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2.
Biochem J ; 477(17): 3123-3130, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886767

RESUMO

Heart failure results from the heart's inability to carryout ventricular contraction and relaxation, and has now become a worldwide problem. During the onset of heart failure, several signatures are observed in cardiomyocytes that includes fetal reprogramming of gene expression where adult genes are repressed and fetal genes turned on, endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress. In this short review and analysis, we examine these different phenomenon from the viewpoint of the glutathione cycle and the role of the recently discovered Chac1 enzyme. Chac1, which belongs to the family of γ-glutamylcyclotransferases, is a recently discovered member of the glutathione cycle, being involved in the cytosolic degradation of glutathione. This enzyme is induced during the Endoplasmic Stress response, but also in the developing heart. Owing to its exclusive action on reduced glutathione, its induction leads to an increase in the oxidative redox potential of the cell that also serves as signaling mechanism for calcium ions channel activation. The end product of Chac1 action is 5-oxoproline, and studies with 5-oxoprolinase (OPLAH), an enzyme of the glutathione cycle has revealed that down-regulation of OPLAH can lead to the accumulation of 5-oxproline which is an important factor in heart failure. With these recent findings, we have re-examined the roles and regulation of the enzymes in the glutathione cycle which are central to these responses. We present an integrated view of the glutathione cycle in the cellular response to heart failure.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Glutationa/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/metabolismo , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/metabolismo , gama-Glutamilciclotransferase/metabolismo
3.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 47(6): 620-631, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520514

RESUMO

Bioinformatics was recently introduced as a module for both undergraduate and postgraduate biological sciences students at our institution. Our experience shows that inquiry-based hands-on exercises provide the most efficient approach to bioinformatic straining. In this article, we report a structural bioinformatics project carried out by Master degree students to determine structure-function relationships of the uncharacterized prokaryotic 5-oxoprolinase subunit A (PxpA). PxpA associates with the PxpBC complex to form a functional 5-oxoprolinase enzyme for conversion of 5-oxoproline to L-glutamate. Although the exact role of PxpA is yet to be determined, it has been demonstrated that PxpBC catalyses the first step of the reaction, which is phosphorylation of 5-oxoproline. Here, we provide evidence that PxpA is involved in the last two steps of the reaction:decyclization of the labile phosphorylated 5-oxoproline to the equally labile γ-glutamylphosphate, and subsequent dephosphorylation to L-glutamate. Structural bioinformatics analysis of four putative PxpA structures revealed that PxpA adopts a non-canonical TIM barrel fold with well-characterized TIM barrel enzyme features. These include a C-terminal groove comprising potentially essential conserved amino acid residues organized into putative motifs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship between taxonomic grouping and PxpA oligomerization. PxpA forms a tunnel upon ligand binding, thus suggesting that the PxpABC complex employs the mechanism of substrate channeling to protect labile intermediates. Ultimately, students were able to form a testable hypothesis on the function of PxpA, an achievement we consider encouraging other students to emulate. © 2019 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 47(6):620-631, 2019.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Biologia Computacional/educação , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/química , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/metabolismo , Currículo , Ácido Glutâmico/química , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/química , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Estudantes
4.
Archaea ; 2019: 3208051, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178666

RESUMO

Microorganisms are well adapted to their habitat but are partially sensitive to toxic metabolites or abiotic compounds secreted by other organisms or chemically formed under the respective environmental conditions. Thermoacidophiles are challenged by pyroglutamate, a lactam that is spontaneously formed by cyclization of glutamate under aerobic thermoacidophilic conditions. It is known that growth of the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Saccharolobus solfataricus (formerly Sulfolobus solfataricus) is completely inhibited by pyroglutamate. In the present study, we investigated the effect of pyroglutamate on the growth of S. solfataricus and the closely related crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. In contrast to S. solfataricus, S. acidocaldarius was successfully cultivated with pyroglutamate as a sole carbon source. Bioinformatical analyses showed that both members of the Sulfolobaceae have at least one candidate for a 5-oxoprolinase, which catalyses the ATP-dependent conversion of pyroglutamate to glutamate. In S. solfataricus, we observed the intracellular accumulation of pyroglutamate and crude cell extract assays showed a less effective degradation of pyroglutamate. Apparently, S. acidocaldarius seems to be less versatile regarding carbohydrates and prefers peptidolytic growth compared to S. solfataricus. Concludingly, S. acidocaldarius exhibits a more efficient utilization of pyroglutamate and is not inhibited by this compound, making it a better candidate for applications with glutamate-containing media at high temperatures.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/metabolismo , Sulfolobus acidocaldarius/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sulfolobus solfataricus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/metabolismo , Sulfolobaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sulfolobaceae/metabolismo , Sulfolobus acidocaldarius/metabolismo , Sulfolobus solfataricus/metabolismo
5.
Cardiovasc Res ; 114(14): 1871-1882, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032247

