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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130509, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339923

RESUMO

In China, three Rosaceae fruits with distinctive flavours and functions have recently been transformed from edible plants into standardised juice or beverage products. To enhance the development of these fruit products, the results and conclusions from various investigations of the chemical and biological properties of fruits should be summarised. Based on industrial advances, there are still some limitation in the research and development of these fruit products that need to be addressed. Therefore, in this report, we provided a comprehensive and rigorous review to summarise critical data from phytochemical and biological investigations and from flavour profiles and industrial development of these fruit products. Our goal is to provide insights into recent research findings in order to advance studies and developments of products of these flavourful fruits from a reasonable perspective.


Assuntos
Rosa , Frutas , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Plantas Comestíveis , Pyracantha
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130676, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365250

RESUMO

Antimony(III) is a rare electroactive specie present on Earth, whose concentration is not typically determined. The presence of high concentrations of antimony is responsible for a variety of diseases, which makes it desirable to find convenient and reliable methods for its determination. We have developed a convenient glassy carbon modified electrode with electroreduced graphene oxide GC/rGO for the first time determination of Sb(III) in commercial lettuce, celery, and beverages. The surface of the electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry, indicating a heterogeneous and rough surface with a real area of 0.28 cm2, which is ~2.5 times the area of GC. The optimal chemical and electrochemical parameters used were: sodium acetate buffer (pH = 4.3), an accumulation potential of -1.0 V and an accumulation time of 150 s. The analytical validation was developed evaluating the linear range (10-60 µg L-1), limit of detection (2.5 µg L-1), accuracy, repetibility and reproducibility with satisfactory results (relative standard deviation (RSD) values lower than 10%). All the analyzes performed in real samples by stripping voltammetry were compared with GF-AAS, showing statistically similar values, demonstrating that GC/rGO could be effectively applied in the analysis of food samples.


Assuntos
Grafite , Antimônio/análise , Bebidas , Eletrodos , Plantas Comestíveis , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130610, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419798

RESUMO

Inflammation occurs when the immune system responses to external harmful stimuli and infection. Chronic inflammation induces various diseases. A variety of foods are prescribed in the traditional medicines of many countries all over the world, which gave birth to the concept of medicine food homology. Over the past few decades, a number of secondary metabolites from medicine food homology plants have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present review, the effects and mechanisms of the medicine food homology plants-derived active components on relieving inflammation and inflammation-mediated diseases were summarized and discussed. The information provided in this review is valuable to future studies on anti-inflammatory ingredients derived from medicine food homology plants as drugs or food supplements.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Plantas Comestíveis , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Alimentos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Food Chem ; 371: 131199, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598122

RESUMO

Antiglycation activities of herbs and spices, have been described in relation to their in vivo anti-diabetic or anti-aging activity at physiological temperature. Under the hypothesis that those natural antioxidants may inhibit the formation of Maillard intermediates, the behavior of several hydroalcoholic plant extracts was analyzed in sugar-protein systems. Allspice, thyme, green pepper and black pepper extracts were the most efficient inhibitors, decreasing furosine formation by 60, 45, 40 and 30%, respectively. 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formation decreased in the presence of the extracts and protein glycation was inhibited by the thyme extract in advanced stages. Antiglycation activities were related to polyphenols content, to radical scavenging and to iron-reducing power. In the protein-sugar systems studied at the time in which 4000 ppm of furosine were formed, the antioxidant activity dropped between 30 and 40%. Polyphenols inhibit Maillard intermediates formation, revealing the incidence of oxidative pathways, but they are depleted as a function of time.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Especiarias , Antioxidantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas Comestíveis , Açúcares
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638974

