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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130823, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404005

RESUMO

The current work focuses on the facile and effective synthesis of a new nanocomposite based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) decorated with magnetic core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 and functionalized with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-MPTS) used in the vortex-assisted dispersive magnetic solid-phase extraction (VA-DMSPE) of Cd(II) ions in environmental and food samples. The nanocomposite was characterized and the parameters that influenced the VA-DMSPE were optimized through a fractional factorial design 25-1. The proposed method provided a preconcentration factor of 33.14 times, detection and quantification limits of 0.090 µg L-1 and 0.302 µg L-1, respectively, and a linearity range of 0.001-40.0 µg L-1. The developed method was effectively applied to preconcentrate and determine Cd(II) in water, tobacco, green tea leaves, ginkgo biloba, carrots, and rice samples, and its accuracy was evaluated using GF AAS.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Plantas Medicinais , Adsorção , Cádmio , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Dióxido de Silício , Extração em Fase Sólida , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Água
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114540, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509604

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers (Menispermaceae) is a Mediterranean herb, used in Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani, and folk medicines. The herb is also used in conventional medicine to treat oxidative stress-related diseases and conditions, including inflammation, pain, diarrhea, asthma, respiratory infections, cancer, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The taxonomy, botanical classification, geographical distribution, and ethnobotanical uses of T. cordifolia, as well as the phytochemical compounds found in the herb, the toxicology of and pharmacological and clinical studies on the effects of T. cordifolia are all covered in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To gather information on T. cordifolia, we used a variety of scientific databases, including Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct. The information discussed focuses on biologically active compounds found in T. cordifolia, and common applications and pharmacological activity of the herb, as well as toxicological and clinical studies on its properties. RESULTS: The findings of this study reveal a connection between the use of T. cordifolia in conventional medicine and its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, and other biological effects. The entire plant, stem, leaves, root, and extracts of T. cordifolia have been shown to have a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective impact. Toxicological testing demonstrated that this plant may have medicinal applications. T. cordifolia contains a variety of biologically active compounds from various chemical classes, including alkaloids, terpenoids, sitosterols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Based on the reports researched for this review, we believe that chemicals in T. cordifolia may activate Nrf2, which leads to the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, GPx, GST, and GR, and thereby induces the adaptive response to oxidative stress. T. cordifolia is also able to reduce NF-κB signalling by inhibiting PI3K/Akt, activating AMPK and sirtuins, and downregulating PI3K/Akt. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the pharmacological properties displayed by T. cordifolia back up its conventional uses. Antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antidiabetic, nephroprotective, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective activities were all demonstrated in T. cordifolia stem extracts. To validate pharmacodynamic targets, further research is needed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of the known compounds against gastrointestinal diseases, inflammatory processes, and microbial infections, as immunostimulants, and in chemotherapy. The T. cordifolia safety profile was confirmed in a toxicological analysis, which prompted pharmacokinetic assessment testing to confirm its bioavailability.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais , SARS-CoV-2 , Tinospora/química , Humanos , Fitoterapia
3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 266: 120440, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627017

RESUMO

A proof-of-concept medicinal herbs identification scheme using machine learning classifiers is proposed in the form of an automated computational package. The scheme makes use of two-dimensional correlation Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) fingerprinting maps derived from the FTIR of raw herb spectra as digital input. The prototype package admits a collection of 11 machine learning classifiers to form a voting pool. A common set of oversampled dataset containing 5 different herbal classes is used to train the pool of classifiers on a one-verses-others manner. The collections of trained models, dubbed the voting classifiers, are deployed in a collective manner to cast their votes to support or against a given inference fingerprint whether it belongs to a particular class. By collecting the votes casted by all voting classifiers, a logically designed scoring system will select out the most probable guess of the identity of the inference fingerprint. The same scoring system is also capable of discriminating an inference fingerprint that does not belong to any of the classes the voting classifiers are trained for as the 'others' type. The proposed classification scheme is stress-tested to evaluate its performance and expected consistency. Our experimental runs show that, by and large, a satisfactory performance of the classification scheme of up to 90 % accuracy is achieved, providing a proof-of-concept viability that the proposed scheme is a feasible, practical, and convenient tool for herbal classification. The scheme is implemented in the form of a packaged Python code, dubbed the "Collective Voting" (CV) package, which is easily scalable, maintained and used in practice.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 18, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733386

