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1.
Primates ; 62(6): 871-877, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586529

RESUMO

Ants are the dominant group of animals in many habitats, particularly in tropical rainforests. High abundance and formation of large colonies convert them into a potential food source for a broad spectrum of animals. In this paper we review myrmecovory (consumption of ants) in Neotropical primates. Myrmecovory has been reported from 57 taxa (species + subspecies) out of 217 species of Neotropical primates, representing 18 out of 22 genera. The proportion of ants in the animal portion of the diet is highest amongst members of the genera Cebus, Sapajus, Cheracebus and Plecturocebus, but generally low in callitrichids, large pitheciids (Cacajao, Chiropotes) and atelids. Ants from seven subfamilies of Formicidae (out of 13 subfamilies found in the Neotropics) are consumed, including taxa with and without functional sting and with varying other defences. Foraging technics employed in myrmecovory range from picking ants from open substrates to extractive foraging involving the destruction of ant nests or shelters, but tool use has not been reported. We conclude that myrmecovory is widespread amongst Neotropical primates but on average contributes only a minor proportion of the diet. The diversity of foraging technics employed and lack of tool use in Neotropical primate myrmecovory, even for ants with functional stings and aggressive biting, suggests that tool use for myrmecovory in hominids has not evolved in response to ant defences but is a consequence of enhanced cognitive skills that evolved under other selection pressures.


Assuntos
Formigas , Pitheciidae , Animais , Dieta , Ecossistema
2.
Am J Primatol ; 83(3): e23237, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528872

RESUMO

There is wide variability in primate behavior and ecology. Understanding how frugivorous primates behave under different habitat fragmentation levels is key for effective conservation and management of species and their habitats. We evaluated the seasonality in activity budget, diet, and ranging behavior of two groups of Endangered Coimbra-Filho's titi monkeys (Callicebus coimbrai). One group inhabited a 14-ha forest fragment, whereas the other lived in a 522-ha fragment. We measured the monthly density of trees and lianas available as food sources over 8 months. We also collected behavioral and group location data every 5 min, from dawn to dusk, using the scan sampling method. The two forest fragments differed seasonally in the number of fruiting food-resource available. In the 14-ha fragment, we found that the time spent by titi monkeys feeding, foraging, resting, and traveling differed seasonally. In the 522-ha fragment, titi monkeys exhibited seasonal differences in time spent sleeping, socializing, foraging, and revisiting food sources. In both titi monkey groups, diets varied seasonally. Our findings indicate that Coimbra-Filho's titi monkeys can exhibit behavioral flexibility in their activity budgets, diets, and movement patterns. Such flexibility is important for this species to survive in fragmented habitats and may be linked to three key factors: species-specific resource availability, plant species diversity, and the vegetation structure of each forest fragment.


Assuntos
Callicebus , Pitheciidae , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Haplorrinos
3.
Am J Primatol ; 83(6): e23177, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720418

RESUMO

The modern pitheciids (titis, sakis, and uakaris) of northern South America represent one of the earliest radiations of platyrrhines and demonstrate morphological adaptations and ecological strategies for seed eating. While seeds can provide reliable resources for relatively long periods of time, they are often well protected by thick husks and hard seed coverings. Seeds also tend to be rich in lipids, but they may also be high in indigestible fiber. Even though seed eaters are found in each major primate radiation, only the pitheciids demonstrate primary adaptations for eating seeds. In this partly historical, partly contemporary review, I examine the ecological and anatomical correlates of seed eating. It is dedicated to two well-known field primatologists: ecologist and conservationist J. Márcio Ayres; and anatomist and ecologist Warren G. Kinzey. Using observations in Kinzey (1992, Am J Phys Anthropol, 88, pp. 499-514) as a framework, I provide context and analysis for the intervening three decades of pitheciid research to identify what we know about this understudied group of primates and propose directions for future work.