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently been isolated from different plants. Plant-derived EVs have been proposed as potent therapeutics and drug-delivery nanoplatforms for delivering biomolecules, including proteins, RNAs, DNAs, and lipids. Herein, Petasites japonicus-derived EVs (PJ-EVs) were isolated through a series of centrifugation steps and characterized using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Immunomodulatory effects of PJ-EVs were assessed using dendritic cells (DCs). PJ-EVs exhibited a spherical morphology with an average size of 122.6 nm. They induced the maturation of DCs via an increase in the expression of surface molecules (CD80, CD86, MHC-I, and MHC-II), production of Th1-polarizing cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12p70), and antigen-presenting ability; however, they reduced the antigen-uptake ability. Furthermore, maturation of DCs induced by PJ-EVs was dependent on the activation and phosphorylation of MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways. Notably, PJ-EV-treated DCs strongly induced the proliferation and differentiation of naïve T cells toward Th1-type T cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells along with robust secretion of IFN-γ and IL-2. In conclusion, our study indicates that PJ-EVs can be potent immunostimulatory candidates with an ability of strongly inducing the maturation of DCs.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Petasites/citologia , Plantas Comestíveis/citologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia
7.
Am Nat ; 198(5): E170-E184, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648399

RESUMO

AbstractLepidoptera are a highly diverse group of herbivorous insects; however, some superfamilies have relatively few species. Two alternative hypotheses for drivers of Lepidoptera diversity are shifts in food plant use or shifts from concealed to external feeding as larvae. Many studies address the former hypothesis but with bias toward externally feeding taxa. One of the most striking examples of species disparity between sister lineages in Lepidoptera is between the concealed-feeding sack-bearer moths (Mimallonoidea), which contain about 300 species, and externally feeding Macroheterocera, which have over 74,000 species. We provide the first dated tree of Mimallonidae to understand the diversification dynamics of these moths in order to fill a knowledge gap pertaining to drivers of diversity within an important concealed-feeding clade. We find that Mimallonidae is an ancient Lepidoptera lineage that originated in the Cretaceous ∼105 million years ago and has had a close association with the plant order Myrtales for the past 40 million years. Diversification dynamics are tightly linked with food plant usage in this group. Reliance on Myrtales may have influenced diversification of Mimallonidae because clades that shifted away from the ancestral condition of feeding on Myrtales have the highest speciation rates in the family.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Insetos , Larva , Mariposas/genética , Filogenia , Plantas Comestíveis
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258905, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673823

RESUMO

Locally harvested wild edible plants (WEPs) provide food as well as cash income for indigenous peoples and local communities, and they are of great importance in ensuring local food security. However, their uses and availability are poorly documented. This study aimed to enumerate WEP diversity and status of WEPs in a part of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Sikles region, where the population is dominated by the Gurung community. Ethnobotanical data were collected using guided field walks, semi-structured interviews, and field observation. The informant consensus method was employed and group discussions were conducted for triangulation of the information. Free listing and identification tests were performed to assess the knowledge of the informants. Both descriptive statistics and quantitative ethnobotanical methods were used for data analysis. A total of 72 wild food species belonging to 46 families and 61 genera were reported from the study area. Asparagaceae and Rosaceae were the dominant families, and herbs were the dominant life form. Fruits (34 species) were the most frequently used plant parts, followed by young shoots (16 species). Most edible plants were consumed in summer and during rainy seasons. While the age and type of informants had an influence on the number of enumerated plants, gender did not. Key informants and people aged 30-45 reported more species than other groups of respondents. Most of the knowledge about the use of WEPs was acquired from parents and relatives. The consumption of these plants was attributed to diversifying cuisine, spicing staple food, nutri-medicinal values, and cultural practices. People perceived the availability of WEPs to be gradually decreasing. However, WEPs are still abundant and diverse in the study area, and knowledge on their use is well-preserved. These resources provide food and nutrients to local people and can also be a source of cash income. Therefore, the documented information on WEPs may serve as baseline data for further studies on nutritional values and provide guidelines for safe collection. The results also revealed that many wild species are under growing pressure from various anthropogenic factors, suggesting effective community engagement is required for their conservation.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Conhecimento , Plantas Comestíveis , Humanos , Nepal
9.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684469