RESUMO

Introduction: the use of medicinal plants has increased significantly in recent years. According to the World Health Organization, 80% of the world's population uses medicinal plants to treat themselves. Our study aims to estimate the prevalence of medicinal plant use by cancer patients, list the different plants and identify their adverse effects cited by users and their reported efficacy. Methods: this study was realised among 100 patients via a questionnaire with 14-items. Socio-economic and clinical characteristics have been analysed. The bivariate and multivariate analyses have been used to demonstrate the association between the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, the duration of the disease and the use of medicinal plants. Results: 45% of participants used medicinal plants. The most commonly reported reason for using medicinal plants was cancer cure (22%). During this study, 32 plants were identified. The Honey was the most commonly used (25%), thyme was also consumed at 15%, fenugreek at 13% and garlic at 7%. According to the multivariate analysis, the residence is predictor of medicinal plant use, urban residents used medicinal plants more than rural patients with an OR: 3,098, IC, 95%: [1,183-8,113] and P = 0,021. Fifty patients reported the moderate efficacy of the use of medicinal plants, and 20% described some side effects such as abdominal pain in 34%. Conclusion: in order to avoid any interaction with oncological drugs and to improve their effectiveness, a great importance must be given to information, education and awareness sessions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Plantas Medicinais/química , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3495-3512, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739801

RESUMO

Medicinal plants have been an integral and essential part of human life since ancient times. These have shaped the cultures around the globe. From underlings to elderly persons, everyone has come across to use herbal medicine for minor infection to deadly diseases. A wholesome approach is needed to maximize the knowledge about traditional resources. Thus, combining it with the new advents of technology is miraculous. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the prevalent infections in the world. Increasing multi-drug resistance among uropathogens is quite problematic. The burning field of nanotechnology offers an enormous help in revolutionizing the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The nanoparticles and nanocarriers can increase the bioavailability and efficacy of phytoconstituents targeted against the uropathogens. The present review focuses on herbal medicine and nanomaterials like nanoparticles, nanocarriers, nanoantibiotics as potent anti-bacterial agents against urinary tract infections.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Infecções Urinárias , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Nanotecnologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 4930-4935, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738386

RESUMO

The endophytes of medicinal plants play an important role in promoting the quality formation of the host. Therefore, this paper made a review of endophytes of medicinal plant Atractylodes lancea. According to previous studies, A. lancea boasts endophytes, such as fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes, among which the beneficial microorganisms help the growth and development of A. lancea. There is a close interaction between the volatile oil of A. lancea and endophytes. Different endophytes vary in regulating the composition and content of the volatile oil of A. lancea, which might contribute to the quality formation of A. lancea. However, the information of the endophytic flora of A. lancea obtained by traditional culture and isolation is not enough to reflect the real situation of the endophytes of A. lancea. Little is known about the endophytes of A. lancea from different chemical types and different habitats, which is not conducive to the study of the ecological relationship between A. lancea and endophytes and limits the development and utilization of the endophytes. Therefore, at the end of this paper, the authors put forward suggestions for future research on endophytes in A. lancea, including:(1)mining the core endophyte resources of A. lancea by combining high-throughput sequencing with traditional culture and isolation;(2)exploring the relationship between the diversity of endophytes and chemical types of A. lancea;(3)strengthening the application of endophytes in A. lancea cultivation, in order to facilitate the cultivation efficiency and quality of A. lancea.