Assuntos
Pitheciidae , Animais , América do Sul
4.
Primates ; 62(1): 199-206, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862373

RESUMO

Terrestriality in Platyrrhine primates is primarily associated with low arboreal resource availability, low predation risk when on the ground and increased contact time with human observers. To test the relationship between these variables and ground use frequency, we studied a group of endangered Coimbra-Filho's titi monkeys (Callicebus coimbrai) in a 14-ha forest fragment in north-eastern Brazil. Terrestriality data were collected on a monthly basis (33 months) using scan sampling procedures from July 2008 to July 2012. Overall, Coimbra-Filho's titi monkeys were recorded during 0.6% of observation time (113 out of 18,164 scans) on the ground. Most of the time on the ground was spent feeding on young leaves (71 records) and the least amount of time on fruits (14 records). Availability of arboreal foods, rainfall, and time of contact with human observers did not influence overall terrestrial behaviour (ground use). However, the timing and nature of the monkeys' terrestrial feeding was strongly related to the absence of arboreal fruit (ß-estimate = -3.078) and young leaf (ß-estimate = -3.515) food resources. We suggest that terrestrial feeding by Coimbra-Filho's titi monkeys could be an adaptation to low arboreal fruit availability and the exploitation of alternative food resources.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Pitheciidae/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Dieta , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Frutas , Masculino , Folhas de Planta , Estações do Ano
5.
Am J Primatol ; 83(5): e23225, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368565

RESUMO

Patterns of ranging behavior and space use are key for evaluating current ideas about the evolution and maintenance of pair-living and sexual monogamy as they provide insights into the dispersion of females, the potential for territoriality, and whether males are limited to defending an area that can support only one female and her offspring. We examined ranging behavior and space use to evaluate the potential for territoriality in five groups of red titi monkeys (Plecturocebus discolor) during a 10-year study in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Mean home range size, calculated using a time-sensitive local convex hull estimation procedure, was 4.0 ± 1.4 ha. Annual home ranges of neighboring groups overlapped, on average, 0%-7%. Mean daily path length was 670 ± 194 m, resulting in defendability indices of 2.2-3.6 across groups. Groups visited, on average, 4 of 12 sections of their home range border area per day, but that was not more often than would be expected by chance, and intergroup encounters were infrequent. We did not find evidence of active monitoring for intruders in border areas, in that groups did not travel either faster or slower when at the border than when in central areas of their range. The absence of overt monitoring might be compensated for by engaging in loud calls, which the study groups did throughout their home ranges; these calls may serve as an advertisement of occupancy and a deterrent to intruding conspecifics. Our finding that red titis have a high potential for territoriality is consistent with several of the main hypotheses proposed to explain pair-living in mammals.


Assuntos
Pitheciidae , Territorialidade , Animais , Brasil , Callicebus , Feminino , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Masculino
6.
Am J Primatol ; 82(9): e23167, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652664

RESUMO

Cheracebus is a new genus of New World primate of the family Pitheciidae, subfamily Callicebinae. Until recently, Cheracebus was classified as the torquatus species group of the genus Callicebus. The genus Cheracebus has six species: C. lucifer, C. lugens, C. regulus, C. medemi, C. torquatus, and C. purinus, which are all endemic to the Amazon biome. Before the present study, there had been no conclusive interpretation of the phylogenetic relationships among most of the Cheracebus species. The present study tests the monophyly of the genus and investigates the relationships among the different Cheracebus species, based on DNA sequencing of 16 mitochondrial and nuclear markers. The phylogenetic analyses were based on Maximum Likelihood, Bayesian Inference, and multispecies coalescent approaches. The divergence times and genetic distances between the Cheracebus taxa were also estimated. The analyses confirmed the monophyly of the genus and a well-supported topology, with the following arrangement: ((C. torquatus, C. lugens), (C. lucifer (C. purinus, C. regulus))). A well-differentiated clade was also identified within part of the geographic range of C. lugens, which warrants further investigation to confirm its taxonomic status.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Pitheciidae/classificação , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Pitheciidae/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Am J Primatol ; 82(7): e23141, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415703