RESUMO

There are approximately 100 countries with food-based dietary guidelines throughout the world, each of which aims to encompass the cultural, geographical, and health considerations unique to their country of origin. Common themes throughout these guides emphasize diverse and balanced intake of food groups from both plant- and animal-sources. With the globally recognized need to shift to more sustainable food systems, several countries and international food and health organizations have begun to incorporate sustainability recommendations into their dietary guidance. These sustainability recommendations are often based on food source (i.e., eat more plant-source and fewer animal-source foods), yet food source may not be the only useful or informative comparator for assessing healthy and sustainable diets. The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the roles of plant-source foods and animal-source foods in the context of sustainable healthy diets-with an emphasis on the contributions of the most commonly recommended food groups from global food-based dietary guidelines (i.e., fruits, vegetables, and dairy foods). Overall, plant and animal agriculture have complementary and symbiotic roles in healthy and sustainable food systems, and these abilities are largely dependent on various contextual factors (e.g., geography, production practices, processing methods, consumption patterns)-not just on whether the food originated from the plant or animal kingdom.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Carne , Plantas Comestíveis , Animais , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Frutas , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Verduras
10.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684628

RESUMO

Phytochemicals contribute to the health benefits of plant-rich diets, notably through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, recommended daily amounts of the main dietary phytochemicals remain undetermined. We aimed to estimate the amounts of phytochemicals in a well-balanced diet. A modelled diet was created, containing dietary reference intakes for adults in France. Two one-week menus (summer and winter) were devised to reflect typical intakes of plant-based foods. Existing databases were used to estimate daily phytochemical content for seven phytochemical families: phenolic acids, flavonoids (except anthocyanins), anthocyanins, tannins, organosulfur compounds, carotenoids, and caffeine. The summer and winter menus provided 1607 and 1441 mg/day, respectively, of total polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins), the difference being driven by reduced anthocyanin intake in winter. Phenolic acids, flavonoids (including anthocyanins), and tannins accounted for approximately 50%, 25%, and 25% of total polyphenols, respectively. Dietary carotenoid and organosulfur compound content was estimated to be approximately 17 and 70 mg/day, respectively, in both seasons. Finally, both menus provided approximately 110 mg/day of caffeine, exclusively from tea and coffee. Our work supports ongoing efforts to define phytochemical insufficiency states that may occur in individuals with unbalanced diets and related disease risk factors.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Adulto , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Cafeína/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Dieta Mediterrânea , Flavonoides/análise , França , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Polifenóis/análise , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Taninos/análise
11.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500813

RESUMO

Aromatic halophytes represent an exceptional source of natural bioactive compounds for the food industry. Crithmum maritimum L., also known as sea fennel, is a halophyte plant colonizing cliffs and coastal dunes along Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. It is well known to produce essential oils and polyphenols endowed with antioxidant and biological effects. The present work reports the phytochemical profile, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial and antimutagenic properties of C. maritimum leaf hydro-alcoholic extract. From LC-ESI-MS analysis, eighteen phenolic compounds were depicted in sea fennel extract and the amount of total phenolic content exceeds 3% DW. Accordingly, C. maritimum extract showed strong antioxidant activities, as evidenced by in vitro (DPPH, ORAC, FRAP) and ex vivo (CAA-RBC and hemolysis) assays. An important antimicrobial activity against pathogenic strains was found as well as a strong capacity to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 35556) biofilm formation. Sea fennel extracts showed a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and menadione (ME) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In conclusion, our results show that C. maritimum is an exceptional source of bioactive components and exert beneficial effects against oxidative or mutagenic mechanisms, and pathogenic bacteria, making it a potential functional food.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Magnoliopsida/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/química , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360856

RESUMO

Indigenous communities across the globe, especially in rural areas, consume locally available plants known as Traditional Food Plants (TFPs) for their nutritional and health-related needs. Recent research shows that many TFPs are highly nutritious as they contain health beneficial metabolites, vitamins, mineral elements and other nutrients. Excessive reliance on the mainstream staple crops has its own disadvantages. Traditional food plants are nowadays considered important crops of the future and can act as supplementary foods for the burgeoning global population. They can also act as emergency foods in situations such as COVID-19 and in times of other pandemics. The current situation necessitates locally available alternative nutritious TFPs for sustainable food production. To increase the cultivation or improve the traits in TFPs, it is essential to understand the molecular basis of the genes that regulate some important traits such as nutritional components and resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. The integrated use of modern omics and gene editing technologies provide great opportunities to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of superior nutrient content, climate-resilient traits and adaptation to local agroclimatic zones. Recently, realizing the importance and benefits of TFPs, scientists have shown interest in the prospection and sequencing of TFPs for their improvements, cultivation and mainstreaming. Integrated omics such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and ionomics are successfully used in plants and have provided a comprehensive understanding of gene-protein-metabolite networks. Combined use of omics and editing tools has led to successful editing of beneficial traits in several TFPs. This suggests that there is ample scope for improvement of TFPs for sustainable food production. In this article, we highlight the importance, scope and progress towards improvement of TFPs for valuable traits by integrated use of omics and gene editing techniques.