Assuntos
Atractylodes , Óleos Voláteis , Plantas Medicinais , Endófitos , Fungos
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 5027-5037, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738398

RESUMO

To obtain the chemical profile of Tibetan medicinal plant ″Bangga″, the present study established the HPLC fingerprint of ″Bangga″ and inferred common chemical constituents of its two original plants, Aconitum tanguticum and A. naviculare by LC-MS. The HPLC analysis was performed on a Kromasil 100 C_8 column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 µm) with acetonitrile(A)-0.1% formic acid in water(B) as mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. Besides, the flow rate was set at 1 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature was 35 ℃. The detection wavelength was set at 255 nm and the injection volume was 10 µL. Seventeen batches of ″Bangga″ samples were analyzed and the HPLC fingerprint was established under the above conditions. Similarity evaluation was performed using Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine(2012). As a result, 16 common peaks were selec-ted and the similarity values of 17 batches of ″Bangga″ were in the range of 0.702-0.966. Furthermore, one batch of A. tanguticum and one batch of A. naviculare were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and 74 common compounds were inferred, including 10 phenolic acids, 26 flavonoids, and 38 alkaloids. The established method, with good separation and strong specificity, is simple and feasible, and can be used for the quality control of ″Bangga″ and identification of its two original plants. A. tanguticum and A. naviculare are similar in chemical composition and component content, but are quite different in the content of flavonoids.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tibet
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22169, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772968

RESUMO

Folk medicine such as herbal and natural products have been used for centuries in every culture throughout the world. The Chenopodiaceae family with more than 1500 species is dispersed worldwide. The Iranian wild spinach (Blitum virgatum L.) is an important traditional medicinal plant used for antiviral diseases such as pneumonia and other respiratory track infections. This plant is a mountainous herb and is growing upper than 3000 m. We performed a mass selection plant breeding program on wild populations of this Iranian wild spinach during 2013-2020. Based on experimental and field characteristics this plant was identified as B. virgatum, |abbaricum|, and related characteristics were prepared with reference to the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV). Mass selection program resulted from an adapted population named as medicinal spinach (MSP) population. To compare the mineral content of the mass-selected population with cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. |Varamin 88|), both plants were planted in pots and fields under similar conditions. In five leaves stage, plant samples were taken from both leaf and crown sections and used for experimental analysis. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the mineral content including iron (Fe), zinc (Z), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu). Our results showed the selected medicinal spinach population (MSP) with about 509 ppm iron was an important iron-rich population with about 3.5-4 times more than the amount of iron in cultivated spinach in the same conditions. Because iron is an important essential element for blood production, respiration process, energy metabolisms, synthesis of collagen, and some neurotransmitters are needed for proper immune function, so the supply of absorbable adequate iron is very important. The reasons such as the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic, which affects the amount of exchangeable oxygen in the lungs and historical local evidences of the use of this plant (MSP) for pneumonia, could open new horizons for focusing on studies related to the use of ancestral human experiences in addition to scientifically modern research.


Assuntos
Ferro/análise , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spinacia oleracea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , COVID-19/terapia , Cobre/análise , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Manganês/análise , Minerais/análise , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Spinacia oleracea/química , Zinco/análise
9.
Zootaxa ; 5057(3): 64-84, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811204

RESUMO

Five new species of phytoseiid mites in the subfamily Amblyseiinae are described from specimens collected from princess flower (Tibouchina urvilleana Cogn.: Melastomataceae), datura (Datura metel L.: Solanaceae), rose (Rosa chinensis Jacq.: Rosaceae), and cinchona (Cinchona officinalis L.: Rubiaceae) from the northern hill zone of West Bengal in the Central Himalayan Mountain region, namely Amblyseiulella tibouchina sp. nov., Amblyseius rishyapensis sp. nov., Okiseius ramdhuracus sp. nov., Okiseius roseus sp. nov., and Typhlodromips cinchonai sp. nov.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Plantas Medicinais , Rosaceae , Rubiaceae , Animais , Índia
10.
Pharmeur Bio Sci Notes ; 2021: 157-166, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751647