RESUMO

Aims: The prevalence of heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasing, but therapeutic options are limited. Oxidative stress is suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of HFpEF. However, whether oxidative stress is a bystander due to comorbidities or causative in itself remains unknown. Recent results have shown that depletion of 5-oxoprolinase (OPLAH) leads to 5-oxoproline accumulation, which is an important mediator of oxidative stress in the heart. We hypothesize that oxidative stress induced by elevated levels of 5-oxoproline leads to the onset of a murine HFpEF-like phenotype. Methods and results: Oplah full body knock-out (KO) mice had higher 5-oxoproline levels coupled to increased oxidative stress. Compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, KO mice had increased cardiac and renal fibrosis with concurrent elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures, impaired LV relaxation, yet a normal LV ejection fraction. Following the induction of cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, 52.4% of the KO mice died compared with only 15.4% of the WT mice (P < 0.03). Furthermore, KO mice showed a significantly increased atrial, ventricular, kidney, and liver weights compared with WT mice (P < 0.05 for all). Cardiac and renal fibrosis were more pronounced following cardiac IR injury in the KO mice and these mice developed proteinuria post-IR injury. To further address the link between 5-oxoproline and HFpEF, 5-oxoproline was measured in the plasma of HFpEF patients. Compared with healthy controls (3.8 ± 0.6 µM), 5-oxoproline levels were significantly elevated in HFpEF patients (6.8 ± 1.9 µM, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, levels of 5-oxoproline were independently associated with more concentric remodelling on echocardiography. Conclusion: Oxidative stress induced by 5-oxoproline results in a murine phenotype reminiscent of the clinical manifestation of HFpEF without the need for surgical or pharmacological interference. Better understanding of the role of oxidative stress in HFpEF may potentially lead to novel therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/enzimologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/enzimologia , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/deficiência , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/metabolismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Pressão Ventricular , Remodelação Ventricular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibrose , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenótipo , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/genética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 51(3): e6853, 2018 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340523

RESUMO

Glutathione synthetase deficiency (GSSD) is a rare inborn error of glutathione metabolism with autosomal recessive inheritance. The severe form of the disease is characterized by acute metabolic acidosis, usually present in the neonatal period with hemolytic anemia and progressive encephalopathy. A case of a male newborn infant who had severe metabolic acidosis with high anion gap, hemolytic anemia, and hyperbilirubinemia is reported. A high level of 5-oxoproline was detected in his urine and a diagnosis of generalized GSSD was made. DNA sequence analysis revealed the infant to be compound heterozygous with two mutations, c.738dupG in exon 8 of GSS gene resulting in p.S247fs and a repetitive sequence in exon 3 of GSS gene. Treatment after diagnosis of GSSD included supplementation with antioxidants and oral sodium hydrogen bicarbonate. However, he maintained a variable degree of metabolic acidosis and succumbed shortly after his parents requested discontinuation of therapy because of dismal prognosis and medical futility when he was 18 days old.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Glutationa Sintase/deficiência , Mutação , Acidose/etiologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Glutationa Sintase/genética , Glutationa Sintase/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/deficiência , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
7.
Curr Genet ; 64(1): 285-301, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28918485

