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1.
Plant J ; 113(2): 402-415, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562774

RESUMO

Photoperiod plays a critical role in controlling the formation of sexual or vegetative reproductive organs in potato. Although StPHYF-silenced plants overcome day-length limitations to tuberize through a systemic effect on tuberigen StSP6A expression in the stolon, the comprehensive regulatory network of StPHYF remains obscure. Therefore, the present study investigated the transcriptomes of StPHYF-silenced plants and observed that, in addition to known components of the photoperiodic tuberization pathway, florigen StSP3D and other flowering-related genes were activated in StPHYF-silenced plants, exhibiting an early flowering response. Additionally, grafting experiments uncovered the long-distance effect of StPHYF silencing on gene expression in the stolon, including the circadian clock components, flowering-associated MADSs, and tuberization-related regulatory genes. Similar to the AtFT-AtAP1 regulatory module in Arabidopsis, the present study established that the AP1-like StMADS1 functions downstream of the tuberigen activation complex (TAC) and that suppressing StMADS1 inhibits tuberization in vitro and delays tuberization in vivo. Moreover, the expression of StSP6A was downregulated in StMADS1-silenced plants, implying the expression of StSP6A may be feedback-regulated by StMADS1. Overall, these results reveal that the regulatory network of StPHYF controls flowering and tuberization and targets the crucial tuberization factor StMADS1 through TAC, thereby providing a better understanding of StPHYF-mediated day-length perception during potato reproduction.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Fitocromo , Solanum tuberosum , Fitocromo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Arabidopsis/genética , Reprodução , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética
2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 225: 13-26, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481330

RESUMO

In tropical and subtropical areas, tuber and root crops are staple foods and a key source of energy. Sweet potato (SP) is currently regarded as one of the world's top ten foods because of its diverse sizes, shapes, color, and health benefits. The resistant starch (RS) content of SP is substantial. It is predicted to become the cheapest item in the food industry due to its extensive variety, food stability, emulsifier and fat substitution capabilities, and as filler. As a result, interest in SP-sourced RS has recently increased. Due to their unique nutritional and functional qualities, novelty has become a popular research focus in recent years. This review will summarize the current understanding of SP starch components and their impact on the technological and physicochemical properties of produced starch for commercial viability. The importance of sweet potato RS in addressing future RS demand sustainability is emphasized. SPs are a viable alternative to tubers as a sustainable raw material for RS production. It has an advantage over tubers because of its intrinsic nutritional value and climatic endurance. Thermal, chemical, and enzymatic treatments are effective RS manufacturing procedures. The adaptability of sweet potato RS allows for a wide range of food applications.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Solanum tuberosum , Amido Resistente/análise , Ipomoea batatas/química , Amido/química , Tubérculos/química
3.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 748, 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463249

RESUMO

The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller, is an oligophagous pest feeding on crops mainly belonging to the family Solanaceae. It is one of the most destructive pests of potato worldwide and attacks foliage and tubers in the field and in storage. However, the lack of a high-quality reference genome has hindered the association of phenotypic traits with their genetic basis. Here, we report on the genome assembly of P. operculella at the chromosomal level. Using Illumina, Nanopore and Hi-C sequencing, a 648.2 Mb genome was generated from 665 contigs, with an N50 length of 3.2 Mb, and 92.0% (596/648.2 Mb) of the assembly was anchored to 29 chromosomes. In total, 16619 genes were annotated, and 92.4% of BUSCO genes were fully represented. The chromosome-level genome of P. operculella will provide a significant resource for understanding the genetic basis for the biological study of this insect, and for promoting the integrative management of this pest in future.


