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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 174, 2022 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among live wild mammals adapted to urban and peri-urban habitats in Europe, members of the families Felidae, Mustelidae and Sciuridae deserve special attention as pathogen reservoirs because all of these families include members that are kept as pets. We report here the results of our study on two important groups of tick-borne protozoan parasites in ticks and tissues of wild cats, mustelids and red squirrels. METHODS: DNA was extracted from the tissues of carnivores (wild cats, mustelids; n = 16) and red squirrels (n = 4), as well as from ixodid ticks (n = 89) collected from these hosts. These DNA extracts were screened for piroplasms and Hepatozoon spp. using conventional PCR analysis and sequencing. In addition, 53 pooled samples of 259 questing Haemaphysalis concinna ticks were evaluated for the presence of Hepatozoon DNA, followed by phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS: One wild cat was found to be coinfected with Cytauxzoon europaeus and a new genotype of Hepatozoon felis, and two additional wild cats were infected with H. felis from a different phylogenetic group. In mustelids, Hepatozoon martis and two further Hepatozoon genotypes were detected. The latter clustered separately, close to others reported from eastern Asia. In addition, Hepatozoon sciuri was detected in red squirrels. Morphologic and molecular analyses verified eight tick species. One wild cat was infected with a H. felis genotype that was significantly different from that in Ixodes ricinus females infesting this cat. Only three pools of questing H. concinna nymphs tested positive for Hepatozoon, one of which contained H. martis. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence of the occurrence of any Cytauxzoon species and of three Hepatozoon species in Hungary. In addition to H. martis, two further mustelid-associated Hepatozoon genotypes were detected, one of which was new in terms of phylogenetic and broader geographical contexts. This may be the first indication that H. felis genotypes from both of its phylogenetic groups occur in Europe. This also appears to be the first evidence of H. felis and C. europaeus coinfection in felids in Europe, and of autochthonous H. felis infection in wild cats north of the Mediterranean Basin. New tick-host associations were also observed in this study. Based on the results, H. felis and H. martis might survive transstadially in I. ricinus and H. concinna, respectively.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa , Eucoccidiida , Felis , Haemosporida , Ixodes , Ixodidae , Mustelidae , Parasitos , Piroplasmida , Animais , Apicomplexa/genética , Eucoccidiida/genética , Feminino , Hungria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Piroplasmida/genética , Sciuridae
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 19, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytauxzoon spp. infection is believed to be a newly emerging tick-borne disease in felids in Europe, with three species of the haemoparasite having recently been differentiated in wild felids. In Switzerland, rare infections have been documented in domestic cats in the west and northwest of the country, the first of which was in 2014. The aims of the present study were: (i) to characterize a Cytauxzoon spp. hotspot in domestic cats in central Switzerland; (ii) to elucidate the geographic distribution of Cytauxzoon spp. in domestic cats in Switzerland; (iii) to assess suspected high-risk populations, such as stray and anaemic cats; and (iv) to investigate the newly emerging nature of the infection. Cytauxzoon spp. were further differentiated using mitochondrial gene sequencing. METHODS: The overall study included samples from 13 cats from two households in central Switzerland (study A), 881 cats from all regions of Switzerland (study B), 91 stray cats from a hotspot region in the northwest of Switzerland and 501 anaemic cats from across Switzerland (study C), and 65 Swiss domestic cats sampled in 2003 and 34 European wildcats from eastern France sampled in the period 1995-1996 (study D). The samples were analysed for Cytauxzoon spp. using real-time TaqMan quantitative PCR, and positive samples were subjected to 18S rRNA, cytochrome b (CytB) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequencing. RESULTS: In study A, six of 13 cats from two neighbouring households in central Switzerland tested postive for Cytauxzoon spp.; two of the six infected cats died from bacterial infections. In studies B and C, only one of the 881 cats (0.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0-0.3%) in the countrywide survey and one of the 501 anaemic cats (0.2%; 95% CI: 0-0.6%) tested postive for Cytauxzoon spp. while eight of the 91 stray cats in the northwest of Switzerland tested positive (8.8%; 95% CI: 3.0-14.6%). In study D, Cytauxzoon spp. was detected in one of the 65 domestic cat samples from 2003 (1.5%; 95% CI: 0-4.5%) and in ten of the 34 European wildcat samples from 1995 to 1996 (29%; 95% CI: 14.2-44.7%). The isolates showed ≥ 98.6% sequence identities among the 18S rRNA, CytB and COI genes, respectively, and fell in the subclade Cytauxzoon europaeus based on CytB and COI gene phylogenetic analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The study challenges the newly emerging nature of Cytauxzoon spp. in central Europe and confirms that isolates from domestic cats in Switzerland and European wild felids belong to the same species.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Felidae/parasitologia , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Filogenia , Piroplasmida/classificação , Piroplasmida/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 121(5): 1207-1245, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35098377