Assuntos
Segurança Alimentar/métodos , Plantas Comestíveis/genética , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Metabolômica , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Proteômica
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(31): 8838-8849, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339210

RESUMO

Xyloglucans are the dominant hemicelluloses in the primary cell wall of dicotyledonous plants, fulfilling numerous functions. However, routine methods of cell wall analytical chemistry such as methylation analysis are time-consuming and often not adequate to capture the structural diversity of xyloglucans. Here, a xyloglucan profiling method based on the enzymatic release of xyloglucan oligosaccharides by a xyloglucan-specific endo-ß-(1→4)-glucanase and subsequent analysis of these oligosaccharides by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with parallel pulsed amperometric and mass spectrometric detection was developed. For this purpose, a set of 23 authentic xyloglucan oligosaccharides was generated, structurally characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, and established as analytical standard compounds. Coupling of HPAEC with parallel electrochemical and MS detection was demonstrated to be an excellent tool to analyze xyloglucan-derived oligosaccharides. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by characterizing the xyloglucan architecture from a set of nine economically relevant food plants from the botanical orders Caryophyllales (rhubarb, buckwheat, amaranth, and quinoa), Cucurbitales (Hokkaido squash), Laurales (avocado), Myrtales (pomegranate), and Sapindales (mango and orange) for the first time. In future studies, this method can ideally be used to monitor structural alterations of xyloglucans as a result of genetic engineering, plant/tissue maturation, and processing of plant material.


Assuntos
Plantas Comestíveis , Xilanos , Ânions , Cromatografia , Glucanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Oligossacarídeos , Polissacarídeos
14.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444844

RESUMO

The implementation of REGULATION (EC) No 1924/2006 has led to the formation of a list of health claims that can be used in food supplements (EU 432/2012). However, such supplements are often composed of plant preparations with claims omitted from this list. The peculiarity of plants is related to their long history of use, that could allow claims based on traditionally recognized health effects. In addition, the scientific literature has been enriched over the years through clinical studies that have assessed the bioavailability and efficacy of bioactive components, and investigated their mechanisms of action. Based on existing recognized models which aim to classify research according to the level of scientific evidence, Synadiet developed a three-grade model (A, B or C) for assessing plants health claims. In this paper, the applicability of the model is illustrated through an example for which a Grade B health claim attesting the possible contribution of red clover isoflavones to the improvement of blood lipid levels in postmenopausal women has been attributed. The model appears able to be easily extrapolated to claims pertaining to other plants. If adopted by consensus at European level, this model could initiate the implementation of a positive list of health claims on plant preparations.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Preparações de Plantas/normas , Plantas Comestíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Isoflavonas/análise , Isoflavonas/normas , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Trifolium/química
15.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(10): 1683-1708, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387781

