm bacteria and influenced the interactions and recruitment of additional bacterial communities.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Alteromonas , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Pintura
15.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117961, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426196

RESUMO

Copper-containing antifouling paints (AFP) are widely used for leisure boat maintenance. Cu emitted from AFP into German surface water bodies has been suggested to be a significant source of heavy metal pollution, threatening water quality. We developed two scenarios to model Cu emissions from AFP applied on leisure boats on national scale, which allow identifying regional hotspots. The top-down approach (scenario A) was based on a previous study on national AFP consumption, while in the bottom-up approach (scenario B), median and interquartile range of Cu release rates depending on salinity conditions were considered for emission estimation. Both scenarios clearly highlighted the locally high emission pressure on inland waters in popular watersport regions, identifying these as requiring intense protection. Scenario B generally predicted lower Cu emissions (sea: 11.05-25.53 t a-1, inland: 14.15-34.59 t a-1) than scenario A (sea: 22.53 t a-1, inland: 47.97 t a-1). To evaluate their relevance, scenario results were compared to emissions modelled with MoRE (Modelling of Regionalized Emissions), which is used as reporting tool on substance emissions by Germany. According to scenarios A and B, the emission from AFP accounted for 13 % and 4-9 % of the total Cu emissions into inland waters in 2016, respectively. Scenario results were similar or higher than other emission pathways such as industrial direct dischargers. Thus, we consider Cu emissions from AFP as a significant pathway to be included in the MoRE emission inventory. We recommend scenario B for implementation as it allows a more flexible adaptation for future modelling.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Cobre/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Atividades de Lazer , Pintura , Navios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 81(2): 324-334, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196742

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were added to certain marine vessel bottom paints as a plasticizer to improve the adhesion and durability of the paint. The most common PCB formulation used to amend such paints was Aroclor 1254. Fugitive Aroclor-containing paint chips generated from vessel maintenance and repair operations represent a potential source of PCB contamination to sediments. Limited published studies indicate that Aroclor-containing paint is largely inert and exhibits low PCB leaching into water; however, the rate and degree of leaching of PCBs from paint chips have not been directly studied. This laboratory-based study evaluated the rate and extent of leaching of PCBs from paint chips into freshwater. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the rate of PCB dissolution from paint chips decreased rapidly and exponentially over time. Based on this study, it is estimated that the rate of leaching of PCBs from paint chips would cease after approximately 3 years of exposure to water. When all leachable PCBs were exhausted, it is estimated that less than 1% of the mass of PCBs in the paint chips was amenable to dissolution. The results of this experiment suggest that Aroclor-containing paint chips found in sediments are likely short-term sources of dissolved-phase PCB to pore or surface waters and that the majority of the PCBs in paint chips remain in the paint matrix and unavailable for partitioning into water.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Arocloros , Pintura , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
17.
J Vis Exp ; (172)2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223834

RESUMO

Reflectance Spectroscopy (RS) and Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) are well-established techniques for the investigation of works of art with particular attention to paintings. Most modern museums put at the disposal of their research groups portable equipment that, together with the intrinsic non-invasiveness of RS and FORS, makes possible the in situ collection of reflectance spectra from the surface of artefacts. The comparison, performed by experts in pigments and painting materials, of the experimental data with databases of reference spectra drives the characterization of the palettes and of the techniques used by the artists. However, this approach requires specific skills and it is time consuming especially if the number of the spectra to be investigated becomes large as is the case of Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging (HRI) datasets. The HRI experimental setups are multi-dimensional cameras that associate the spectral information, given by the reflectance spectra, with the spatial localization of the spectra over the painted surface. The resulting datasets are 3D-cubes (called hypercubes or data-cubes) where the first two dimensions locate the spectrum over the painting and the third is the spectrum itself (i.e., the reflectance of that point of the painted surface versus the wavelength in the operative range of the detector). The capability of the detector to simultaneously collect a great number of spectra (typically much more than 10,000 for each hypercube) makes the HRI datasets large reservoirs of information and justifies the need for the development of robust and, possibly, automated protocols to analyze the data. After the description of the procedure designed for the data acquisition, we present an analysis method that systematically exploits the potential of the hypercubes. Based on Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and on the manipulation of the collected spectra, the algorithm handles and analyzes thousands of spectra while at the same time it supports the user to unveil the features of the samples under investigation. The power of the approach is illustrated by applying it to Quarto Stato, the iconic masterpiece by Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo, held in the Museo del Novecento in Milan (Italy).