RESUMO

The order Piroplasmida, including the genera Babesia, Cytauxzoon, and Theileria is often referred to as piroplasmids and comprises of dixenous hemoprotozoans transmitted by ticks to a mammalian or avian host. Although piroplasmid infections are usually asymptomatic in wild animals, in domestic animals, they cause serious or life-threatening consequences resulting in fatalities. Piroplasmids are particularly notorious for the enormous economic loss they cause worldwide in livestock production, the restrictions they pose on horse trade, and the negative health impact they have on dogs and cats. Furthermore, an increasing number of reported human babesiosis cases are of growing concern. Considerable international research and epidemiological studies are done to identify existing parasite species, reveal their phylogenetic relationships, and develop improved or new drugs and vaccines to mitigate their impact. In this review, we present a compilation of all piroplasmid species, isolates, and species complexes that infect domestic mammals and which have been well defined by molecular phylogenetic markers. Altogether, 57 taxonomic piroplasmid entities were compiled, comprising of 43 piroplasmid species, 12 well-defined isolates awaiting formal species description, and two species complexes that possibly mask additional species. The extrapolation of the finding of at least 57 piroplasmid species in only six domestic mammalian groups (cattle, sheep, goat, horse, dog, and cat) allows us to predict that a substantially higher number of piroplasmid parasites than vertebrate host species exist. Accordingly, the infection of a vertebrate host species by multiple piroplasmid species from the same and/or different phylogenetic lineages is commonly observed. Molecular phylogeny using 18S rRNA genes of piroplasmids infecting domestic mammals results in the formation of six clades, which emerge due to an anthropocentric research scope, but not due to a possibly assumed biological priority position. Scrutinizing the topology of inferred trees reveals stunning insights into some evolutionary patterns exhibited by this intriguing group of parasites. Contrary to expectations, diversification of parasite species appears to be dominated by host-parasite cospeciation (Fahrenholz's rule), and, except for piroplasmids that segregate into Clade VI, host switching is rarely observed. When only domestic mammalian hosts are taken into account, Babesia sensu lato (s.l.) parasites of Clades I and II infect only dogs and cats, respectively, Cytauxzoon spp. placed into Clade III only infect cats, Theileria placed into Clade IV exclusively infect horses, wheras Theileria sensu stricto (s.s.) of Clade V infects only cattle and small ruminants. In contrast, Babesia s.s. parasites of Clade VI infect all farm and companion animal species. We outline how the unique ability of transovarial transmission of Babesia s.s. piroplasmids of Clade VI facilitates species diversification by host switching to other host vertebrate species. Finally, a deterioration of sequence fidelity in databases is observed which will likely lead to an increased risk of artifactual research in this area. Possible measures to reverse and/or avoid this threat are discussed.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Haemosporida , Piroplasmida , Theileria , Animais , Babesiose/parasitologia , Gatos , Bovinos , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fazendas , Haemosporida/genética , Cavalos , Mamíferos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Ovinos/genética , Theileria/genética
4.
J Vet Intern Med ; 36(1): 126-132, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytauxzoon felis is a life-threatening protozoan disease of cats. Identification of schizont-laden macrophages is a point-of-care diagnostic test for acute cytauxzoonosis. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The primary objective determined cytologic agreement between sample types to diagnose acute cytauxzoonosis. The secondary objective evaluated novices' ability to identify cytauxzoon organisms in blood films and tissue aspirates. ANIMALS: Thirty-eight cats with suspected acute cytauxzoonosis and 5 controls examined postmortem. METHODS: Cases were prospectively submitted and collected. Blood film, lymph node, and splenic aspirates were blindly reviewed for sample quality, presence of schizont-laden macrophages, and agreement between sample types. A subset of cases and controls were evaluated by 12 blinded novice observers to determine sensitivity and specificity for identifying organisms in various sample types. RESULTS: Acute cytauxzoonosis diagnosis was made on at least 1 sample type in 28/38 cats. Schizont-laden macrophages were seen on 33% (10/30) of blood films, 56% (19/34) lymph node aspirates, 77% (26/34) splenic aspirates. Schizont-laden macrophages were more likely seen on splenic than lymph node aspirates (McNemar's, P = .03) or blood film (McNemar's, P = <.001). Novice observers were more likely to agree with experts when identifying schizont-laden macrophages in splenic aspirates (sensitivity = 77.1%, specificity = 94.4%) versus lymph node aspirates (sensitivity = 52.8%, specificity = 96.4%) or blood films (sensitivity = 41.7%, specificity = 96.9%). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Schizont-laden macrophages are most frequently identified in spleen, even by novice observers. If the diagnosis of acute cytauxzoonosis cannot be confirmed via blood film, then splenic, followed by peripheral lymph node aspirates can be considered.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Felis , Piroplasmida , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(4): e013021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730707

