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1.
Plant Signal Behav ; 18(1): 2164670, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645916

RESUMO

Cell-to-cell communication via membranous channels called plasmodesmata (PD) plays critical roles during plant development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Several enzymes and receptor-like proteins (RLPs), including Arabidopsis thaliana glucan synthase-likes (GSLs), also known as callose synthases (CALSs), and PD-located proteins (PDLPs), have been implicated in plasmodesmal permeability regulation and intercellular communication. Localization of PDLPs to punctate structures at the cell periphery and their receptor-like identity have raised the hypothesis that PDLPs are involved in the regulation of symplastic trafficking during plant development and in response to endogenous and exogenous signals. Indeed, it was shown that PDLP5 could limit plasmodesmal permeability through inducing an increase in callose accumulation at PD. However, mechanistically, how this is achieved remains to be elucidated. To address this key issue in understanding the regulation of PD, physical and functional interactions between PDLPs and GSLs (using the PDLP5-GSL8/CALS10 pair as a model) were investigated. Our results show that GSL8/CALS10 plays essential roles and is required for the function and plasmodesmal localization of PDLP5. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the localization of PDLP5 to PD and its function in inducing callose deposition are GSL8-dependent. Importantly, our transgenic study shows that three key members of the GSL family, i.e., GSL5/CALS12, GSL8/CALS10, and GSL12/CALS3, localize to PD and co-localize with PDLP5, suggesting that GSL8/CALS10 might not be the only callose synthase with the determining role in PD regulation. These findings, together with our previous observation showing the direct interaction of GSL8/CALS10 with PDLP5, indicate the pivotal role of the GSL8/CALS10-PDLP5 interplay in regulating PD permeability. Future work is needed to investigate whether the PDLP5 functionality and localization are also disrupted in gsl5 and gsl12, or it is just gsl8-specific.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo
2.
Plant Cell Environ ; 46(2): 391-404, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36478232

RESUMO

Cell walls are essential for plant growth and development, providing support and protection from external environments. Callose is a glucan that accumulates in specialized cell wall microdomains including around intercellular pores called plasmodesmata. Despite representing a small percentage of the cell wall (~0.3% in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana), callose accumulation regulates important biological processes such as phloem and pollen development, cell division, organ formation, responses to pathogenic invasion and to changes in nutrients and toxic metals in the soil. Callose accumulation modifies cell wall properties and restricts plasmodesmata aperture, affecting the transport of signaling proteins and RNA molecules that regulate plant developmental and environmental responses. Although the importance of callose, at and outside plasmodesmata cell walls, is widely recognized, the underlying mechanisms controlling changes in its synthesis and degradation are still unresolved. In this review, we explore the most recent literature addressing callose metabolism with a focus on the molecular factors affecting callose accumulation in response to mutualistic symbionts and pathogenic elicitors. We discuss commonalities in the signaling pathways, identify research gaps and highlight opportunities to target callose in the improvement of plant responses to beneficial versus pathogenic microbes.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Plasmodesmos , Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Glucanos/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo
3.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36560746

RESUMO

Movement proteins (MPs) of plant viruses enable the translocation of viral genomes from infected to healthy cells through plasmodesmata (PD). The MPs functions involve the increase of the PD permeability and routing of viral genome both to the PD entrance and through the modified PD. Hibiscus green spot virus encodes two MPs, termed BMB1 and BMB2, which act in concert to accomplish virus cell-to-cell transport. BMB1, representing an NTPase/helicase domain-containing RNA-binding protein, localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm. BMB2 is a small hydrophobic protein that interacts with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes and induces local constrictions of the ER tubules. In plant cells, BMB2 localizes to PD-associated membrane bodies (PAMBs) consisting of modified ER tubules and directs BMB1 to PAMBs. Here, we demonstrate that BMB1 and BMB2 interact in vitro and in vivo, and that their specific interaction is essential for BMB2-directed targeting of BMB1 to PAMBs. Using mutagenesis, we show that the interaction involves the C-terminal BMB1 region and the N-terminal region of BMB2.