RESUMO

In eukaryotic organisms, the 5-oxoprolinase is one of the six key enzymes in the γ-glutamyl cycle that is involved in the biosynthetic pathway of glutathione (GSH, an antioxidative tripeptide counteracting the oxidative stress). To date, little is known about the biological functions of the 5-oxoprolinase in filamentous phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, we investigated the 5-oxoprolinase in Fusarium graminearum for the first time. In F. graminearum, two paralogous genes (FgOXP1 and FgOXP2) were identified to encode the 5-oxoprolinase while only one homologous gene encoding the 5-oxoprolinase could be found in other filamentous phytopathogenic fungi or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of FgOXP1 or FgOXP2 in F. graminearum led to significant defects in its virulence on wheat. This is likely caused by an observed decreased deoxynivalenol (DON, a mycotoxin) production in the gene deletion mutant strains as DON is one of the best characterized virulence factors of F. graminearum. The FgOXP2 deletion mutant strains were also defective in conidiation and sexual reproduction while the FgOXP1 deletion mutant strains were normal for those phenotypes. Double deletion of FgOXP1 and FgOXP2 led to more severe defects in conidiation, DON production and virulence on plants, suggesting that both FgOXP1 and FgOXP2 play a role in fungal development and plant colonization. Although transformation of MoOXP1into ΔFgoxp1 was able to complement ΔFgoxp1, transformation of MoOXP1 into ΔFgoxp2 failed to restore its defects in sexual development, DON production and pathogenicity. Taken together, these results suggest that FgOXP1 and FgOXP2 are likely to have been functionally diversified and play significant roles in fungal development and full virulence in F. graminearum.


Assuntos
Fusarium/fisiologia , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos , Tricotecenos/biossíntese , Evolução Biológica , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Teste de Complementação Genética , Mutação , Filogenia , Transporte Proteico , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/genética , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e6853, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-889048

RESUMO

Glutathione synthetase deficiency (GSSD) is a rare inborn error of glutathione metabolism with autosomal recessive inheritance. The severe form of the disease is characterized by acute metabolic acidosis, usually present in the neonatal period with hemolytic anemia and progressive encephalopathy. A case of a male newborn infant who had severe metabolic acidosis with high anion gap, hemolytic anemia, and hyperbilirubinemia is reported. A high level of 5-oxoproline was detected in his urine and a diagnosis of generalized GSSD was made. DNA sequence analysis revealed the infant to be compound heterozygous with two mutations, c.738dupG in exon 8 of GSS gene resulting in p.S247fs and a repetitive sequence in exon 3 of GSS gene. Treatment after diagnosis of GSSD included supplementation with antioxidants and oral sodium hydrogen bicarbonate. However, he maintained a variable degree of metabolic acidosis and succumbed shortly after his parents requested discontinuation of therapy because of dismal prognosis and medical futility when he was 18 days old.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Glutationa Sintase/deficiência , Mutação , Acidose/etiologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Glutationa Sintase/genética , Glutationa Sintase/metabolismo , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/deficiência , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
9.
Sci Transl Med ; 9(415)2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29118264

RESUMO

In response to heart failure (HF), the heart reacts by repressing adult genes and expressing fetal genes, thereby returning to a more fetal-like gene profile. To identify genes involved in this process, we carried out transcriptional analysis on murine hearts at different stages of development and on hearts from adult mice with HF. Our screen identified Oplah, encoding for 5-oxoprolinase, a member of the γ-glutamyl cycle that functions by scavenging 5-oxoproline. OPLAH depletion occurred as a result of cardiac injury, leading to elevated 5-oxoproline and oxidative stress, whereas OPLAH overexpression improved cardiac function after ischemic injury. In HF patients, we observed elevated plasma 5-oxoproline, which was associated with a worse clinical outcome. Understanding and modulating fetal-like genes in the failing heart may lead to potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic options in HF.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/metabolismo , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/metabolismo , Animais , Feto/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/sangue , Ratos , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/sangue , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Estresse Mecânico , Transcrição Gênica , Receptor ERRalfa Relacionado ao Estrogênio
10.
Mol Genet Metab ; 119(1-2): 44-9, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27477828