RESUMO

To a better insight into the epidemiology and genetic diversity of protozoan hemoparasites infections in wild mammals, this study aimed to the post mortem detection of DNA from species of the order Piroplasmida (Babesia sp., Cytauxzoon sp., and Theileria sp.) and suborder Adelorina (Hepatozoon sp.) using polymerase chain reaction based on the 18S rRNA gene followed by genetic sequencing of blood and spleen samples collected from carcasses of 164 free-ranging and captive wild mammals from Mato Grosso state. Among them, one Leopardus pardalis, three Panthera onca, two Puma concolor were positive for Cytauxzoon sp., and six Tapirus terrestris tested positive for Piroplasmida, while one L. pardalis was positive for Hepatozoon sp. Furthermore, an uncharacterized piroplasmid genetically related to Theileria sp. previously detected in cats from Brazil was described in lowland tapirs. Despite the controversy regarding the epidemiological threat of these protozoa, the detection of these tick-borne agents in wild free-living and captive mammals, even when asymptomatic, demonstrates the importance of monitoring, particularly in hotspots such as the state of Mato Grosso, to verify the circulation and genetic diversity, to anticipate the possible emergence of diseases, and even their consequences to other animals as well as humans.


Assuntos
Babesia , Panthera , Piroplasmida , Animais , Babesia/genética , Brasil , Gatos , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Filogenia , Piroplasmida/genética
6.
J Parasitol ; 107(5): 776-778, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473290

RESUMO

Feline cytauxzoonosis is a disease caused by Cytauxzoon felis, a protozoan that infects the red blood cells and macrophages. It is responsible for an acute and often fatal disease in domestic cats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of C. felis infections in healthy cats. Piroplasm forms were seen in the erythrocytes of 2 cats, and C. felis DNA was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in one of them. The results demonstrate that erythrocytic piroplasmids associated with tick-borne parasitic protozoa may be found circulating in the blood of healthy cats in Rio de Janeiro. These can be differentiated from the morphologically similar forms of species such as Babesia by analysis of DNA, thereby demonstrating the potential for further studies of feline populations in Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Piroplasmida/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
7.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101784, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280696

RESUMO

Common vector-borne diseases of horses include equine piroplasmosis (EP) caused by Babesia caballi and Theileria equi, and equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA) caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Equine piroplasmosis leads to severe health issues in horses and restrictions on the movement of horses internationally. Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes an acute febrile illness in horses and is also of zoonotic importance. In the present study, blood samples were collected from 152 Turkish racehorses from three different provinces (Izmir, Gaziantep, and Konya) of Turkey to investigate the prevalence of EP and EGA. Standard and nested polymerase chain reactions were performed to identify equine piroplasms and A. phagocytophilum, respectively. PCR primers targeting Babesia spp. 18S rRNA, B. caballi BC48, T. equi EMA-1, and A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA genes were used for molecular diagnosis. Following the cloning and subsequent sequencing of PCR-positive samples, a total of 15 (9.9%) horses were found to be infected with at least one pathogen. Theileria equi and A. phagocytophilum were found in 3.3% (5/152) and 6.6% (10/152) of the samples, respectively. Although B. caballi specimens were not detected in any of the samples, a positive signal was detected for the Babesia genus-specific 18S rRNA PCR. Subsequent sequencing of this signal revealed 100% identity to Babesia ovis. This is the first detection of B. ovis DNA in racehorses in Turkey to the best of our knowledge. Additionally, this study also reports the first molecular identification of A. phagocytophilum in Turkish racehorses. Based on this report, it is recommended that future epidemiological studies on horses also take B. ovis, a parasite usually found in sheep, into consideration and that further detailed studies be conducted to unravel the transmission pathways and potential clinical effects of B. ovis in horses.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
8.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101765, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146934