RESUMO

Mate guarding and coordinated behaviors between partners are important for the maintenance of monogamous pair bonds. To study the effects of a perceived unfamiliar social intruder on females' behavior, we used coppery titi monkeys (Plecturocebus cupreus). We examined the effects of male aggressive temperament on females' behavior and the effects of each behavior performed by the male on the same female behavior. Using a mirror, we simulated a social intruder in the home territory and scored behaviors using an established ethogram. Based on our analysis of self-directed behaviors, females do not recognize themselves in the mirror. We then used general linear mixed models to predict percent change in females' behaviors as a function of (a) males' temperament, (b) males' behavior, and (c) an interaction between males' temperament and behavior. Male temperament did not significantly predict female behavior for any of our best fitting models. For percent change in female lip-smacking, male lip-smacking significantly predicted female lip-smacking (ß = 0.74, SE = 0.22, t = 3.39; p = .004). There was a positive correlation between male and female agonistic behaviors such as back-arching/tail-lashing (ß = 0.51, SE = 0.23, t = 2.22; p = .04) and for anxiety-related behaviors such as leaving the partner (ß = 0.50, SE = 0.19, t = 2.68; p = .015), locomotion duration (ß = 0.19, SE = 0.06, t = 2.98; p = .02), and locomotion frequency (ß = 0.71, SE = 0.14, t = 5.17; p < .001). These findings on coordination of pair-mate behaviors may explain how titi monkeys display pair bond strength and ensure their reproductive success.


Assuntos
Ligação do Par , Pitheciidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Agressão , Animais , Ansiedade , Feminino , Masculino , Temperamento
8.
J Hum Evol ; 144: 102786, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402847

RESUMO

Homunculus patagonicus is a stem platyrrhine from the late Early Miocene, high-latitude Santa Cruz Formation, Argentina. Its distribution lies farther south than any extant platyrrhine species. Prior studies on the dietary specialization of Homunculus suggest either a mixed diet of fruit and leaves or a more predominantly fruit-eating diet. To gain further insight into the diet of Homunculus, we examined how the occlusal surfaces of the first and second lower molars of Homunculus change with wear by using three homology-free dental topographic measures: Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), orientation patch count rotated (OPCR), and relief index (RFI). We compared these data with wear series of three extant platyrrhine taxa: the folivorous Alouatta, and the frugivorous Ateles and Callicebus (titi monkeys now in the genus Plecturocebus). Previous studies found Alouatta and Ateles exhibit distinctive patterns of change in occlusal morphology with macrowear, possibly related to the more folivorous diet of the former. Based on previous suggestions that Homunculus was at least partially folivorous, we predicted that changes in dental topographic metrics with wear would follow a pattern more similar to that seen in Alouatta than in Ateles or Callicebus. However, wear-induced changes in Homunculus crown sharpness (DNE) and complexity (OPCR) are more similar to the pattern observed in the frugivorous Ateles and Callicebus. Based on similar wear modalities of the lower molars between Homunculus and Callicebus, we infer that Homunculus had a primarily frugivorous diet. Leaves may have provided an alternative dietary resource to accommodate fluctuation in seasonal fruiting abundance in the high-latitude extratropical environment of late Early Miocene Patagonia.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Pitheciidae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Argentina , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia
9.
J Med Primatol ; 49(4): 202-210, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is an important disease affecting captive non-human primates. The goal of this study was to assess the seroprevalence and pathological findings of toxoplasmosis in different species of captive primates. METHODS: Six captive neotropical primates died naturally due to Toxoplasma gondii infection and were necropsied. Tissue samples were evaluated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Serum samples from 57 captive neotropical and Old-world primates housed at the Belo Horizonte zoological garden were analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). RESULTS: Neotropical primates had lesions compatible with toxoplasmosis with immunolabeled intralesional T gondii. All Old-World primates (10/10), but only three neotropical primates (3/47), all belonging to the Sapajus apella species (3/6), were serologically positive. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a higher susceptibility of neotropical primates to toxoplasmosis. However, this study also supports the hypothesis that Sapajus apella may be naturally resistant.


Assuntos
Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Doenças dos Macacos , Pitheciidae , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Aotus trivirgatus , Brasil , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Leontopithecus , Masculino , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
10.
Am J Primatol ; 82(5): e23126, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227513

RESUMO

Effective management of threatened species requires accurate population size estimation and monitoring. However, reliable population size estimates are lacking for many endangered species. The critically endangered blond titi monkey (Callicebus barbarabrownae) is an endemic primate of the Caatinga biome in Northeastern Brazil. A previous assessment based on presence-only data estimated a minimum population size of 260 mature individuals in 2,636 km2 , and studies based on visual records suggested very low local relative abundance. However, this cryptic species is known to be difficult to visually detect. We played back recordings of C. barbarabrownae loud calls to count the number of responding groups in 34 sampling sites during 9 consecutive days in a 221-km2 study area. Repeated group counts at sites were used in N-mixture models, which account for imperfect detection, to estimate the number of groups in relation to dry forest area and distance to villages. We estimated a total of 91 groups in the study area. Considering the mean number of adults per group as three, we estimated a population of 273 adult individuals, resulting in a density of 2.3 individuals/km2 in the dry forest habitat. Detection probability was four times higher for surveys conducted between sunrise to midmorning than between midmorning to sunset. We also found that C. barbarabrownae abundance increases with increasing dry forest area and increasing distance to the nearest village, indicating the need to promote dry forest restoration in the Caatinga. As our results suggest a larger population of C. barbarabrownae than had been previously estimated for its entire distribution, our results suggest a need for similar assessments in other areas to reliably estimate the total population size. This study demonstrates how playback surveys coupled with N-mixture models can be used to estimate population sizes of acoustically-responsive primates, and thus contribute to more effective conservation management.