Assuntos
Hibiscus , Vírus de Plantas , Vírus de RNA , Hibiscus/metabolismo , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Vírus de Plantas/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático , Vírus de RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas do Movimento Viral em Plantas/genética , Proteínas do Movimento Viral em Plantas/metabolismo , Tabaco , Plasmodesmos
4.
Science ; 378(6621): 762-768, 2022 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395221

RESUMO

Plant roots exhibit plasticity in their branching patterns to forage efficiently for heterogeneously distributed resources, such as soil water. The xerobranching response represses lateral root formation when roots lose contact with water. Here, we show that xerobranching is regulated by radial movement of the phloem-derived hormone abscisic acid, which disrupts intercellular communication between inner and outer cell layers through plasmodesmata. Closure of these intercellular pores disrupts the inward movement of the hormone signal auxin, blocking lateral root branching. Once root tips regain contact with moisture, the abscisic acid response rapidly attenuates. Our study reveals how roots adapt their branching pattern to heterogeneous soil water conditions by linking changes in hydraulic flux with dynamic hormone redistribution.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Floema , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Água , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Água/metabolismo , Floema/metabolismo , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo
5.
Cells ; 11(18)2022 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36139431

RESUMO

Intercellular material transport and information transmission in plants are carried out through the plasmodesmata (PD). The amount of callose around the PD controls channel permeability. In plants, ß-1,3-glucanase can degrade callose and affect plant growth and development. In this study, the gene producing PD-localized ß-1,3-glucanase and regulating the leaf trichomes is identified and named PdBG4. Based on functional analysis through a series of genetic manipulation assays, we found that the high expression of PdBG4 was associated with strong PD permeability and short Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichomes. Conversely, the low expression of PdBG4 correlated with weak PD permeability and long Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichomes. This study revealed that the PdBG4 gene negatively modulates leaf trichome growth and development by regulating PD permeability.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/metabolismo , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo , Tricomas/metabolismo
6.
PLoS Biol ; 20(9): e3001781, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166438

RESUMO

To form tissue networks, animal cells migrate and interact through proteins protruding from their plasma membranes. Plant cells can do neither, yet plants form vein networks. How plants do so is unclear, but veins are thought to form by the coordinated action of the polar transport and signal transduction of the plant hormone auxin. However, plants inhibited in both pathways still form veins. Patterning of vascular cells into veins is instead prevented in mutants lacking the function of the GNOM (GN) regulator of auxin transport and signaling, suggesting the existence of at least one more GN-dependent vein-patterning pathway. Here we show that in Arabidopsis such a pathway depends on the movement of auxin or an auxin-dependent signal through plasmodesmata (PDs) intercellular channels. PD permeability is high where veins are forming, lowers between veins and nonvascular tissues, but remains high between vein cells. Impaired ability to regulate PD aperture leads to defects in auxin transport and signaling, ultimately leading to vein patterning defects that are enhanced by inhibition of auxin transport or signaling. GN controls PD aperture regulation, and simultaneous inhibition of auxin signaling, auxin transport, and regulated PD aperture phenocopies null gn mutants. Therefore, veins are patterned by the coordinated action of three GN-dependent pathways: auxin signaling, polar auxin transport, and movement of auxin or an auxin-dependent signal through PDs. Such a mechanism of tissue network formation is unprecedented in multicellular organisms.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Folhas de Planta , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo
7.
PLoS Biol ; 20(9): e3001806, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170211

RESUMO

Leaf veins provide a vital transport route in plants. The formation of leaf vein patterns has fascinated many scientists. In PLOS Biology, Linh and Scarpella reveal that transport through plasmodesmata plays a key role in vein patterning.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta , Plasmodesmos , Transporte Biológico , Plantas , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo
8.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 23(12): 1807-1814, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987858