Assuntos
Cromossomos , Mariposas , Solanum tuberosum , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Tubérculos/parasitologia , Solanum tuberosum/parasitologia , Mariposas/genética , Animais
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499701

RESUMO

Brassinolide (BR) is the "sixth class" plant hormone, which plays an important role in various physiological and biochemical processes of plants. The wide variety of functions of Pinellia ternata means that there is huge demand for it and thus it is in short supply. This paper mainly assessed the changes of yield and quality in P. ternata at different stages after BR treatments by principal component analysis, in order to improve the yield and quality of P. ternata and at the same time determine the best harvest time. The results showed that the tuber yield of P. ternata was significantly increased by BR treatments at different stages (except for the 15th day). After the 15th, 45th, 60th, 75th, 90th, and 105th day of treatments, the tuber yield of P. ternata reached peak values at 0.10 (0.65 g), 0.50 (1.97 g), 0.50 (1.98 g), 1.00 (2.37 g), 1.00 (2.84 g), and 2.00 mg/L (3.76 g) BR treatment, respectively. The optimal harvest time was the 75th day after 0.10, 0.50, and 1.00 mg/L BR treatments, which not only significantly improved the yield of P. ternata, but also retained high level of total alkaloids in the tubers (20.89, 5.37, and 13.44%) and bulbils (9.74, 20.42, and 13.62%), high total flavone content in the tubers (17.66, 16.26, and 12.74%) and bulbils (52.63, 12.79, and 38.69%), and high ß-sitosterol content in the tubers (25.26, 16.65, and 0.62%) of P. ternata, compared with the control, respectively.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Pinellia , Pinellia/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Tubérculos/química , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/análise , Alcaloides/análise
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 621, 2022 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca, a perennial herb of G.elata Bl. in Orchidaceae, is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines. G. elata Bl. is a chlorophyll-free myco-heterotrophic plant, which must rely on the symbiotic growth of Armillaria, but not all Armillaria strains can play the symbiotic role. Additionally, Armillaria is easy to degenerate after multiple generations, and the compatibility between the strains from other areas and G. elata Bl. f. glauca in Changbai Mountain is unstable. Therefore, it is incredibly significant to isolate, identify and screen the symbiotic Armillaria suitable for the growth of G. elata Bl. f. glauca in Changbai Mountain, and to explore the mechanism by which Armillaria improves the production performance of G. elata Bl. f. glauca. RESULTS: Firstly, G. elata Bl. f. glauca tubers, and rhizomorphs and fruiting bodies of Armillaria were used for the isolation and identification of Armillaria. Five Armillaria isolates were obtained in our laboratory and named: JMG, JMA, JMB, JMC and JMD. Secondly, Armillaria was selected based on the yield and the effective component content of G. elata Bl. f. glauca. It was concluded that the yield and quality of G. elata Bl. f. glauca co-planted with JMG is the highest. Finally, the mechanism of its high quality and yield was explored by investigating the effects of different Armillaria strains on the soil, its nutrition element contents and the soil microbial diversity around G. elata Bl. f. glauca in Changbai Mountain. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with commercial strains, JMG significantly increased the content of Na, Al, Si, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb and the absorption of C, Na, Mg, Ca, Cr, Cu, Zn and Rb in G. elata Bl. f. glauca; it improved the composition, diversity and metabolic functions of soil microbial communities around G. elata Bl. f. glauca at phylum, class and genus levels; it markedly increased the relative abundance of bacteria such as Chthoniobacter and Armillaria in the dominant populations, and enhanced such functions as Cell motility, amino acid metabolism and Lipid metabolism; it dramatically decreased the relative abundance of Bryobacter and other fungi in the dominant populations, and reduced such functions as microbial energy metabolism, translation and carbohydrate metabolism. This is the main reason why excellent Armillaria strains promote the high quality and yield of G. elata Bl. f. glauca in Changbai Mountain.


Assuntos
Armillaria , Gastrodia , Microbiota , Armillaria/fisiologia , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Fungos , Tubérculos
6.
Metabolomics ; 18(11): 88, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334159