RESUMO

The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.), includes both individual monographs on essential oils and a general monograph that covers all essential oils for pharmaceutical use, whether covered by an individual monograph or not. The individual monographs generally describe gas chromatography as a first identification test, while thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) methods are included in the second identification series. To comply with Ph. Eur. general chapter 2.8.25. High-performance thin-layer chromatography of herbal drugs and herbal drug preparations, HPTLC parameters must be standardised. Currently, 18 of the 32 monographs on essential oils feature the same TLC/HPTLC method, but differ in terms of the other conditions described. A single, standardised chromatographic system with a system suitability test (SST) and intensity markers for all 32 essential oils covered by individual monographs would be desirable, particularly for pharmacies and other users that cannot perform gas chromatography for financial reasons. To this end, this paper describes the development of a general HPTLC method for the identification of essential oils in compliance with general chapter 2.8.25. The method proposes the use of ethyl acetate, toluene (5:95 V/V) as mobile phase, isoeugenol/isoeugenyl acetate for the SST, and a combination of one alcohol (either borneol or linalool) and one ester (either linalyl acetate or bornyl acetate) as intensity markers.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Plantas Medicinais , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20191101, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730736

RESUMO

This work describes a pharmacological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants through their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities. Cytotoxicity activity of Mouriri elliptica and Alchornea glandulosa as well as the drugs celecoxib and doxorubicin were evaluated in cultures of peritoneal macrophages. The immune system influence of these samples was analyzed by determining production/inhibition of NO, production of tumor necrosis factor-α and production of interleukin-10. Regarding the production/inhibition of NO, there was NO production by M. elliptica and NO inhibition when the cells were exposed to A. glandulosa; Macrophages generally produce more NO, plus TNF-α and less IL-10, when associated to the tumor phenomenon, characterizing the inflammation involved in cancer. A. glandulosa showed anti-inflammatory effect, inhibited NO production and it was associated with low TNF-α production, although not as low as the macrophages associated with celecoxib and doxorubicin. These cytokines were not different in animals with tumor. Celecoxib confirms its anti-inflammatory action by markedly inhibiting NO and TNF-α, but also inhibiting IL-10 which is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Doxorubicin inhibited NO in a higher percentage in the group of animals with tumor, although the literature reports that this drug stimulates the production of NO and this collaborates with its cytotoxic effect.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma , Plantas Medicinais , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Citocinas , Ecossistema , Óxido Nítrico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
12.
Malawi Med J ; 33(2): 85-107, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777704

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered an international pandemic that has led to significant public health problems. To date, limited evidence exists to suggest that drugs are effective against the disease. As possible treatments are being investigated, herbal medicines have shown potential for producing novel antiviral agents for the COVID-19 disease. Aim: This review explored the potential of Malawi's traditional medicinal plants for the management of COVID-19. Methods: The authors searched on PubMed and Google scholar for medicinal plants that are used in Malawi and published in openly available peer reviewed journals. Plants linked with antiviral treatment, anti-COVID-19 activity or COVID-19 symptoms management were targeted. These included activity against pneumonia, inflammation, cough, difficulty in breathing, pain/aches, fever, diarrhoea, rheumatism, fatigue, asthma, immunocompromised and cardiovascular diseases. Results: 11 studies were found with 306 plant species. 127 plant species had at least one COVID-19 related pharmacological activity. Of these plant species, the number of herbal entities used for each indication was: pain/aches (87), fever (2), pneumonia (9), breathing/asthma problems (5), coughing (11), diarrhoea (1), immunosuppression (8), blood issues (10), fatigue (2), heart problems (11), inflammation (8), rheumatism (10) and viral diseases (12). Thirty (30) species were used for more than one disease and Azedarachta indica topped the list (6 of the 13 COVID-19 related diseases). The majority of the species had phytochemicals known to have antiviral activity or mechanisms of actions linked to COVID-19 and consequent diseases' treatment pathways. Conclusion: Medicinal plants are a promising source of compounds that can be used for drug development of COVID-19 related diseases. This review highlights potential targets for the World Health Organization and other research entities to explore in order to assist in controlling the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Plantas Medicinais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Malaui , Compostos Fitoquímicos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201769, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787171