RESUMO

Rangelia vitalii is a protozoan parasite that causes a hemorrhagic and hemolytic disease in dogs known as rangeliosis. Current reports of the disease are concentrated in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil, as well as in Uruguay, Argentina, and Paraguay, and mainly concern domestic dogs. South American wild canids, such as the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), the pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), and the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) may also be affected, although existing reports are restricted to Brazil. The present study aimed to detect R. vitalii parasitism in the Uruguayan wild fox population. DNA extracted from the blood and/or spleen samples of road-killed C. thous and L. gymnocercus found in northern Uruguay were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a 551-bp fragment of the Rangelia 18S rRNA gene. A total of 62 wild canids, including 38 C. thous and 24L. gymnocercus, were analyzed. Five crab-eating fox samples (13.2%) were positive for R. vitalii, with 99.5-100% identity between the sequences. All samples from pampas fox tested negative for R. vitalii. When compared with the R. vitalii sequences available in GenBank, a similarity of 98.9-100% was revealed. Molecular analysis results suggest that R. vitalii is circulating in the crab-eating fox population in Uruguay; however, its veterinary relevance for these foxes remains unknown.


Assuntos
Canidae , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Uruguai/epidemiologia
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(7): 1991-1993, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152971

RESUMO

An HIV-positive man from Zimbabwe living in South Africa sought treatment for multiple clinical signs, including fever, weight loss, anemia, and splenomegaly. We identified in his blood an African rodent piroplasm, Anthemosoma garnhami, related to Babesia species. This finding extends the known geographic and host range of A. garnhami.


Assuntos
Babesia , Infecções por HIV , Piroplasmida , Humanos , África do Sul , Zimbábue
10.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101731, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992911

RESUMO

Rangeliosis is a condition transmitted by the tick Amblyomma aureolatum and caused by the protozoan parasite Rangelia vitalii in canids. In domestic dogs, the disease causes a severe hemolytic disease, while in wild canids the piroplasm is often detected without any clinical abnormality. This study aimed to detect and quantify the number of copies of the R. vitalii Hsp70 gene (indirect parasite burden) in several organs of domestic and South American wild canids (Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex gymnocercus) to elucidate distinct clinical presentations of rangeliosis in these species. A total of seven domestic dogs that died due to rangeliosis and 38 wild foxes were initially included, with all dogs presenting histological and molecular features of rangeliosis, while eight C. thous were positive at the molecular analysis for R. vitalii. Fragments of 22 organs collected from domestic (n = 7) and wild foxes (n = 8) were employed for histological and molecular quantification using real-time polymerase chain reaction aiming at the Hsp70 gene. Histologically, parasitophorous vacuoles were constantly detected in the dogs, while these were detected only in two C. thous. Parasitic burden was significantly higher in the digestive, cardiorespiratory, endocrine, genitourinary, and skeletal-muscle systems of domestic dogs when compared to wild foxes. In the hematopoietic system of wild canids, some organs, such as the lymph nodes and tonsils, presented significantly lower amounts of R. vitalii, while other organs (spleen, bone marrow, and blood) had results similar to those of domestic dogs. Additionally, the central nervous system of both domestic and wild canids presented a similar quantity of R. vitalii. The etiological agent is possibly maintained through an asexual reproductive process (merogony) in both domestic and wild species. Nonetheless, a limited or short-duration schizogony phase occurs in C. thous, which would designate this species as a possible reservoir host for the agent. Dogs, in contrast, would most likely act as accidental hosts, presenting a severe and more pathogenic schizogony phase, resulting in characteristic clinical and pathological rangeliosis.