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Earliness of tuberisation and the quality of potato tubers are important traits in potato breeding. The qualitative traits rely on the metabolite profile of tubers, which are storage organs and net importers of assimilates. Thus, the quality of tubers largely depends on the metabolites transported from leaves to developing tubers. OBJECTIVES: To test the influence of canopy on the quality of tubers by metabolite profiling of tubers of an early- and a late-maturing potato line and their grafts. METHODS: Potatoes were grown under greenhouse conditions, grafted and the tubers harvested at the end of the scions' vegetation period. Metabolite profiling of freshly harvested tubers was performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses were applied to determine the significant differences between the different tubers. RESULTS: 99 metabolites were identified and an additional 181 peaks detected in chromatograms, out of which 186 were polar and 94 non-polar compounds. The concentrations of 113 metabolites were significantly different in the tubers from the early-maturing CE3130 and the late-maturing CE3027 line. Hetero-grafting resulted in considerable changes in the metabolite content of tubers. Especially, the effect of CE3027 on the metabolite composition of tubers formed on CE3130 rootstocks was readily apparent. Nevertheless, many compounds were present at similar levels in the tubers of hetero-grafted plants as was found in the tubers of their scion counterparts. CONCLUSION: Hetero-grafting resulted in many compounds at similar concentrations in rootstock tubers as in scion tubers suggesting that these are transported from the source leaves to tubers.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Solanum tuberosum/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Tubérculos/química , Espectrometria de Massas
7.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431777

RESUMO

Three undescribed phenylpropanoid derivatives, including two new bibenzyl constituents (1-2), one new stilbene constituent (3), together with five known compounds stilbostemin F (4), dihydropinosylvin (5), 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl benzoate (6), 1-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)ethanone (7), and 4-hydroxy-3-prenylbenzoic acid (8), were isolated from the tuber of Asparagus cochinchinensis. The structures of 1-8 were elucidated according to UV, IR, HRMS, 1D and 2D-NMR methods together with the published literature. All of the isolated compounds were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by acting on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in vitro. The results showed that compounds 2 and 5 were found to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) with the IC50 value of 21.7 and 35.8 µM, respectively. In addition, further studies found that compound 2 demonstrated concentration-dependent suppression of the protein expression of iNOS and exerted anti-inflammatory activity via the NF-κB signalling pathway. The present data suggest that phenylpropanoid derivatives from the tuber of A. cochinchinensis might be used as a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Asparagus , Animais , Camundongos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Tubérculos , Lipopolissacarídeos
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(43): 13819-13831, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260761

RESUMO

Greening is an undesirable trait that develops in potatoes upon light exposure. This condition lowers market value, increases tuber waste in retail stores, and consequently influences the price of product in the long run. When potatoes are subjected to artificial light, the amyloplast converts into chloroplast. Although the development of total glycoalkaloids (TGA) is independent of light, the greening induced by exposure of potato to artificial light is an indication of probable TGA acceleration, which could be present in a low amount initially. Several research studies on optimum postharvest factors (temperature, lighting condition, relative humidity, pretreatment, storage air composition, and packaging) have been carried out to avoid greening and TGA development. This current review highlights major postharvest factors and summarizes past research regarding cause of greening and TGA development in potatoes in retail stores. Additionally, it also portrays the potential solutions that could help mitigate this problem, ultimately reducing wastage and achieving food security.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Tubérculos , Plastídeos , Cloroplastos , Fenótipo
9.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235158

RESUMO

The control of the duration of the dormancy phase is a significant challenge in the potato industry and for seed producers. However, the proteome landscape involved in the regulation of the length of the dormancy period over potato cultivars remains largely unexplored. In this study, we performed for the first time a comparative proteome profiling of potato cultivars with differential duration of tuber dormancy. More specifically, the proteome profiling of Agata, Kennebec and Agria commercial potato varieties with short, medium and medium-long dormancy, respectively, was assessed at the endodormancy stage using high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TripleTOF MS/MS). A total of 11 proteins/isoforms with statistically significant differential abundance among cultivars were detected on 2-DE gels and confidently identified by LC-TripleTOF MS/MS. Identified proteins have known functions related to tuber development, sprouting and the oxylipins biosynthesis pathway. Fructokinase, a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, catalase isozyme 2 and heat shock 70 kDa were the proteins with the strongest response to dormancy variations. To the best of our knowledge, this study reports the first candidate proteins underlying variable dormancy length in potato cultivars.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Frutoquinases/análise , Frutoquinases/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/química , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
J Plant Physiol ; 278: 153790, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130414