RESUMO

The region around the plant root referred to as the rhizosphere, is the zone where various microbial activity occurs. It performs crucial functions such as increasing the uptake of nutrients for plant development and preventing plant against plant pathogens. Keeping in mind the beneficial role performed by rhizospheric microorganisms, rhizobacterial species were isolated from the maize and soybean plant's rhizosphere. The isolated microorganisms were evaluated for their biochemical characteristics, plant growth-promoting potentials, tolerance to different environmental conditions, and their antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum, a fungal pathogen that infects maize. The rhizobacterial isolates with multiple plant growth-promoting potentials were identified as Bacillus spp (80.77%), Rhodocyclaceae bacterium (3.85%), Enterococcus spp (3.85%). Massilia spp (3.85%. and Pseudomonas (7.69%) species based on their 16S rRNA molecular characterization. The bacterial isolates possessed antifungal activities against Fusarium graminearum, promote maize and soybeans seed under laboratory conditions, and exhibited different levels of tolerance to pH, temperature, salt, and heavy metal. Based on this, the whole genome sequencing of Bacillus sp. OA1, Pseudomonas rhizosphaerea OA2, and Pseudomonas sp. OA3 was performed using Miseq Illumina system to determine the functional genes and secondary metabolites responsible for their plant growth-promoting potential Thus, the result of this research revealed that the selected bacterial isolates possess plant growth-promoting potentials that can make them a potential candidate to be employed as microbial inoculants for protecting plants against phytopathogens, environmental stress and increasing plant growth and productivity.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas Comestíveis , Fusarium , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , África do Sul
16.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(3): 100, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382157

RESUMO

Mongolian traditional botanical knowledge has been rarely researched concerning the ethnobotany theory and methodology in the last six decades (Pei in Acta Botanica Yunnanica 135-144, 1988, as reported (Martin in Ethnobotany: A methods manual, Chapman and Hall, 1995)). However, most of the known literature of indigenous knowledge and information regarding the use of local wild plants among Mongolian herders was first documented by several botanical research of Russian researchers in Mongolia through the 1940s and 1950s. One of the most comprehensive works was completed by A. A. Yunatov (1909-1967), which is known as "Fodder Plants of Pastures and Hayfields of the People's Republic of Mongolia" (FPM). Yunatov's research sampled forage plants in Mongolia from 1940 to 1951 and subsequently published a study in 1954. The original transcript of FPM was later translated into Chinese and Mongolian (Cyrillic alphabet) during 1958 and 1968. In addition to morphological characteristics, distribution, habitat, phenology, palatability, and nutrition of forage plants, Yunatov`s record collected local names, the folk understanding and evaluation of the forage, as well as other relevant cultural meanings and the use of local wild plants (collected from the wild as opposed to cultivated plants) in FPM through interviews. The book contains the most precious records created in the 1940s and 1950s on folk knowledge of the Mongolians' wild plants in Mongolia. It was composed of 8 chapters and 351 pages in total. The fifth chapter of FPM, entitled "The systematic overview of forage plants," making up 272 pages (77.49% of the total page counts). The order and content of the book-oriented along with profiles of specific plants. Yunatov collected detailed information on plants, such as the local name, morphology, distribution, habitats, ecological characteristics, and phenology. He also discussed the palatability of livestock, particular forage use, other usages, and chemical composition. Through careful reading and understanding of all three versions of the book (in Russian, Chinese, and Mongolian (Cyrillic alphabet)), the FPM-listed information of edible plants was categorized using ethnobotanical dependent analysis. The list of edible plants was ranked based on purposes and ethnobotanical inventories as per methodology and analysis used in the ethnobotany research. FPM listed 35 species are part of 15 families and 25 genera of wild edible plants. Most species belong to Liliaceae and Allium. Naturally grown grain and some food substitutes (plants that could be used as substitutions for typical food) come from the starchy organs, such as seeds, bulbs, roots, and rhizomes of 12, accounting for 34.28% of all species. Wild vegetables come from the parts of a young plant, tender leaves, young fruits, lower leg of stems, and bulbs of 9 species, accounting for 25.71% of all species. There are only three species of wild fruits, accounting for 8.57% of all edible plant species. Tea substitutes consist of leaves, roots, follicle, and aboveground parts of 8 wild plant species, accounting for 22.85% of all species. Seasonings from the wild were made of the elements such as seeds, rhizomes, tender leaves of 7 species, accounting for 20.00% of all species (Fig,8). Similarities and differences are noticeable in utilizing wild edible plants among Mongolian populations living in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia. Six species of wild edible plants listed in FPM have been proven to be collected and consumed by Mongolians from the Genghis Khan era in the twelfth century to the present day. This proved that the Mongolians have a tradition of recognizing and utilizing wild plants, demonstrating historical and theoretical value. Seven species of plants mentioned in this book were closely correlated to the locals' processing of traditional dairy products, meat, and milk food. Yunatov was not an ethnobotanist, but his accurate documentation of interviews and surveys with Mongolians represents valuable information about the collection and consumption of local wild plants during 1940-1951 in Mongolia. His research mission meant to focus on forage grass, the feed plant that sustained livestock, while he also recorded plants consumed by humans. His records on the edible parts and intake methods of some plants are incomplete. Still, it provided ethnobotanical materials of a remarkable scientific value and a living history of ethnobotany in Mongolian regions. Even by today`s standards, it will be challenging to obtain first-hand information of the richness and to the extent of Yunatov's research.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica/história , Plantas Comestíveis , História do Século XX , Mongólia , Plantas Comestíveis/classificação , Plantas Comestíveis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Comestíveis/fisiologia
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445042