RESUMO

Plant reticulon (RTN) proteins are capable of constricting membranes and are vital for creating and maintaining tubules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), making them prime candidates for the formation of the desmotubule in plasmodesmata (PD). RTN3 and RTN6 have previously been detected in an Arabidopsis PD proteome and have been shown to be present in primary PD at cytokinesis. It has been suggested that RTN proteins form protein complexes with proteins in the PD plasma membrane and desmotubule to stabilize the desmotubule constriction and regulate PD aperture. Viral movement proteins (vMPs) enable the transport of viruses through PD and can be ER-integral membrane proteins or interact with the ER. Some vMPs can themselves constrict ER membranes or localize to RTN-containing tubules; RTN proteins and vMPs could be functionally linked or potentially interact. Here we show that different vMPs are capable of interacting with RTN3 and RTN6 in a membrane yeast two-hybrid assay, coimmunoprecipitation, and Förster resonance energy transfer measured by donor excited-state fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Furthermore, coexpression of the vMP CMV-3a and RTN3 results in either the vMP or the RTN changing subcellular localization and reduces the ability of CMV-3a to open PD, further indicating interactions between the two proteins.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Tabaco , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/metabolismo
9.
Planta ; 256(3): 49, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881249

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: High symplastic connectivity via pits was linked to the lignification of the developing walnut shell. With maturation, this network lessened, whereas apoplastic intercellular space remained and became relevant for shell drying. The shell of the walnut (Juglans regia) sclerifies within several weeks. This fast secondary cell wall thickening and lignification of the shell tissue might need metabolites from the supporting husk tissue. To reveal the transport capacity of the walnut shell tissue and its connection to the husk, we visualised the symplastic and apoplastic transport routes during shell development by serial block face-SEM and 3D reconstruction. We found an extensive network of pit channels connecting the cells within the shell tissue, but even more towards the husk tissue. Each pit channel ended in a pit field, which was occupied by multiple plasmodesmata passing through the middle lamella. During shell development, secondary cell wall formation progressed towards the interior of the cell, leaving active pit channels open. In contrast, pit channels, which had no plasmodesmata connection to a neighbouring cell, got filled by cellulose layers from the inner cell wall lamellae. A comparison with other nut species showed that an extended network during sclerification seemed to be linked to high cell wall lignification and that the connectivity between cells got reduced with maturation. In contrast, intercellular spaces between cells remained unchanged during the entire sclerification process, allowing air and water to flow through the walnut shell tissue when mature. The connectivity between inner tissue and environment was essential during shell drying in the last month of nut development to avoid mould formation. The findings highlight how connectivity and transport work in developing walnut shell tissue and how finally in the mature state these structures influence shell mechanics, permeability, conservation and germination.


Assuntos
Juglans , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo
10.
J Plant Res ; 135(5): 693-701, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834070

RESUMO

Plasmodesmata are unique channel structures in plants that link the fluid cytoplasm between adjacent cells. Plants have evolved these microchannels to allow trafficking of nutritious substances as well as regulatory factors for intercellular communication. However, tracking the behavior of plasmodesmata in real time is difficult because they are located inside tissues. Hence, a system was constructed to monitor the movement of substances by plasmodesmata using tobacco BY-2 cells, which are linearly organized cells, and a microfluidic device that traps them in place and facilitates observation. After targeting one cell for photobleaching, recovery of the lost H2B-GFP protein was detected within 200 min. No recovery was detected in that time frame by photobleaching the entire cell filaments. This suggested that the recovery of H2B-GFP protein was not due to de novo protein synthesis, but rather to translocation from neighboring cells. The transport of H2B-GFP protein was not observed when sodium chloride, a compound known to cause plasmodesmata closure, was present in the microfluid channel. Thus, using the microfluidic device and BY-2 cells, it was confirmed that the behavior of plasmodesmata could be observed in real time under controllable conditions.