Assuntos
Canidae/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão , Piroplasmida , Animais , DNA de Protozoário , Reservatórios de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Piroplasmida/genética , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/transmissão
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 292: 109413, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765571

RESUMO

Cytauxzoonosis is a tick-borne disease of domestic cats with high mortality and narrow therapeutic window, particularly in the southcentral and southeastern United States. The causative agent is the apicomplexan protozoal parasite Cytauxzoon felis and is primarily transmitted by Amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent cytauxzoonosis and treatment is often ineffective if not initiated early enough in the course of disease. Early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention are therefore crucial for the survival of infected cats. Several methods are available for diagnosis of cytauxzoonosis, with PCR being the most sensitive. However, current PCR assays, which employ double-stranded DNA intercalating dyes to detect C. felis infection, have inherent limitations such as the potential for false positive detection of non-specific amplification products and inability to provide absolute quantification of parasite load. The objective of this study was to develop a probe-based droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay capable of detection and quantification of C. felis load over time and during treatment. The C. felis ddPCR assay was able to (i) reliably detect and quantify C. felis DNA in clinical blood samples from cats with acute cytauxzoonosis and (ii) monitor clinical parasite load in response to anti-protozoal treatment through absolute quantification of C. felis DNA over time. When tested on blood samples from cats with experimental C. felis infection, the assay was able to detect infection in cats as early as 24 h prior to the development of clinical signs. In addition, we demonstrate that this probe-based design can be utilized in traditional real-time PCR systems, with similar detection capabilities as compared to ddPCR. The C. felis probe-based ddPCR was also able to detect infection in samples with lower parasite loads when compared to existing nested PCR assays, although these results were not significant due to small sample size. To the author's knowledge, this is the first reported probe-based ddPCR assay to detect Cytauxzoon felis infection in domestic cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 290: 109344, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465567

RESUMO

Protists of the genus Cytauxzoon infect a wide variety of wild and domestic felids worldwide. While the American Cytauxzoon felis has been well described, data on the European isolates of Cytauxzoon are still scant. The aim of the current study was to determine the genetic diversity of European Cytauxzoon spp. in wild felids across Europe by analyzing one nuclear and two mitochondrial genes, along with representative complete mitochondrial genomes. Overall, 106 biological samples from wild felids (92 from Felis silvestris and 14 from Lynx lynx) from Germany, Romania, Czech Republic, and Luxembourg were collected and screened for the presence of Cytauxzoon spp. using nested PCR protocols, targeting the highly conserved 18S rDNA, mitochondrial cytochrome b (CytB) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes. Furthermore, 18 previously confirmed wild felid biological samples from Europe, and comparative material from USA positive for C. felis, were included in the study. In 18S rDNA sequences analyses, Cytauxzoon spp. from felids formed two separate clades of New World and Old World isolates, with a low inner diversity of the European clade. In contrast to 18S rDNA, the phylogenetic analyses of CytB and COI genes affirmatively revealed three highly supported clades, resulting in three defined genotypes. Similar intra- and interspecific variability of CytB and COI genes was observed in the case of different Babesia spp. Considering geography, host species and analyses of three genes, we conclude that the three detected genotypes of Cytauxzoon in European wild felids represent three new species, which we herein describe.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Felidae/parasitologia , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Europa (Continente) , Genoma Mitocondrial , Genoma de Protozoário , Filogenia , Piroplasmida/classificação , Piroplasmida/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(1): 101558, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010631