RESUMO

The consumption of plant sprouts as part of human day-to-day diets is gradually increasing, and their health benefit is attracting interest across multiple disciplines. The purpose of this review was to (a) critically evaluate the phytochemicals in selected sprouts (alfalfa, buckwheat, broccoli, and red cabbage), (b) describe the health benefits of sprouts, (c) assess the recent advances in sprout production, (d) rigorously evaluate their safety, and (e) suggest directions that merit special consideration for further novel research on sprouts. Young shoots are characterized by high levels of health-benefitting phytochemicals. Their utility as functional ingredients have been extensively described. Tremendous advances in the production and safety of sprouts have been made over the recent past and numerous reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing their nutritional and medicinal properties. However, subjects such as application of sprouted seed flours in processed products, utilizing sprouts as leads in the synthesis of nanoparticles, and assessing the dynamics of a relationship between sprouts and gut health require special attention for future clinical exploration. Sprouting is an effective strategy allowing manipulation of phytochemicals in seeds to improve their health benefits.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/tendências , Valor Nutritivo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Plantas Comestíveis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Manipulação de Alimentos , Germinação , Humanos , Plantas Comestíveis/efeitos adversos , Plantas Comestíveis/genética , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos adversos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos adversos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos adversos , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
18.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 49, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The local wild edible plants (WEPs) are still used traditionally in the rural communities in Yemen, but this traditional knowledge is still undocumented and has been never reported before. Therefore, this study is the first ethnobotanical survey on WEPs conducted in Yemen. METHODS: The study is based on two field surveys made in two periods 1988-1992 and 2014-2016 to document the wild plants used as edible by local indigenous peoples in 23 districts belonged to five governorates, in southern Yemen. Information data were collected by oral face-to-face interviews from 250 informants. Citations numbers were calculated for each species. RESULTS: A total of 58 plant species belonged to 37 genera and 21 families are reported as wild edible plants consumed in southern Yemen. Apocynaceae was the dominant plant family with 18 species followed by Asteraceae (6) and Malvaceae (5). The most widely used edible parts are stem, leaf and fruit with more than 17 species for each. Herbs were reported as the most important sources (31 species), followed by shrubs (16) and trees (9). Most of reported wild edibles (48 species parts) are consumed in raw form; only 12 of them are cooked. Seven wild edible plants were collected in dry season, 16 species throughout the year and 38 in rainy season. In this study, 58 wild plants were reported for the first time as food in Yemen. Comparing the southern Yemeni findings to those from other world countries, 12 of them are new WEPs eaten only in southern Yemen, while 46 species are shared in the use in different world countries practically in East Africa and Arab countries. CONCLUSIONS: The results data reflect the strong relationship between the local peoples and the local WEPs as potential sources insure food security. The traditional use of these WEPs is attributed to food shortage, nutritional values and local cultural tradition. The study is of great importance in preserving the traditional and knowledge heritage from being lost due to the risks of time, war and immigration.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas Comestíveis , Humanos , Conhecimento , Iêmen
19.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 52, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In some regions of Mexico, edible wild plants have been displaced or eliminated from the traditional food systems, mainly by changes in land use, booming monoculture, herbicide use, and by changes among the new generations in the traditional foods and diets of indigenous populations. In the Totonacapan region of Puebla, the gradual change from the traditional acahual plantation to coffee-type agroecosystems has provoked the displacement of old-growth forests and the eradication of wild plants since 1970. One of the wild species which has been used in traditional medicine and food recipes by the Totonac culture is Smilax aristolochiifolia (SMILACACEAE), known as "kgentsililh". This species forms part of traditional Totonac