Assuntos
Plasmodesmos , Tabaco , Microfluídica , Permeabilidade , Plantas , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo
11.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 128, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major route for cell-to-cell signalling in plants is mediated by cell wall-embedded pores termed plasmodesmata forming the symplasm. Plasmodesmata regulate the plant development and responses to the environment; however, our understanding of what factors or regulatory cues affect their structure and permeability is still limited. In this paper, a meta-analysis was carried out for the identification of conditions affecting plasmodesmata transport and for the in silico prediction of plasmodesmata proteins in species for which the plasmodesmata proteome has not been experimentally determined. RESULTS: Using the information obtained from experimental proteomes, an analysis pipeline (named plasmodesmata in silico proteome 1 or PIP1) was developed to rapidly generate candidate plasmodesmata proteomes for 22 plant species. Using the in silico proteomes to interrogate published transcriptomes, gene interaction networks were identified pointing to conditions likely affecting plasmodesmata transport capacity. High salinity, drought and osmotic stress regulate the expression of clusters enriched in genes encoding plasmodesmata proteins, including those involved in the metabolism of the cell wall polysaccharide callose. Experimental determinations showed restriction in the intercellular transport of the symplasmic reporter GFP and enhanced callose deposition in Arabidopsis roots exposed to 75-mM NaCl and 3% PEG (polyethylene glycol). Using PIP1 and transcriptome meta-analyses, candidate plasmodesmata proteins for the legume Medicago truncatula were generated, leading to the identification of Medtr1g073320, a novel receptor-like protein that localises at plasmodesmata. Expression of Medtr1g073320 affects callose deposition and the root response to infection with the soil-borne bacteria rhizobia in the presence of nitrate. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that combining proteomic meta-analysis and transcriptomic data can be a valuable tool for the identification of new proteins and regulatory mechanisms affecting plasmodesmata function. We have created the freely accessible pipeline PIP1 as a resource for the screening of experimental proteomes and for the in silico prediction of PD proteins in diverse plant species.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Plasmodesmos , Arabidopsis/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica
12.
Postepy Biochem ; 68(1): 38-45, 2022 03 31.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569045

RESUMO

The suspensor in the majority of angiosperms is an evolutionally conserved embryonic organ functioning as a conduit that connects ovule tissues with the embryo proper for nutrients and growth regulators flux. In this article the present knowledge on the embryo-suspensor ultrastructure and function in representatives of Crassulaceae genera: Sedum, Jovibarba, Sempervivum, Aeonium, Monanthes, Aichryson and Echeveria. The role of the suspensor in the transport of nutrients from the tissues of the ovule to the proper embryo is confirmed by the structure of the basal cell, especially the nature of the micropylar part of its wall, the "transfer wall". The basal suspensor cell is a site of intense metabolic activity. The special attention is paid to the plasmodesmata. The correlation between types of suspensors and structure of plasmodesmata was investigated. Final conclusions are given and the presented data summarized.


Assuntos
Crassulaceae , Sedum , Crassulaceae/ultraestrutura , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Plasmodesmos/ultraestrutura , Sedum/ultraestrutura , Sementes/metabolismo
13.
Postepy Biochem ; 68(1): 3-14, 2022 03 31.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569048

RESUMO

Plasmodesmata (PD), discovered more than 120 years ago, are still a mystery about their role in regulating plant cell differentiation. Research in recent years has verified our idea about the structure of PD and their function in the exchange of information between cells of the plant body. The involvement of PD in the movement of proteins, including transcription factors, hormones, and various types of RNA, indicates that they play an important role in regulating cell differentiation. The movement of molecules through PD is called symplasmic communication, and its limitations or absence are an essential element in controlling the direction of cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Células Vegetais , Plasmodesmos , Diferenciação Celular , Plantas , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35628487

RESUMO

Plasmodesmata (PD) are plant-specific channels connecting adjacent cells to mediate intercellular communication of molecules essential for plant development and defense. The typical PD are organized by the close apposition of the plasma membrane (PM), the desmotubule derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and spoke-like elements linking the two membranes. The plasmodesmal PM (PD-PM) is characterized by the formation of unique microdomains enriched with sphingolipids, sterols, and specific proteins, identified by lipidomics and proteomics. These components modulate PD to adapt to the dynamic changes of developmental processes and environmental stimuli. In this review, we focus on highlighting the functions of sphingolipid species in plasmodesmata, including membrane microdomain organization, architecture transformation, callose deposition and permeability control, and signaling regulation. We also briefly discuss the difference between sphingolipids and sterols, and we propose potential unresolved questions that are of help for further understanding the correspondence between plasmodesmal structure and function.