Assuntos
Imageamento Hiperespectral , Pinturas , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Pintura , Análise Espectral
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 171: 112694, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242954

RESUMO

In-water cleaning can clear-off foulants from ship hulls to prevent transportation of non-indigenous species and reduce hull friction and consequent fuel use. However, during cleaning, antifouling paint residues containing toxic substances can be released into the environment. To understand the potential risks of in-water hull cleaning, cleaning effluents were collected and analyzed for total suspended solid (TSS), particle size distribution, and metal concentrations. TSS concentrations were 97.3-249 mg/L, corresponding to release rates of 12.9-37.5 g/m2 from the hull surface. Particles with sizes of ≥8 µm contributed 75-94% of the TSS. Average Cu and Zn concentrations in the effluents were 209 µg/L and 1510 µg/L, respectively, which were used for risk assessment in two port scenarios. Although the risks vary with the scale of the hull cleaning and the ports, in-water cleaning poses clear risks to marine environments, unless the effluents are recovered or treated before being released.


Assuntos
Navios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Metais , Pintura , Água do Mar , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203186

RESUMO

In this work, decorative wallpapers (19th century) from an historical palace located in Oiartzun (Basque Country, Spain) were analyzed before their restoration. Micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the elemental and molecular composition of pigments, the presence of binders, and the state of conservation of the paper support. The aim of the investigation was trying to understand the possible degradation pathways and identify the raw materials in order to choose the best restoration protocol according to the original aspect of wallpapers. As stated from both the elemental distribution and the identification of mineral phases by Raman spectroscopy, the most used pigment was lead chromate. It was mixed with other pigments such as ultramarine blue, zinc chromate, hematite, and atacamite among others to obtain different shades and they were applied mixed with an animal glue. Brass, identified thanks to elemental micro-EDXRF maps, was employed as a shiny decorative element. In addition, a partial degradation of cellulose was detected due to its natural ageing, the acidic nature of lignin, and to a phenomenon of humidity of the walls. Probably the deposition of black particulate matter was the cause of the darkening of the painting surfaces.


Assuntos
Pintura , Pinturas , Animais , Corantes , Espanha , Análise Espectral Raman
20.
J Environ Manage ; 296: 113105, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216906

RESUMO

Paint manufacturing industries produce wastewater containing high chemical oxygen demand and turbidity, besides organic matter, suspended solids, and heavy metals that cause enormous environmental damages. Safely treating this wastewater before being disposed to the natural water sources is essential for attaining the UN SDGs, particularly Goal 14: Life under water. Besides being efficient, wastewater treatment techniques must be sustainable - environmentally, economically, and ethically. While a few papers have reviewed specific treatment methods for certain pollutants, such as heavy metals, oils, and azo dyes from industrial wastewater, a comprehensive review of various treatment methods for all the pollutants of a particular industrial wastewater - paint industry - is lacking. This paper reviews the current treatment methods used for treating paint industry wastewater including the physicochemical, biological, and chemical treatment techniques. The physicochemical techniques produce large amount of sludge making it difficult for disposal while biological treatment techniques are difficult to maintain because of the uncertainties in the chemical compositions of the paint wastewater. Advanced oxidation processes are emerging as preferred methods among the chemical methods for reducing the toxicity of the various components of the paint wastewater with reduced sludge quantity. The review of various emerging techniques of paint industry wastewater treatments in this paper points to the need for paying greater attention to combining the oxidation and biological processes as they are emerging as sustainable methods for effective reduction of toxicity in paint wastewater while also reducing the sludge management challenges.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Pintura , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
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