Assuntos
Pitheciidae , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Florestas , Densidade Demográfica
11.
Am J Primatol ; 82(6): e23134, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298003

RESUMO

As social animals, many primates use acoustic communication to maintain relationships. Vocal individuality has been documented in a diverse range of primate species and call types, many of which have presumably different functions. Auditory recognition of one's neighbors may confer a selective advantage if identifying conspecifics decreases the need to participate in costly territorial behaviors. Alternatively, vocal individuality may be nonadaptive and the result of a unique combination of genetics and environment. Pair-bonded primates, in particular, often participate in coordinated vocal duets that can be heard over long distances by neighboring conspecifics. In contrast to adult calls, infant vocalizations are short-range and used for intragroup communication. Here, we provide two separate but complementary analyses of vocal individuality in distinct call types of coppery titi monkeys (Plecturocebus cupreus) to test whether individuality occurs in call types from animals of different age classes with presumably different functions. We analyzed 600 trill vocalizations from 30 infants and 169 pulse-chirp duet vocalizations from 30 adult titi monkeys. We predicted that duet contributions would exhibit a higher degree of individuality than infant trills, given their assumed function for long-distance, intergroup communication. We estimated 7 features from infant trills and 16 features from spectrograms of adult pulse-chirps, then used discriminant function analysis with leave-one-out cross-validation to classify individuals. We correctly classified infants with 48% accuracy and adults with 83% accuracy. To further investigate variance in call features, we used a multivariate variance components model to estimate variance partitioning in features across two levels: within- and between-individuals. Between-individual variance was the most important source of variance for all features in adults, and three of four features in infants. We show that pulse-chirps of adult titi monkey duets are individually distinct, and infant trills are less individually distinct, which may be due to the different functions of the vocalizations.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Pitheciidae/psicologia , Vocalização Animal , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/psicologia , California , Feminino , Masculino
12.
Primates ; 61(3): 365-371, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215764

RESUMO

Conflict between caregivers and infants typically centers on disagreements over the amount and frequency of care provided. Prior research has identified many variables that impact patterns of mother-infant conflict. These include wide-ranging factors such as individual temperament, reproductive status, and availability of resources. By contrast, no studies have investigated the variables that influence father-infant conflict. To better understand the nature of caregiver-infant conflict in a species with obligate biparental care, I observed two groups of San Martin titi monkeys inhabiting disturbed secondary forest fragments in the San Martín region of Peru. Using instantaneous focal sampling of infants, I recorded physical conflict between infants and caregivers and instances of infant avoidance (leaving the infant) by adult males. I summarized data as the percentage of records in which these activities occurred for each focal day and report the estimates for caregivers. I further calculated mean percentages by month of infant age to assess the relative timing of infant conflict, for each group and age/sex class, and infant avoidance by males. Percentages of conflict and avoidance were markedly higher in the larger group living in a smaller habitat than in the other group. This pattern occurred across all age/sex classes. In both groups, the greatest amount of infant conflict occurred with siblings. I discuss the substantial variation in conflict and avoidance in relation to the various socioecological conditions that may have played a role. This study provides an in-depth description and exploration of parent-offspring and sibling conflict, which has not been examined previously in this species.