RESUMO

Primary 5-oxoprolinuria (pyroglutamic aciduria) is caused by a genetic defect in the γ-glutamyl cycle, affecting either glutathione synthetase or 5-oxoprolinase. While several dozens of patients with glutathione synthetase deficiency have been reported, with hemolytic anemia representing the clinical key feature, 5-oxoprolinase deficiency due to OPLAH mutations is less frequent and so far has not attracted much attention. This has prompted us to investigate the clinical phenotype as well as the underlying genotype in patients from 14 families of various ethnic backgrounds who underwent diagnostic mutation analysis following the detection of 5-oxoprolinuria. In all patients with 5-oxoprolinuria studied, bi-allelic mutations in OPLAH were indicated. An autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for 5-oxoprolinase deficiency is further supported by the identification of a single mutation in all 9/14 parent sample sets investigated (except for the father of one patient whose result suggests homozygosity), and the absence of 5-oxoprolinuria in all tested heterozygotes. It is remarkable, that all 20 mutations identified were novel and private to the respective families. Clinical features were highly variable and in several sib pairs, did not segregate with 5-oxoprolinuria. Although a pathogenic role of 5-oxoprolinase deficiency remains possible, this is not supported by our findings. Additional patient ascertainment and long-term follow-up is needed to establish the benign nature of this inborn error of metabolism. It is important that all symptomatic patients with persistently elevated levels of 5-oxoproline and no obvious explanation are investigated for the genetic etiology.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Glutationa Sintase/deficiência , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/deficiência , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/genética , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/metabolismo , Adolescente , Alelos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/enzimologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Sintase/genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação
11.
Brain Dev ; 37(10): 952-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25851806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 5-Oxoprolinuria is a rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by a defective gamma-glutamyl cycle resulting from mutations in the genes encoding 5-oxoprolinase (OPLAH) and glutathione synthetase (GSS). No inherited 5-oxoprolinuria case has been reported in mainland China until now. In this study, clinical, biochemical, and genetic aspects of five Chinese 5-oxoprolinuria patients with OPLAH or GSS gene mutations were investigated. METHODS: Three boys and two girls from five unrelated Chinese families with symptomatic 5-oxoprolinuria were identified within the past 3years in Peking University First Hospital. OPLAH and GSS genes were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients were hospitalized between the age of 13days to 1year and 3months for hypersomnia, developmental retardation, feeding deficiency, vomiting, icterus and recurrent pneumonia. All patients had significantly elevated urine 5-oxoproline. Three novel mutations (c.1904G>A and c.2813_2815delGGG in Patient 1, c.2978G>T in Patient 2) on OPLAH, on GSS, one novel mutation (c.1252C>T in Patient 3) and a reported mutation (c.491G>A in Patients 3-5) were detected. Patient 4 has homozygous mutation c.491G>A, the others are heterozygous. After treatment by l-carnitine, vitamin E, B1, B2 and coenzyme Q10, three patients with GSS deficiency improved, but the two 5-oxoprolinase-deficient patients did not respond to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: 5-Oxoprolinase deficiency and GSS deficiency share some clinical and biochemical features. Genetic analysis is important for the deferential diagnosis. In this study, five Chinese patients had severe central nervous system damage. Antioxidant treatments were proved effective for the three patients with GSS deficiency but not for the two patients with 5-oxoprolinase deficiency.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/urina , Glutationa Sintase/deficiência , Hidroxiprolina/urina , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/deficiência , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Povo Asiático , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glutationa Sintase/genética , Glutationa Sintase/metabolismo , Glutationa Sintase/urina , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/genética , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/metabolismo , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/urina
12.
Eur J Pediatr ; 174(3): 407-11, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25129617

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Inherited 5-oxoprolinase (OPLAH) deficiency is a rare inborn condition characterised by 5-oxoprolinuria. To date, three OPLAH mutations have been described: p.H870Pfs in a homozygous state, which results in a truncated protein, was reported in two siblings, and two heterozygous missense changes, p.S323R and p.V1089I, were independently identified in two unrelated patients. We describe the clinical context of a young girl who manifested 5-oxoprolinuria together with dusky episodes and who is compound heterozygote for two novel OPLAH variations: p.G860R and p.D1241V. To gain insight into the aetiology of the 5-oxoprolinase deficiency, we investigated the pathogenicity of all the reported missense mutations in the OPLAH gene. A yeast in vivo growth assay revealed that only p.S323R, p.G860R and p.D1241V affected the activity of the enzyme. CONCLUSION: Taken together, this report further suggests that hereditary 5-oxoprolinase deficiency is a benign biochemical condition caused by mutations in the OPLAH gene, which are transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner, but 5-oxoprolinuria may be a chance association in other disorders.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/deficiência , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/genética
13.
Adv Cancer Res ; 122: 69-101, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24974179