RESUMO

Due to the effects of climate change, conditions tend to be increasingly extreme, with water availability being one of the main limiting factors in potato production. The objective of this study was to analyze the differential response of physiological and yield components in six potato varieties under water deficit conditions. For this purpose, a greenhouse trial was carried out with the varieties Agata, Agria, Kennebec, Monalisa, Sante and Zorba. The drought stress was applied in stressed plants 36 days after planting (DAP) by withholding water for 25 days. All measurements were taken at four different times: before stress (T0), 17 days (T1) and 24 days (T2) after stress and five days after re-watering. The physiological parameters evaluated were chlorophyll content and fluorescence, relative leaf water content, stomatal conductance, electrolytic leakage and water potential. After the drought period, the aerial part of half of the plants was cut to evaluate the produced biomass. At the end of the cycle yield components were determined. Stomatal conductance and water potential were the parameters that showed the highest differences between the two hydric conditions, and Monalisa was the variety with the best response in tuber production under stress conditions. Indirect selection based on parameters associated with water stress can be a useful tool in potato breeding programs for the identification of more tolerant varieties.


Assuntos
Secas , Solanum tuberosum , Clorofila , Melhoramento Vegetal , Tubérculos/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077378

RESUMO

Potato is an important crop due to its nutritional value and high yield potential. Improving the quality and quantity of tubers remains one of the most important breeding objectives. Genetic mapping helps to identify suitable markers for use in the molecular breeding, and combined with transgenic approaches provides an efficient way for gaining desirable traits. The advanced plant breeding tools and molecular techniques, e.g., TALENS, CRISPR-Cas9, RNAi, and cisgenesis, have been successfully used to improve the yield and nutritional value of potatoes in an increasing world population scenario. The emerging methods like genome editing tools can avoid incorporating transgene to keep the food more secure. Multiple success cases have been documented in genome editing literature. Recent advances in potato breeding and transgenic approaches to improve tuber quality and quantity have been summarized in this review.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Edição de Genes/métodos , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Tubérculos/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética
12.
J Plant Physiol ; 278: 153826, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179397

RESUMO

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a nonproteinogenic amino acid that plays vital roles in plant growth and developmental processes. However, its role in regulating potato sprouting is unknown. Therefore, the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying the sprouting process were assessed, and we found that GABA promoted sprouting after treatment for 50 d. In addition, the GABA and soluble sugar contents increased while the starch content decreased. To study the molecular mechanism by which exogenous GABA accelerates tuber sprouting, comparative proteomic analysis of tuber bud eyes was performed after GABA treatment for 48 h. Further analysis revealed 316 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) that are mainly involved in fatty acid and sugar metabolism and cutin, suberin and wax biosyntheses. The qRT‒PCR results suggested that the GABA transaminase 2 (GABA-T2) and GABA-T3 expression levels showed the greatest decrease at 30 d of storage. Peroxidase 42 (StPOD42) expression showed the greatest increase at 30 d. Overexpression of StPOD42 in potato was found to promote tuber sprouting. Our results provide new insights into the role of GABA in regulating the sprouting process and indicate that StPOD42 is a target gene for molecular breeding to modulate potato sprouting.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , 4-Aminobutirato Transaminase/genética , 4-Aminobutirato Transaminase/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Proteômica , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
14.
Plant Signal Behav ; 17(1): 2100626, 2022 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922084

RESUMO

An endophytic Pseudomonas fluorescens (BsEB-1) was obtained from the roots of Bletilla striata. We investigated its growth-promoting properties and observed the impact of its inoculation on both the growth and polysaccharide content of Bletilla striata tubers. It was found that BsEB-1 possessed three growth-promoting activities: phosphate-solubilizing, produced indoleacetic acid (IAA) and siderophores, but had no nitrogen-fixing activity. BsEB-1 could rapidly attach to the root hairs of Bletilla striata tissue culture seedlings and endophytically colonize the region of maturation in the roots. It also significantly promoted the rooting and transplant survival rate of the seedlings, as well as the growth and expansion of the tubers, but did not increase their polysaccharide content. Pseudomonas fluorescens BsEB-1 exhibits potential for applications in the artificial planting of Bletilla striata.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Tubérculos , Polissacarídeos , Plântula
15.
J Exp Bot ; 73(19): 6784-6799, 2022 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925650