Assuntos
Agressão , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Pitheciidae/psicologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
13.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 330-333, out. - dez. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118967

RESUMO

Titi monkeys (family Pitheciidae) are Neotropical primates highly diversified in morphology, ecology and genetics, with a wide geographic distribution, including the Amazon, Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, Pantanal and Caatinga. This diversity, together with knowledge gaps, generates uncertainties in titi monkey taxonomy and distribution. An example is Plecturocebus baptista, with only 14 occurrence records and an ill-defined distribution based on untested geographical barriers. Here, we report the occurrence of this species at a new locality outside its known range, across the Paraná-Urariá River, which was considered a distributional limit for the species. The new record implies an overlap of P. baptista with the range of P. hoffmannsi. We document the sighting of an apparent hybrid animal. Our observations suggest that i) the distribution of P. baptista needs to be reviewed, and ii) the evolutionary relationships between P. baptista and P. hoffmannsi may be more complex than previously assumed. Since both species share contiguous areas of potential hybridization, we question whether the two species arose via allopatric speciation. (AU)


Assuntos
Ecossistema Amazônico , Biogeografia , Pitheciidae , Hibridização Genética
14.
Primates ; 60(6): 565-573, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506896

RESUMO

The genetic variability of New World primates is still poorly documented. We present the first genetic study on two threatened endemic titi monkey species in northern Bolivia (Plecturocebus modestus and Plecturocebus olallae) using six microsatellite markers to investigate genetic structure and variability of 54 individuals from two wild populations. A low level of genetic diversity was found (34 alleles in the total sampled population). Locus 1118 presented the greatest number of alleles. The mean number of alleles per locus in the total population was 5.6 and the average heterozygosity was 0.38 (range 0.12-0.88). The FIS value for the total population using all microsatellite loci shows a statistically significant heterozygote deficit. The inbreeding coefficients (FIS) were positive and significantly different from zero (0.064 for P. olallae and 0.213 for P. modestus). The genetic differentiation between populations (FST) was moderate with a pair-wise FST estimate of 0.14. Population structure analyses assigned the two populations to two differentiated clusters (K = 2). These results suggest that these two species with very close distributional ranges arose from a single population, and that they remain in a process of genetic differentiation and speciation. This study further underlines the urgent need for conservation actions for both endemic primate species.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Pitheciidae/genética , Bolívia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Repetições de Microssatélites
15.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(6): 101261, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337544

RESUMO

Rickettsia parkeri sensu stricto (s.s.) is an emerging human pathogen in the Americas. Comprehension of the etiology of R. parkeri infections in South America is complicated by the existence of genetic variants (Atlantic rainforest, NOD and Parvitarsum) of this species that are associated with specific groups of Amblyomma ticks. The rickettsial bacterium strain ApPR was first reported in Amblyomma parkeri ticks in Southern Brazil in 2012 and was considered, based on sequencing of fragments of the gltA, htrA, ompA and ompB genes, to represent yet another genetic variant of R. parkeri. In the current work, a multi-locus phylogenetic analysis employing additional genes and intragenic regions was performed using DNA extracted from (a) larvae of A. parkeri and Amblyomma species haplotype Nazaré ticks collected from wild birds, (b) a nymph of Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré recovered from a monkey (Callicebus nigrifons), representing the first report of that tick parasitizing a non-human primate and (c) from a cultured isolate of ApPR, isolated from colony-reared adults of Amblyomma geayi. Phylogenetic inference performed using Maximum-likelihood (ML), Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Bayesian (B) methods, consistently placed strain ApPR outside the New World R. parkeri complex and instead grouped it in proximity to the Old World species Rickettsia africae and Rickettsia sibirica. Estimates of evolutionary divergence provided additional support for the inferred phylogenetic relationship. Given the clear evolutionary distance between strain ApPR and R. parkeri we propose the recognition of "Candidatus Rickettsia paranaensis".


Assuntos
Ixodidae/microbiologia , Rickettsia/classificação , Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Brasil , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Intergênico/análise , Feminino , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Filogenia , Pitheciidae/microbiologia , Rickettsia/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Sci Adv ; 5(5): eaav3991, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123704

RESUMO

Previous work suggested that titi monkeys Callicebus nigrifrons combine two alarm calls, the A- and B-calls, to communicate about predator type and location. To explore how listeners process these sequences, we recorded alarm call sequences of six free-ranging groups exposed to terrestrial and aerial predator models, placed on the ground or in the canopy, and used multimodel inference to assess the information encoded in the sequences. We then carried out playback experiments to identify the features used by listeners to react to the available information. Results indicated that information about predator type and location were encoded by the proportion of B-call pairs relative to all call pairs of the sequence (i.e., proportion of BB-grams). The results suggest that the meaning of the sequence is not conveyed in a categorical but probabilistic manner. We discuss the implications of these findings for current theories of animal communication and language evolution.