RESUMO

The combination of ethnobotanical and ecological knowledge is an important tool in indicating priority species for conservation. We sought to gather ethnobotanical knowledge on the diversity and use of woody medicinal plants in the Chapada Araripe region, assessing the real availability of woody medicinal resources in the Araripe Forests in the cerrado and carrasco areas, and indicate priority species for conservation. A total of 107 species were recorded in the ethnobotanical surveys, classified into 39 families and 83 genera, of which 92 species, 36 families and 70 genera for the cerrado areas, and 47 species, 25 families and 39 genera, for the carrasco areas. 59% were present in the phytosociological surveys for cerrado and 38% for carrascos. Species with high versatility of medicinal use did not necessarily have high local availability, and some were not recorded in the sampling. Thirteen species in cerrados and four in carrascos were indicated as conservation priorities. Use not aligned of species with the reality of the present time can indeed affect the vegetation landscape, and in a future scenario, not taking local measures to conserve protected forest resources, besides increasing the lists of local conservation priorities, can affect economic practices, increasing social and environmental conflicts.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Etnobotânica , Florestas , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 5251-5260, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787216

RESUMO

Self-medication is a social practice that corresponds to the autonomous use of therapeutic elements to address diseases. It involves a sociocultural context of the disease, and a rationality focused on therapeutic efficacy and the availability of curative supplies. Identify and analyze the process of oral health self-medication in indigenous Muiscas, Pijaos, and Yanakunas of Colombia. This is a qualitative, ethnographic study employing techniques such as documentary analysis, participant observation, field diary, and ethnographic interviews. Self-medication is frequent among these indigenous people. It prioritizes the use of pharmaceutical drugs in the Muiscas and medicinal plants in the Yanakunas. The therapeutic supplementation is evident in the Pijaos. The pharmaceutical elements focus on a matter of social progress and the herbal elements on a matter of cultural identity. In these communities, oral health self-medication is a structured and daily practice in families to address their ailments. This practice is supported by the knowledge, management, and availability of different therapeutic resources.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Grupos Populacionais , Colômbia , Humanos , Conhecimento , Saúde Bucal
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(20): 5166-5172, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738416

RESUMO

Chinese medicine injections(CMIs) have higher requirements for quality consistency and controllability than other traditional Chinese medicine products. The implementation of Good Agricultural Practice of Medicinal Plants and Animals(GAP) is an important factor that guarantees the quality stability of raw Chinese medicinal materials and affects the quality of CMIs. Through literature review, data research, expert consultation, and statistical analysis, this paper analyzes the current status of GAP management of key CMIs and the impact of GAP management of raw medicinal materials on the quality consistency and controllability of CMIs. Furthermore, it demonstrates the rationality, necessity, and feasibility of the full implementation of GAP on the basis of CMIs safety re-evaluation.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Injeções , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(20): 5436-5442, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738447