RESUMO

The wild boar (Sus scrofa) population has increased dramatically over the last decades throughout Europe and it has become a serious pest. In addition, the common habitat of wild boar and of the tick, Ixodes ricinus, indicates the potential of wild boar to play a role in epidemiology of epizootic and zoonotic tick-borne pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In Europe, epidemiological cycles and reservoirs of A. phagocytophilum, including its zoonotic haplotypes, are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on detection and further genetic characterization of A. phagocytophilum and piroplasmids in 550 wild boars from eleven districts of Moravia and Silesia in the Czech Republic. Using highly sensitive nested PCR targeting the groEL gene, the DNA of A. phagocytophilum was detected in 28 wild boars (5.1 %) representing six unique haplotypes. The dominant haplotype was found in 21 samples from 7 different districts. All detected haplotypes clustered in the largest clade representing the European ecotype I and the dominant haplotype fell to the subclade with the European human cases and strains from dogs and horses. Nested PCR targeting the variable region of the 18S rRNA gene of piroplasmids resulted in one positive sample with 99.8 % sequence identity to Babesia divergens. The presence of these two pathogens that are primarily circulated by I. ricinus confirms the local participation of wild boar in the host spectrum of this tick and warrants experimental studies to address wild boar as a reservoir of zoonotic haplotypes of A. phagocytophilum.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Variação Genética , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , Babesiose/parasitologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Genes Bacterianos , Genes de Protozoários , Piroplasmida/genética , Prevalência , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
14.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(1): 101590, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113477

RESUMO

Seasonal migration of birds between breeding and wintering areas can facilitate the spread of tick species and tick-borne diseases. In this study, 151 birds representing 10 different bird species were captured on Ponza Island, an important migratory stopover off the western coast of Italy and screened for tick infestation. Ticks were collected and identified morphologically. Morphological identification was supported through sequencing a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial gene. In total, 16 captured birds carried ticks from four tick species: Hyalomma rufipes (n = 14), Amblyomma variegatum (n = 1), Amblyomma sp. (n = 1), and Ixodes ventalloi (n = 2). All specimens were either larvae (n = 2) or nymphs (n = 16). All ticks were investigated for tick-borne pathogens using published molecular methods. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in six of the 14 collected H. rufipes ticks. Additionally, the singular A. variegatum nymph tested positive for R. africae. In all 14 H. rufipes specimens (2 larvae and 12 nymphs), Francisella-like endosymbionts were detected. Four H. rufipes ticks tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a screening PCR but did not produce sufficient amplicon amounts for species identification. All ticks tested negative for tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Coxiella burnetii, Coxiella-like organisms, Babesia spp., and Theileria spp. This study confirms the role of migratory birds in the spread and establishment of both exotic tick species and tick-borne pathogens outside their endemic range.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Aves Canoras , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Incidência , Ilhas , Itália/epidemiologia , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/parasitologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/parasitologia , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 120(1): 301-310, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244622

RESUMO

Piroplasmida is an order of the phylum Apicomplexa that comprises the Babesia, Cytauxzoon, and Theileria genera. These hemoparasites infect vertebrate blood cells and may cause serious diseases in animals and humans. Even though previous studies have shown that bats are infected by different species of piroplasmids, the occurrence and diversity of these hemoparasites have not been investigated in this group of mammals in Brazil. Therefore, the present work aimed to investigate the occurrence and assess the phylogenetic placement of piroplasmids infecting bats sampled in a peri-urban area from Central-Western Brazil. Seventeen (12.6%) out of 135 animals were positive by nested PCR assay for the detection of Babesia/Theileria targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Eleven sequences of the 17 positive samples could be analyzed and showed an identity of 91.8-100% with Theileria bicornis, Babesia vogeli, a Babesia sp. identified in a small rodent (Thrichomys pachyurus) from the Brazilian Pantanal and a Babesia sp. identified in a dog from Thailand as assessed by nBLAST. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from an alignment of 1399 bp length using analyzed and known piroplasmid 18S rRNA sequences. In this tree, piroplasmid 18S rRNA sequences detected in three specimens of Phyllostomus discolor (Piroplasmid n. sp., P. discolor) were placed as a sister taxon to Theileria sensu stricto (Clade V) and Babesia sensu stricto (Clade VI). An additional phylogenetic tree was generated from a shorter alignment of 524 bp length including analyzed piroplasmid 18S rRNA sequences of bat species Artibeus planirostris and A. lituratus (Piroplasmid sp., Artibeus spp.). The two 18S rRNA sequences detected in Artibeus spp. (Piroplasmid n. sp., Artibeus spp.) were placed within Babesia sensu stricto (Clade VI) into a strongly supported clade (bootstrap: 100) that included Babesia vogeli. The two 18S rRNA sequences of Piroplasmid sp., Artibeus spp. showed a single and a two-nucleotide differences, respectively, with respect to B. vogeli in a 709 pb length alignment. For the first time, the present study shows the occurrence of putative new piroplasmid species in non-hematophagous bats from Brazil.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesia/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cães , Filogenia , Piroplasmida/classificação , Piroplasmida/genética , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Theileria/genética
16.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 62(2): 141-149, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245609