Assuntos
Plasmodesmos , Esfingolipídeos , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Esteróis/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266982, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421187

RESUMO

The tobacco BY-2 cell line has been used widely as a model system in plant cell biology. BY-2 cells are nearly transparent, which facilitates cell imaging using fluorescent markers. As cultured cells are drifted in the medium, therefore, it was difficult to observe them for a long period. Hence, we developed a microfluidic device that traps BY-2 cells and fixes their positions to allow monitoring the physiological activity of cells. The device contains 112 trap zones, with parallel slots connected in series at three levels in the flow channel. BY-2 cells were cultured for 7 days and filtered using a sieve and a cell strainer before use to isolate short cell filaments consisting of only a few cells. The isolated cells were introduced into the flow channel, resulting in entrapment of cell filaments at 25 out of 112 trap zones (22.3%). The cell numbers increased through cell division from 1 to 4 days after trapping with a peak of mitotic index on day 2. Recovery experiments of fluorescent proteins after photobleaching confirmed cell survival and permeability of plasmodesmata. Thus, this microfluidic device and one-dimensional plant cell samples allowed us to observe cell activity in real time under controllable conditions.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Microfluídica , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Células Vegetais , Plasmodesmos , Tabaco
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2457: 3-22, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349130

RESUMO

Plasmodesmata are plant intercellular channels that mediate the transport of small and large molecules including RNAs and transcription factors (TFs) that regulate plant development. In this review, we present current research on plasmodesmata form and function and discuss the main regulatory pathways. We show the progress made in the development of approaches and tools to dissect the plasmodesmata proteome in diverse plant species and discuss future perspectives and challenges in this field of research.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Plasmodesmos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2457: 57-74, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349132

RESUMO

Plant plasmodesmata (PD) are complex intercellular channels consisting of a thin endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubule enveloped by the plasma membrane (PM). PD were first observed by electron microscopy about 50 years ago and, since, numerous studies in transmission and scanning electron microscopy have provided important information regarding their overall organization, revealing at the same time their diversity in terms of structure and morphology. However, and despite the fact that PD cell-cell communication is of critical importance for plant growth, development, cellular patterning, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses, linking their structural organization to their functional state has been proven difficult. This is in part due to their small size (20-50 nm in diameter) and the difficulty to resolve these structures in three dimensions at nanometer resolution to provide details of their internal organization.In this protocol, we provide in detail a complete process to produce high-resolution transmission electron tomograms of PD. We describe the preparation of the plant sample using high-pressure cryofixation and cryo-substitution. We also describe how to prepare filmed grids and how to cut and collect the sections using an ultramicrotome. We explain how to acquire a tilt series and how to reconstruct a tomogram from it using the IMOD software. We also give a few guidelines on segmentation of the reconstructed tomogram.


Assuntos
Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica , Plasmodesmos , Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microtomia , Células Vegetais , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2457: 75-94, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349133

RESUMO

Array tomography (AT) is a new high-throughput imaging method for high-resolution imaging of ultrastructure and for 3-D reconstruction of cells and organelles. Here, we describe the entire procedure for obtaining a spatial image of the distribution of plasmodesmata (PD). As example, the protocol is applied here to reconstruct the number and arrangement of PD between cells undergoing differentiation during Arabidopsis somatic embryogenesis.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Plasmodesmos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Plasmodesmos/ultraestrutura , Tomografia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2457: 95-107, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349134

RESUMO

Serial block electron microscopy (SB-EM) is a technique that enables acquisition and reconstruction of 3D cellular volumes. The approach is valuable for the study of plasmodesmata (PD) as the relative positions of these structures are contained in the datasets. In this chapter, we describe how to prepare plant roots for SB-EM via fixation, embedding, and trimming steps. We also provide details and recommendations for later image acquisition and processing. The procedure is suitable to work on root vascular tissues.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Plasmodesmos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2457: 23-54, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349131

RESUMO

Plasmodesmata (PD) are gated plant cell wall channels that allow the trafficking of molecules between cells and play important roles during plant development and in the orchestration of cellular and systemic signaling responses during interactions of plants with the biotic and abiotic environment. To allow gating, PD are equipped with signaling platforms and enzymes that regulate the size exclusion limit (SEL) of the pore. Plant-interacting microbes and viruses target PD with specific effectors to enhance their virulence and are useful probes to study PD functions.


Assuntos
Plasmodesmos , Vírus , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas , Transdução de Sinais
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