RESUMO

Liangmianzhen(Zanthoxyli Radix) has long been used as medicine. The current medicinal parts are different from those in the ancient. As recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, the medicinal part is root. However, in ancient works, the medicinal parts include root, stem, leaf, and fruit. In an attempt to find the historical basis that stem is a reasonable medicinal part, the herbalogical study was carried out on this medicinal based on the formal names, synonyms, original plant, medicinal parts, habitat of the medicinal plant, producing area, processing and preparation methods, efficacy, and indications recorded in ancient Chinese materia medica and local gazetteers. The results showed that Liangmianzhen was firstly recorded as a medicinal in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica with the formal name of "Manjiao". "Manjiao" was adopted from the Han Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty when it was changed to "Rudijinniu", the name originating from the folk in the south of the Five Ridges. Now, the formal name is "Liangmianzhen", which was firstly recorded in Wuxuan County Gazetteer in 1914 and then as a synonym in the Updated Records of Picking Herbs in the South of the Five Ridges. According to the formal names, synonyms, and the descriptions of the original plant, the medicinal plants of Liang-mianzhen have the characteristics of shrub-like young seedlings, vine adult seedlings, corymbiform thyrsus, stems with thorns, amphitropous golden-yellow roots with horn-like branches, and thorns on both sides of the leaves. Thus, "Manjiao", "Rudijinniu", and "Liangmianzhen" were from the same species of Zanthoxylum nitidum(Rutaceae), which was also verified based on the growth environment, habitat, processing and preparation methods, efficacy, and indications. In ancient times, the stem and root were the main medicinal parts and leaves and fruits were also used. However, in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, root is recorded as the only medicinal part, which is obviously inconsistent with the records in the ancient classics. In light of the limited medicinal resources for Liang-mianzhen, other medicinal parts of Z. nitidum is recommended. This study clarified the medicinal parts of Z. nitidum in history. It is recommended that the stem be added to the medicinal parts of Z. nitidum in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopeia.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Plantas Medicinais , China , Frutas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
17.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 59, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are handful hypothesis-driven ethnobotanical studies in Nepal. In this study, we tested the non-random medicinal plant selection hypothesis using national- and community-level datasets through three different types of regression: linear model with raw data, linear model with log-transformed data and negative binomial model. METHODS: For each of these model, we identified over-utilized families as those with highest positive Studentized residuals and underutilized families with highest negative Studentized residuals. The national-level data were collected from online databases and available literature while the community-level data were collected from Baitadi and Darchula districts. RESULTS: Both dataset showed larger variance (national dataset mean 6.51 < variance 156.31, community dataset mean 1.16 < variance 2.38). All three types of regression were important to determine the medicinal plant species selection and use differences among the total plant families, although negative binomial regression was most useful. The negative binomial showed a positive nonlinear relationship between total plant family size and number of medicinal species per family for the national dataset (ß1 = 0.0160 ± 0.0009, Z1 = 16.59, p < 0.00001, AIC1 = 1181), and with similar slope and stronger performance for the community dataset (ß2 = 0.1747 ± 0.0199, Z2 = 8.76, p < 0.00001, AIC2 = 270.78). Moraceae and Euphorbiaceae were found over-utilized while Rosaceae, Cyperaceae and Caryophyllaceae were recorded as underutilized. CONCLUSIONS: As our datasets showed larger variance, negative binomial regression was found the most useful for testing non-random medicinal plant selection hypothesis. The predictions made by non-random selection of medicinal plants hypothesis holds true for community-level studies. The identification of over-utilized families is the first step toward sustainable conservation of plant resources and it provides a baseline for pharmacological research that might be leading to drug discovery.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Medicina Tradicional , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Nepal , Fitoterapia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638940