RESUMO

Cytauxzoon felis is a tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasite that often causes fatal disease in domestic cats. Histological studies have described substantial pulmonary pathology due to cytauxzoonosis. Published reports were not found describing the thoracic radiographic signs associated with acute cytauxzoonosis in cats. The purpose of this retrospective descriptive study was to describe thoracic radiographic findings in a group of felines with confirmed acute cytauxzoonosis. A total of 37 cats with confirmed cytauxzoonosis and with available thoracic radiographs were included. A subset of 7 cats in this sample also had histopathologic evaluation of their lung parenchyma. Thoracic radiographs were retrieved and reviewed. A bronchial pulmonary pattern was identified as the most common finding (n = 27/37; 73%). Other radiographic findings included cardiomegaly (n = 19/37; 51%), interstitial pattern (n = 17/37; 46%), pleural effusion (n = 12/37; 32%), arterial vascular distension (n = 10/37; 27%), arterial and venous distension (n = 10/37; 27%), and venous distension (n = 1/37; 3%). The primary histological features present in 7 cats with additional histopathologic evaluation, similar to previously published studies, were vascular occlusion. Our study suggests that, despite severe histologic evidence of disease, there are no pathognomonic thoracic radiographic findings in cats with acute cytauxzoonosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Piroplasmida , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Gatos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e013021, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1347269

RESUMO

Abstract To a better insight into the epidemiology and genetic diversity of protozoan hemoparasites infections in wild mammals, this study aimed to the post mortem detection of DNA from species of the order Piroplasmida (Babesia sp., Cytauxzoon sp., and Theileria sp.) and suborder Adelorina (Hepatozoon sp.) using polymerase chain reaction based on the 18S rRNA gene followed by genetic sequencing of blood and spleen samples collected from carcasses of 164 free-ranging and captive wild mammals from Mato Grosso state. Among them, one Leopardus pardalis, three Panthera onca, two Puma concolor were positive for Cytauxzoon sp., and six Tapirus terrestris tested positive for Piroplasmida, while one L. pardalis was positive for Hepatozoon sp. Furthermore, an uncharacterized piroplasmid genetically related to Theileria sp. previously detected in cats from Brazil was described in lowland tapirs. Despite the controversy regarding the epidemiological threat of these protozoa, the detection of these tick-borne agents in wild free-living and captive mammals, even when asymptomatic, demonstrates the importance of monitoring, particularly in hotspots such as the state of Mato Grosso, to verify the circulation and genetic diversity, to anticipate the possible emergence of diseases, and even their consequences to other animals as well as humans.


Resumo Para uma melhor compreensão da epidemiologia e diversidade genética das infecções por hemoprotozoários em mamíferos selvagens, este estudo teve como objetivo a detecção post mortem de DNA de espécies da ordem Piroplasmida (Babesia sp., Cytauxzoon sp. e Theileria sp.) e subordem Adelorina (Hepatozoon sp.), utilizando-se a reação em cadeia pela polimerase, baseada no gene 18S rRNA, seguido de sequenciamento genético de amostras de sangue e baço, coletadas de 164 carcaças de mamíferos selvagens de vida livre e cativos do estado de Mato Grosso. Entre eles, um Leopardus pardalis, três Panthera onca, dois Puma concolor foram positivos para Cytauxzoon sp., e seis Tapirus terrestris testaram positivos para Piroplasmida, enquanto um L. pardalis foi positivo para Hepatozoon sp. Além disso, foi descrito em antas, um piroplasmídeo não caracterizado geneticamente, relacionado à Theileria sp., previamente detectado em gatos do Brasil. Apesar da controvérsia quanto à ameaça epidemiológica desses protozoários, a detecção desses agentes em mamíferos silvestres e cativos, mesmo quando assintomáticos, demonstra a importância do monitoramento, principalmente em hotspots, como no estado de Mato Grosso, para verificar a circulação e a diversidade genética, a fim de antecipar o possível surgimento de doenças e, até mesmo, suas consequências para outros animais, bem como os humanos.