RESUMO

Sprouting negatively affects the quality of stored potato tubers. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control this process is important for the development of potato varieties with desired sprouting characteristics. Serine/threonine protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) has been implicated in several developmental programs and stress responses in plants. PP2A comprises a catalytic (PP2Ac), a scaffolding (A), and a regulatory (B) subunit. In cultivated potato, six PP2Ac isoforms were identified, named StPP2Ac1, 2a, 2b, 3, 4, and 5. In this study we evaluated the sprouting behavior of potato tubers overexpressing the catalytic subunit 2b (StPP2Ac2b-OE). The onset of sprouting and initial sprout elongation is significantly delayed in StPP2Ac2b-OE tubers; however, sprout growth is accelerated during the late stages of development, due to a high degree of branching. StPP2Ac2b-OE tubers also exhibit a pronounced loss of apical dominance. These developmental characteristics are accompanied by changes in carbohydrate metabolism and response to gibberellic acid, and a differential balance between abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, cytokinins, and auxin. Overexpression of StPP2Ac2b alters the source-sink balance, increasing the source capacity of the tuber, and the sink strength of the sprout to support its accelerated growth.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Tubérculos/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012392

RESUMO

SELF-PRUNING 6A (SP6A), a homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), has been identified as tuberigen in potato. StSP6A is a mobile signal synthesized in leaves and transmitted to the stolon through phloem, and plays multiple roles in the growth and development of potato. However, the global StSP6A protein interaction network in potato remains poorly understood. In this study, BK-StSP6A was firstly used as the bait to investigate the StSP6A interaction network by screening the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library of potato, resulting in the selection of 200 independent positive clones and identification of 77 interacting proteins. Then, the interaction between StSP6A and its interactors was further confirmed by the Y2H and BiFC assays, and three interactors were selected for further expression analysis. Finally, the expression pattern of Flowering Promoting Factor 1.1 (StFPF1.1), No Flowering in Short Days 1 and 2 (StNFL1 and StNFL2) was studied. The three genes were highly expressed in flowers or flower buds. StFPF1.1 exhibited an expression pattern similar to that of StSP6A at the stolon swelling stages. StPHYF-silenced plants showed up-regulated expression of StFPF1.1 and StSP6A, while expression of StNFL1 and StNFL2 was down-regulated in the stolon. The identification of these interacting proteins lays a solid foundation for further functional studies of StSP6A.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 189: 46-58, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044822

RESUMO

The nutritional enhancement of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.,) is highly critical. As it is considered a worldwide basic vegetarian nutrition to maintain health. S. tuberosum is one of the foremost staples and the world's fourth-largest food crop. In advance, its need is increasing because of its high-industrial value and population blast. To improve both potato growth and behavior under harsh environmental conditions, we produced transgenic potato plants overexpressing either VvNHX (a sodium proton antiporter from Vitis vinifera), VvCLC (a chloride channel from Vitis vinifera), or both. Control and transgenic plants were grown in greenhouse and field under non-stressed conditions for 85 days in order to characterize their phenotype and evaluate their agronomical performance. To this aim, the evaluation of plant growth parameters, tuber yields and characteristics (calibers, eye number and color), the chemical composition of tubers, was conducted and compared between the different lines. The obtained results showed that transgenic plants displayed an improved growth (flowering precocity, gain of vigor and better vegetative growth) along with enhanced tuber yields and quality (increased protein and starch contents). Our findings provide then insight into the role played by the VvNHX antiport and the VvCLC channel and a greater understanding of the effect of their overexpression in potato plants.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Antiporters/genética , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/farmacologia , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
18.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889308