Assuntos
Pitheciidae/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Masculino , Probabilidade , Software , Gravação em Vídeo
17.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(2): 257-264, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747402

RESUMO

Although little studied, infections with nematodes of the Onchocercidae Leiper, 1911, predominated by the genera Dipetalonema Diesing, 1861 and Mansonella Faust, 1929, are frequent in wild primates and human populations in the Neotropical forest areas. This study reports natural infections with Dipetalonema freitasi Bain, Diagne & Muller, 1987 and D. gracile (Rudolphi, 1809) in two free-living species of pitheciid primates, extending the known geographical distribution of these species to the forest of the Peruvian Amazon. Adult worms were recovered from the thoracic and abdominal cavities of two species of monkeys, Pithecia monachus monachus (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) and Cacajao calvus ucayalii (Thomas) (Primates: Pitheciidae), collected along the Yavari-Mirin River basin and analysed via light and scanning electron microscopy. Both host species represent new host records for D. freitasi and D. gracile. Morphometric data are also presented for the sampled filarial worms in addition to morphological details obtained through light and electron microscopy examination of D. freitasi specimens.


Assuntos
Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/fisiologia , Pitheciidae/parasitologia , Cavidade Abdominal/parasitologia , Animais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nematoides/ultraestrutura , Especificidade da Espécie , Cavidade Torácica/parasitologia
18.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002716, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little systematic assessment of how total health expenditure is distributed across diseases and comorbidities. The objective of this study was to use statistical methods to disaggregate all publicly funded health expenditure by disease and comorbidities in order to answer three research questions: (1) What is health expenditure by disease phase for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in New Zealand? (2) Is the cost of having two NCDs more or less than that expected given the independent costs of each NCD? (3) How is total health spending disaggregated by NCDs across age and by sex? METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used linked data for all adult New Zealanders for publicly funded events, including hospitalisation, outpatient, pharmaceutical, laboratory testing, and primary care from 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2014. These data include 18.9 million person-years and $26.4 billion in spending (US$ 2016). We used case definition algorithms to identify if a person had any of six NCDs (cancer, cardiovascular disease [CVD], diabetes, musculoskeletal, neurological, and a chronic lung/liver/kidney [LLK] disease). Indicator variables were used to identify the presence of any of the 15 possible comorbidity pairings of these six NCDs. Regression was used to estimate excess annual health expenditure per person. Cause deletion methods were used to estimate total population expenditure by disease. A majority (59%) of health expenditure was attributable to NCDs. Expenditure due to diseases was generally highest in the year of diagnosis and year of death. A person having two diseases simultaneously generally had greater health expenditure than the expected sum of having the diseases separately, for all 15 comorbidity pairs except the CVD-cancer pair. For example, a 60-64-year-old female with none of the six NCDs had $633 per annum expenditure. If she had both CVD and chronic LLK, additional expenditure for CVD separately was $6,443/$839/$9,225 for the first year of diagnosis/prevalent years/last year of life if dying of CVD; additional expenditure for chronic LLK separately was $6,443/$1,291/$9,051; and the additional comorbidity expenditure of having both CVD and LLK was $2,456 (95% confidence interval [CI] $2,238-$2,674). The pattern was similar for males (e.g., additional comorbidity expenditure for a 60-64-year-old male with CVD and chronic LLK was $2,498 [95% CI $2,264-$2,632]). In addition to this, the excess comorbidity costs for a person with two diseases was greater at younger ages, e.g., excess expenditure for 45-49-year-old males with CVD and chronic LLK was 10 times higher than for 75-79-year-old males and six times higher for females. At the population level, 23.8% of total health expenditure was attributable to higher costs of having one of the 15 comorbidity pairs over and above the six NCDs separately; of the remaining expenditure, CVD accounted for 18.7%, followed by musculoskeletal (16.2%), neurological (14.4%), cancer (14.1%), chronic LLK disease (7.4%), and diabetes (5.5%). Major limitations included incomplete linkage to all costed events (although these were largely non-NCD events) and missing private expenditure. CONCLUSIONS: The costs of having two NCDs simultaneously is typically superadditive, and more so for younger adults. Neurological and musculoskeletal diseases contributed the largest health system costs, in accord with burden of disease studies finding that they contribute large morbidity. Just as burden of disease methodology has advanced the understanding of disease burden, there is a need to create disease-based costing studies that facilitate the disaggregation of health budgets at a national level.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/economia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/economia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/economia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/economia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/economia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pitheciidae , Fatores Sexuais
19.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210494, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673746