recipes, in which the tender stems are still used in local medicine to treat menstrual pain, deal with dysentery, and prevent hair loss. According to the Maxent® Program, there are still potential areas with habitats suitable to promote its conservation in the Poblano Totonacapan. METHODS: We conducted 260 interviews with people in 13 locations in the northern Sierra of the State of Puebla. Variables taken into account in the interview related to the consumption frequency of the species, its abundance and distribution perception, reasons or arguments given by the Totonac indigenous population about the decreased presence of specimens of S. aristolochiifolia, its dates of collection, and the cutting prices of kgentsililh at the community level and in local markets. The relative abundance of S. aristolochiifolia was determined through 22 samples in 2ts of 600 m2. Later, its potential distribution in the state of Puebla was estimated using the Maxent® Program Ver. 3.3.3. RESULTS: Of the 260 Totonac families interviewed, 31% had stopped consuming kgentsililh. The residents reported that in the last 50 years the populations of this plant had diminished in the northern Sierra of the State of Puebla, mainly due to changes in land use, herbicide application, over-collection, and urban growth. In traditional medicine, the stem sap of S. aristolochiifolia is currently employed to help treat baldness, and the "tuberous root" or plant rhizome is used to prepare a tea infusion to treat dysentery. The cost of plant guides varies from 10.00 to 40.00 Mexican pesos for one bunch (around 0.5 to 2.00 US dollars), and every bundle consists of between 7 to 10 cuttings from 0.4 to 0.5 m long. From our 22 quadrats of sampling and collection of S. aristolochiifolia, we were able to recognize a total of 32 specimens. There is a considerable abundance of kgentsililh in acahual plantations and old-growth forests (evergreen lowland and mid-elevation perennial forest) concerning the coffee-type plantations and milpas. According to our analysis using the Maxent Program®, eight physical and climatic variables have a direct relationship to the potential distribution of the species. CONCLUSIONS: Smilax aristolochiifolia is still a plant of socioeconomic importance, mainly because of its food value and its use in traditional medicine by indigenous families in Poblano Totonacapan. It is evident that the villagers perceive that in the last 50 years the species has decreased its population mainly due to land-use change, the application of herbicides to the different family production units, and climate change. At the moment, there is no knowledge about the methods of propagation of the species, and therefore there is no intention on the part of the population to conserve the species. However, it would be of great importance to generate a biocultural conservation strategy and take advantage of the results obtained from the potential geographic distribution area, since according to the Maxent® Program, there are still potential areas with habitat suitable to promote conservation in Poblano Totonacapan.


Assuntos
Smilax , Ecossistema , Humanos , México , Dispersão Vegetal , Plantas Comestíveis , Plantas Medicinais
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255406, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411110

RESUMO

Previous research has identified subjective and objective knowledge as determinants of consumers' acceptance of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the medical and food industries. In contrast to a large body of literature on the effects of attitudes or knowledge on food preferences, the extent to which consumers' knowledge affects their valuation of non-GMO food producing plants (i.e., plants grown for food or ornamental purposes) is less understood. This manuscript investigates the relationship between consumers' knowledge of relevant non-GMO certification programs and their acceptance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for non-GMO plants. The first study used an Internet respondent panel and choice experiment, while the second study utilized an in-person experimental auction. In line with previously reported low public acceptance of genetically modified food products, respondents were receptive of and willing to pay premiums for non-GMO food producing plants. This study found that subjective and objective knowledge impacted the premiums for non-GMO labels, with the high subjective and low objective knowledge group generating the highest WTP. Low subjective and low objective knowledge resulted in the lowest WTP. Findings suggest a disconnect between subjective and objective knowledge of non-GMO certification programs, which in turn influences consumer valuation of those products.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Plantas Comestíveis , Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Humanos
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