RESUMO

One of the hallmarks of cancer is the ability to generate and withstand unusual levels of oxidative stress. In part, this property of tumor cells is conferred by elevation of the cellular redox buffer glutathione. Though enzymes of the glutathione synthesis and salvage pathways have been characterized for several decades, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of their independent and coordinate regulatory mechanisms. Recent studies have further revealed that overall central metabolic pathways are frequently altered in various tumor types, resulting in significant increases in biosynthetic capacity and feeding into glutathione synthesis. In this review, we will discuss the enzymes and pathways affecting glutathione flux in cancer and summarize current models for regulating cellular glutathione through both de novo synthesis and efficient salvage. In addition, we examine the integration of glutathione metabolism with other altered fates of intermediary metabolites and highlight remaining questions about molecular details of the accepted regulatory modes.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Soluções Tampão , Progressão da Doença , Glutationa Sintase/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Camundongos , Neoplasias/patologia , Oxirredução , Fosforilação , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/metabolismo , gama-Glutamilciclotransferase/metabolismo
15.
Clin Genet ; 82(2): 193-6, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21651516

RESUMO

Gamma-glutamyl cycle is a six-enzyme cycle that represents the primary pathway for glutathione synthesis and degradation. 5-Oxoprolinase deficiency is an extremely rare disorder of the gamma-glutamyl cycle with only eight patients reported to date. Debate continues as to whether this is a benign biochemical defect because of the heterogeneity of the clinical presentation which ranges from normal to significant neurological involvement. Here, we report the first molecularly characterized patients with 5-oxoprolinase deficiency due to a mutation in OPLAH (which encodes 5-oxoprolinase). The largely benign clinical course of the patients described herein despite persistent 5-oxoprolinuria highlights the importance of establishing a molecular diagnosis in the few cases with abnormal neurological outcome to exclude potentially overlapping biochemical defects and to explore potential genotype/phenotype correlation.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Mutação , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/genética , Sequência de Bases , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/deficiência
16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 409(4): 596-602, 2011 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21539809

RESUMO

Glutamate, the principal excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain, participates in a multitude of physiologic and pathologic processes, including learning and memory. Glutathione, a tripeptide composed of the amino acids glutamate, cysteine, and glycine, serves important cofactor roles in antioxidant defense and drug detoxification, but glutathione deficits occur in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. Glutathione synthesis and metabolism are governed by a cycle of enzymes, the γ-glutamyl cycle, which can achieve intracellular glutathione concentrations of 1-10mM. Because of the considerable quantity of brain glutathione and its rapid turnover, we hypothesized that glutathione may serve as a reservoir of neural glutamate. We quantified glutamate in HT22 hippocampal neurons, PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons after treatment with molecular inhibitors targeting three different enzymes of the glutathione metabolic cycle. Inhibiting 5-oxoprolinase and γ-glutamyl transferase, enzymes that liberate glutamate from glutathione, leads to decreases in glutamate. In contrast, inhibition of γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase, which uses glutamate to synthesize glutathione, results in substantial glutamate accumulation. Increased glutamate levels following inhibition of glutathione synthesis temporally precede later effects upon oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico/biossíntese , Glutationa/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Butionina Sulfoximina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hipocampo/citologia , Imidazolinas/farmacologia , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/antagonistas & inibidores , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/metabolismo , Ratos , gama-Glutamiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , gama-Glutamiltransferase/metabolismo
17.
J Biosci ; 35(1): 21-5, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20413906

RESUMO

Cystinosis, an inherited disease caused by a defect in the lysosomal cystine transporter (CTNS), is characterized by renal proximal tubular dysfunction. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion appears to be a key event in the pathophysiology of the disease, even though the manner in which ATP depletion occurs is still a puzzle. We present a model that explains how a futile cycle that is generated between two ATP-utilizing enzymes of the gamma-glutamyl cycle leads to ATP depletion. The enzyme gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), in the absence of cysteine, forms 5-oxoproline (instead of the normal substrate, gamma-glutamyl cysteine) and the 5-oxoproline is converted into glutamate by the ATP-dependant enzyme, 5-oxoprolinase. Thus, in cysteine-limiting conditions, glutamate is cycled back into glutamate via 5-oxoproline at the cost of two ATP molecules without production of glutathione and is the cause of the decreased levels of glutathione synthesis, as well as the ATP depletion observed in these cells. The model is also compatible with the differences seen in the human patients and the mouse model of cystinosis, where renal failure is not observed.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/química , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/fisiologia , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/fisiologia , Animais , Cisteína/química , Cistinose/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/química , Ácido Glutâmico/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/química , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/química
18.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 10(4): 394-401, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20402795