RESUMO

We examined photic and ecological factors related to initiation of feeding by four sympatric primates in the rain forest of Amazonian Ecuador. With rare exceptions, morning activities of all taxa began only after the onset of nautical twilight, which occurred 47-48 min before sunrise. The larger spider and woolly monkeys, Ateles belzebuth and Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii, left their sleeping trees before sunrise about half the time, while the smaller sakis and titi monkeys, Pithecia aequatorialis and Plecturocebus (formerly Callicebus) discolor, did not emerge until sunrise or later. None of the four taxa routinely began feeding before sunrise. Pithecia began feeding a median 2.17 h after sunrise, at least 0.8 h later than the median feeding times of the other three taxa. The early movement of Ateles and Lagothrix, and late initiation of feeding by Pithecia are consistent with temporal niche partitioning. Among most New World primate species, all males and many females, have dichromatic color vision, with only two cone photopigments, while some females are trichromats with three cone photopigments. Current evidence indicates that the dichromats have a foraging advantage in dim light, which could facilitate utilization of twilight periods and contribute to temporal niche partitioning. However, in our study, dichromatic males did not differentially exploit the dim light of twilight, and times of first feeding bouts of female Ateles and Lagothrix were similar to those of males. First feeding bouts followed a seasonal pattern, occurring latest in May-August, when ripe fruit abundance and ambient temperature were both relatively low. The most frugivorous taxon, Ateles, exhibited the greatest seasonality, initiating feeding 1.4 h later in May-August than in January-April. This pattern may imply a strategy of conserving energy when ripe fruit is scarcer, but starting earlier to compete successfully when fruit is more abundant. Lower temperatures were associated with later feeding of Ateles (by 26 min / °C) and perhaps Pithecia, but not Lagothrix or Plecturocebus. The potential for modification of temporal activity patterns and temporal niche partitioning by relatively small changes in temperature should be considered when predicting the effects of climate change.


Assuntos
Atelinae/fisiologia , Ecologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Pitheciidae/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Clima Tropical , Animais , Atelinae/classificação , Equador , Feminino , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Pitheciidae/classificação , Estações do Ano , Luz Solar , Simpatria , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 132: 117-137, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496844

RESUMO

The taxonomy of the titi monkeys (Callicebinae) has recently received considerable attention. It is now recognised that this subfamily is composed of three genera with 33 species, seven of them described since 2002. Here, we describe a new species of titi, Plecturocebus, from the municipality of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We adopt an integrative taxonomic approach that includes phylogenomic analyses, pelage characters, and locality records. A reduced representation genome-wide approach was employed to assess phylogenetic relationships among species of the eastern Amazonian clade of the Plecturocebus moloch group. Using existing records, we calculated the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) of the new species and estimated future habitat loss for the region based on predictive models. We then evaluated the species' conservation status using the IUCN Red list categories and criteria. The new species presents a unique combination of morphological characters: (1) grey agouti colouration on the crown and dorsal parts; (2) entirely bright red-brown venter; (3) an almost entirely black tail with a pale tip; and (4) light yellow colouration of the hair on the cheeks contrasting with bright red-brown hair on the sides of the face. Our phylogenetic reconstructions based on maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed well-supported species relationships, with the Alta Floresta taxon as sister to P. moloch + P. vieirai. The species EOO is 10,166,653 ha and we predict a total habitat loss of 86% of its original forest habitat under a "business as usual" scenario in the next 24 years, making the newly discovered titi monkey a Critically Endangered species under the IUCN A3c criterion. We give the new titi monkey a specific epithet based on: (1) clear monophyly of this lineage revealed by robust genomic and mitochondrial data; (2) distinct and diagnosable pelage morphology; and (3) a well-defined geographical distribution with clear separation from other closely related taxa. Urgent conservation measures are needed to safeguard the future of this newly discovered and already critically endangered primate.


Assuntos
Pitheciidae/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Citocromos b/genética , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Genoma , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogenia , Pitheciidae/anatomia & histologia , Pitheciidae/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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