RESUMO

Multicomponent materials, where nanosized selenium (Se) is dispersed in polymer matrices, present as polymer nanocomposites (NCs), namely, selenium polymer nanocomposites (SeNCs). Selenium as an inorganic nanofiller in NCs has been extensively studied for its biological activity. More ecologically safe and beneficial approaches to obtain Se-based products are the current challenge. Biopolymers have attained great attention with perspective multifunctional and high-performance NCs exhibiting low environmental impact with unique properties, being abundantly available, renewable, and eco-friendly. Composites based on polysaccharides, including beta-glucans from edible and medicinal mushrooms, are bioactive, biocompatible, biodegradable, and have exhibited innovative potential. We synthesized SeNCs on the basis of the extracellular polysaccharides of several medicinal mushrooms. The influence of bio-composites from mushrooms on potato plant growth and tuber germination were studied in two potato cultivars: Lukyanovsky and Lugovskoi. Bio-composites based on Grifola umbellata demonstrated the strongest positive effect on the number of leaves and plant height in both cultivars, without negative effect on biomass of the vegetative part. Treatment of the potato tubers with SeNC from Gr. umbellata also significantly increased germ length. Potato plants exposed to Se-bio-composite from Ganoderma lucidum SIE1303 experienced an increase in the potato vegetative biomass by up to 55% versus the control. We found earlier that this bio-composite was the most efficient against biofilm formation by the potato ring rot causative agent Clavibacter sepedonicus (Cms). Bio-composites based on Pleurotus ostreatus promoted increase in the potato root biomass in the Lugovskoi cultivar by up to 79% versus the control. The phytostimulating ability of mushroom-based Se-containing bio-composites, together with their anti-phytopathogenic activity, testifies in favor of the bifunctional mode of action of these Se-biopreparations. The application of stimulatory green SeNCs for growth enhancement could be used to increase crop yield. Thus, by combining myco-nanotechnology with the intrinsic biological activity of selenium, an unexpectedly efficient tool for possible applications of SeNCs could be identified.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Nanocompostos , Selênio , Solanum tuberosum , Tubérculos , Polímeros , Polissacarídeos , Selênio/farmacologia
19.
Food Chem ; 396: 133665, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908476

RESUMO

This article presents data on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and mass spectrometric analysis of potato tubers, irradiated with gamma rays, in order to examine and identify changes in the molecular composition of organic matter following radiation exposure. The products of the Maillard reaction were compared with the products of intramolecular radiolysis of organic constituents of potatoes. The presence of free radicals was verified using EPR. DDPM (2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4 (H) -pyran-4-one) was among the radiolysis products detected via mass spectrometry, which points to the intramolecular dehydration of potato carbohydrates. EPR signals indicate single-electron transitions of the semidione radical anionic molecular compounds. It has been shown that irradiation with gamma rays significantly destroys the carbohydrate, lipid, keto-carotene and amino acid molecules of potatoes.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Radicais Livres/química , Raios gama , Espectrometria de Massas , Tubérculos/química
20.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 9323694, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795013

RESUMO

Besides dietary sources of energy, roots and tuber crops can also serve as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients to be explored in disease risk reduction and wellness. However, they are easily spoiled because of their high moisture contents and enzymatic reactions. Therefore, this review aimed at gathering information on the effects of various pretreatment methods on the quality of tuber crops before converting them into flour. Studies reported by different scholars showed that there were significant differences in physicochemical and functional properties between untreated tuber and the treated tuber samples. The review also highlighted that the chemical treatment methods, particularly sulfite treatment, could increase the lightness value of the flour. In addition, blanching could induce a decrease in protein, ash, and fat. Despite this, blanching pretreatment techniques increased moisture and carbohydrate content. Chemical treatment increases the ash content, which might be responsible for chemical diffusion into the sample. The reviewed results showed that the application of different pretreatments on tuber crops significantly improves many quality characteristics such as color, fiber content, carbohydrate, and the functional properties used for value addition during food product development in the industry. Therefore, application of pretreatment methods particularly chemical treatments could enhance nutritional value, and functional and physical properties of tuber flours.


Assuntos
Farinha , Tubérculos , Carboidratos , Produtos Agrícolas , Valor Nutritivo
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