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Babesia/genética , Piroplasmida/genética , Panthera , Filogenia , Brasil , DNA de Protozoário/genética
18.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 21: 100426, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862911

RESUMO

Vector-borne pathogens are responsible for serious emerging diseases and Rangelia vitalii, the etiologic agent of canine rangeliosis, is one of the most pathogenic tick-borne pathogens for dogs in South America. This protozoan is transmitted by the Amblyomma aureolatum tick bite and the clinical features associated to the disease are fever, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and bleeding from natural orifices, mainly from the ear egde. The reports of canine rangeliosis in Argentina are scarce. In the present study we report the detection of Rangelia vitalii in a naturally infected dog from Gualeguay, Entre Ríos, Argentina with history of tick infestation and clinical signs compatible with rangeliosis. An initial blood sample was positive to piroplasmids by blood smear examination and the molecular amplification of a fragment of the 18SrRNA gene. Sequencing of the fragment confirmed the pathogen identity. After treatment with imidocarb dipropionate, the clinical signs remitted and the blood smear tested negative.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Animais , Argentina , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Masculino , Piroplasmida/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise
19.
Infez Med ; 28(3): 373-383, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920573

RESUMO

Tick-borne pathogens are etiological agents of some zoonotic diseases, causing important consequences in animal and human health. These are emerging around the world, especially in tropical countries including Colombia. Domestic dogs play an essential role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. We performed the detection of bacteria from Anaplasmataceae family and parasites from the Piroplasmida order, in 85 domestic dogs from Soledad municipality, Atlantico, Colombia. Peripheral blood smears, detection by duplex PCR assay (ss rRNA 16S, from bacteria and the ITS-1, of ribosomal DNA from parasites), and DNA sequencing by Sanger method were done. Taxonomic identification was made by phylogenetics analysis of the DNA sequences. The gene sequences analysis showed that 12.9% of the dogs were infected with Anaplasma spp. Infection was higher in young dogs (OR=4.72, 95%CI 1.267-17.584). Besides that, 3.5% of them showed inclusions (morulae) compatible with bacteria from the order Rickettsiales. A coinfection with Babesia spp. and a Rickettsiales bacterial pathogens was found. The frequency of Anaplasma spp. detected in domestic dogs in Soledad highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control measures, to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among ticks, dogs and humans exposed in the area.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Animais de Estimação , Piroplasmida/genética , Saúde da População Urbana
20.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3005-3011, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677003

RESUMO

Cytauxzoonosis is described as an emerging tick-borne disease of domestic and wild felids caused by protozoans of the genus Cytauxzoon. While in the Americas the condition is described as a fatal disease, in Europe, reports on the clinical expression of the infection are scarce. This study describes the first case of Cytauxzoon sp. infection in Germany, in a domestic cat. A 6-year-old male domestic cat living in Saarlouis (Saarland) was presented with anorexia, lethargy and weight loss. The cat had an outdoor lifestyle and had not travelled abroad. Serum clinical chemistry analysis revealed azotaemia with markedly increased symmetric dimethylarginine, hypercreatinemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypoalbuminemia. Moreover, a mild non-regenerative anaemia was present. Approximately 1 year prior to these findings, the domestic cat was diagnosed with a feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. These results pointed toward a decreased glomerular filtration rate, presumably as a result of kidney dysfunction. Round to oval signet ring-shaped intraerythrocytic organisms, morphologically suggestive for a piroplasm, were revealed during blood smear evaluation with a degree of parasitaemia of 33.0%. PCR analyses and sequencing of a region of the 18S rRNA gene confirmed the presence of a Cytauxzoon sp. infection, with 99-100% nucleotide sequence identity with previously published Cytauxzoon sp. isolates. As this is the first molecularly confirmed Cytauxzoon sp. infection in a domestic cat in Germany, these findings suggest that cytauxzoonosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of anaemia in outdoor domestic cats, particularly in areas where wild felid populations are present.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Gatos , Alemanha , Masculino , Piroplasmida/classificação , Piroplasmida/genética , Piroplasmida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
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