RESUMO

OXP1/YKL215c, an uncharacterized ORF of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encodes a functional ATP-dependent 5-oxoprolinase of 1286 amino acids. The yeast 5-oxoprolinase activity was demonstrated in vivo by utilization of 5-oxoproline as a source of glutamate and OTC, a 5-oxoproline sulfur analogue, as a source of sulfur in cells overexpressing OXP1. In vitro characterization by expression and purification of the recombinant protein in S. cerevisiae revealed that the enzyme exists and functions as a dimer, and has a K(m) of 159 microM and a V(max) of 3.5 nmol h(-1) microg(-1) protein. The enzyme was found to be functionally separable in two distinct domains. An 'actin-like ATPase motif' could be identified in 5-oxprolinases, and mutation of key residues within this motif led to complete loss in ATPase and 5-oxoprolinase activity of the enzyme. The results are discussed in the light of the previously postulated truncated gamma-glutamyl cycle of yeasts.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/genética , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Dimerização , Expressão Gênica , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Enxofre/metabolismo
19.
Anal Chem ; 82(8): 3212-21, 2010 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20349993

RESUMO

We present a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method that capitalizes on the mass-resolving power of the orbitrap to enable sensitive and specific measurement of known and unanticipated metabolites in parallel, with a focus on water-soluble species involved in core metabolism. The reversed phase LC method, with a cycle time 25 min, involves a water-methanol gradient on a C18 column with tributylamine as the ion pairing agent. The MS portion involves full scans from 85 to 1000 m/z at 1 Hz and 100,000 resolution in negative ion mode on a stand alone orbitrap ("Exactive"). The median limit of detection, across 80 metabolite standards, was 5 ng/mL with the linear range typically >or=100-fold. For both standards and a cellular extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast), the median inter-run relative standard deviation in peak intensity was 8%. In yeast exact, we detected 137 known compounds, whose (13)C-labeling patterns could also be tracked to probe metabolic flux. In yeast engineered to lack a gene of unknown function (YKL215C), we observed accumulation of an ion of m/z 128.0351, which we subsequently confirmed to be oxoproline, resulting in annotation of YKL215C as an oxoprolinase. These examples demonstrate the suitability of the present method for quantitative metabolomics, fluxomics, and discovery metabolite profiling.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Cinética , Metaboloma , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
20.
Nutr Cancer ; 60(4): 518-25, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18584486

RESUMO

Malignancy depletes host glutathione (GSH) levels to increase treatment-related toxicity and increases itself to resist the treatments. Our previous studies have shown that dietary glutamine (GLN) prevented 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors through enhancing gut GSH release and reducing tumor GSH level. In addition, GSH synthesis, metabolism, and recycling are accomplished in gamma-glutamyl cycle. We hypothesized that the GLN prevention might be through a differential regulation of the gamma-glutamyl cycle enzymes. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into DMBA-tumor bearing, DMBA-treated, and control groups subdivided into GLN and water groups. GLN supplementation was given at 1 g/kg/day by gastric gavage. The activities and messenger RNA levels of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GTP), gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), 5-oxo-L-prolinase (OPase), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GTF), and glutaminase (GLNase) were determined in gut mucosa and breast tumor using specific enzyme assays and semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. GLN upregulated gut GTP, GCS, OPase, and GLNase in DMBA-tumor bearing, DMBA-treated, and/or control rats; however, it downregulated these enzymes in the tumor. The paradoxical effect of GLN on key GSH recycling enzymes in the gut versus tumor suggests that dietary supplemental GLN could be used in the clinical practice to increase the therapeutic index of cancer treatments by protecting normal tissues from, and sensitizing tumor cells to, chemotherapy and radiation-related injury.


Assuntos
9,10-Dimetil-1,2-benzantraceno , Carcinógenos , Glutamina/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/enzimologia , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Glutaminase/genética , Glutaminase/metabolismo , Glutationa/análise , Mucosa Intestinal/química , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/induzido quimicamente , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/genética , Piroglutamato Hidrolase/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , gama-Glutamiltransferase/genética , gama-Glutamiltransferase/metabolismo
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