RESUMO

Several phytochemical-containing herbal extracts are increasingly marketed as health-promoting products. In particular, chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) is well known for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antitumor properties. Here, we evaluated differences in chemical composition among six commercially available products and their potential impact on biological activity in human immortalized colonocytes. Our investigation encompassed: (i) preparation of dry extracts and yield evaluation; (ii) qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenol content; (iii) modulation of redox state; and (iv) bioavailability of main bioactive compounds. We demonstrated that apparently identical products showed huge heterogeneity, in terms of yield extraction, chemical composition, and antioxidant effects. All samples contained high amounts of flavonoids and cinnamic acid derivatives, but differentially concentrated in the six extracts. Depending on polyphenol content, chamomile samples possessed variable antioxidant potential, in terms of decreased radical generation and increased reduced glutathione levels. The observed effects might be ascribed to flavones (apigenin, luteolin, and their glycones) highly represented in the six extracts. Nonetheless, chamomile extracts exerted cytotoxic effects at high concentrations, suggesting that a herbal medicine is not always safe. In conclusion, due to the complexity and variability of plant matrices, studies evaluating effectiveness of chamomile should always be accompanied by preliminary characterization of phytochemical composition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Camomila/química , Matricaria/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinamatos/análise , Flavonas/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258167, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wetlands are biologically diverse and highly productive ecosystems that support one-third of all threatened and endangered plants of the world. Wetland plants have been studied ethnobotanically much less than terrestrial plants, including in Pakistan, thus information about the uses of local wetland plants in traditional healthcare system is scare. Head Maralla is a non-recognized wetland with diversified flora that has been focused of the current study. METHODS: The ethnobotanical data were collected from four sites viz., River Tavi, Upstream Chenab, River Manawarwala Tavi, and Bhalolpur through questionnaire and interviews during field trips. Quantitative indices including informant consensus factor (ICF), cultural significant indext (CSI), relative frequency of citation (RFC), and use value (UV) were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: On the whole, 119 plant species were identified belonging to 54 families, of which 87 species were dicot, 12 monocots, 11 aquatic, 5 ferns, and 4 species were bryophytes. Of these, 50% of the plant species were utilized for therapeutic purposes, followed by leaves which had more than 20% usage of total consumption. Herbs were the primary source of medicine (73 spp) followed by trees (22 spp), weeds (11 spp), shrubs (9 spp), foliose (2 spp) and thaloids (2 spp) in the area. Fic ranged from 0.66 to 0.93 for constipation and respiratory disorders with an average Fic of 0.87 reflecting a high consensus among the informants about the use of plants to treat particular ailment. Major ailments viz., urination (14%), cough (8.40%), cold (6.70%), stomach (5.90%), asthma (5.90%), skin infection (5%), constipation (5%), and diarrhea (4%) etc., were treated with local plant recipes. The highest CSI value was found for A. vesica (7.55) widely used in respiratory disorders and in digestive problems. RFC ranged from 0.92 to 0.15 with the maximum value obtained for R. communis (0.95). The use values ranged from 0.03 to 0.90 with the maximum use value for R. communis (0.90). A positive correlation was found between CSI and RFC (r = 0.29), and CSI and UV (r = 0.29). The JI values ranged from 7.14 to 0.14 indicating strong affinity with Samahani valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Unique species Osmunda regalis was first time reported from Pakistan with novel uses for renal and blood purifier. Fifteen percent (15%) plants contribute as fodder species consumed by local community for livestock while almost 6.7% species were utilized for timber and fuel purposes. CONCLUSION: The ecosystem of Head Maralla provide a complex habitat for aqauatic, terrestrial, and agriculture wetland vegetation. It is suggested that conservation efforts should be made to conserve the ethnoecological knowledge of these areas and pharmacological studies should be conducted for noval drug synthesis in future.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas , Áreas Alagadas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biodiversidade , Cultura , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais , Saúde Pública , Publicações
20.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684809

RESUMO

The chemical variability and the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf essential oil from Ivorian Isolona dewevrei were investigated for the first time. Forty-seven oil samples were analyzed using a combination of CC, GC(RI), GC-MS and 13C-NMR, thus leading to the identification of 113 constituents (90.8-98.9%). As the main components varied drastically from sample to sample, the 47 oil compositions were submitted to hierarchical cluster and principal components analyses. Three distinct groups, each divided into two subgroups, were evidenced. Subgroup I-A was dominated by (Z)-ß-ocimene, ß-eudesmol, germacrene D and (E)-ß-ocimene, while (10ßH)-1ß,8ß-oxido-cadina-4-ene, santalenone, trans-α-bergamotene and trans-ß-bergamotene were the main compounds of Subgroup I-B. The prevalent constituents of Subgroup II-A were germacrene B, (E)-ß-caryophyllene, (5αH,10ßMe)-6,12-oxido-elema-1,3,6,11(12)-tetraene and γ-elemene. Subgroup II-B displayed germacrene B, germacrene D and (Z)-ß-ocimene as the majority compounds. Germacrene D was the most abundant constituent of Group III, followed in Subgroup III-A by (E)-ß-caryophyllene, (10ßH)-1ß,8ß-oxido-cadina-4-ene, germacrene D-8-one, and then in Subgroup III-B by (Z)-ß-ocimene and (E)-ß-ocimene. The observed qualitative and quantitative chemical variability was probably due to combined factors, mostly phenology and season, then harvest site to a lesser extent. The lipoxygenase inhibition by a leaf oil sample was also evaluated. The oil IC50 (0.020 ± 0.005 mg/mL) was slightly higher than the non-competitive lipoxygenase inhibitor NDGA IC50 (0.013 ± 0.003 mg/mL), suggesting a significant in vitro anti-inflammatory potential.


Assuntos
Annonaceae/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Costa do Marfim , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Técnicas In Vitro , Lipoxigenase/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/química , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Óleos Voláteis/classificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Soja/enzimologia
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