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1.
J Anat ; 240(4): 669-677, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761390

RESUMO

In 2016, two adult male sperm whales beached off of Yangkou Port in Nantong City, Jiangsu Province, China. The local government planned to preserve them as specimens, one was entrusted to Dalian Hoffen Biological Co., Ltd., and thus became the first sperm whale to be preserved by plastination. The other sperm whale was preserved in Nantong by the traditional stripping method (The skin was preserved, and then the prosthesis was filled into the skin to preserve the specimens. The material of the prosthesis was polyurethane. The outline of the animal was sculpted by suturing the skin like a bag and filling it with polyurethane). Plastination of such a large marine mammal allowed us to view the mutual adaptations of its internal structure to its specific living environment and daily habits. This sperm whale is the largest specimen in the world and this is the first time a sperm whale has been preserved using the plastination method. The plastination process also provides a method for studying the anatomy of large marine mammals for humans to understand deep-sea organisms at close contact and visual level. The plastination of this sperm whale promises to be a world class resource holding tremendous scientific, educational, and artistic value.


Assuntos
Plastinação , Cachalote , Animais , China , Masculino , Poliuretanos
3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(5): 1150-1154, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913849

RESUMO

Purpose: Ocular suspensory ligament is an important part of the lower eyelid retractors. However, there is a scarcity of studies examining detailed en-block histologies of ocular suspensory ligaments. Methods: In this study, we included the cadavers of Chinese adults as subjects. These cadavers of Chinese adults were processed using P45 plastination techniques. The polymer resulted in transparent plastination, and the P45 sheet-plastinated sections of the lower eyelid were observed. The gross anatomy results of three Chinese adult heads (six hemifaces) were included as gross dissection data. All photographic documentation was performed via a Canon EOS 7D Mark camera. Results: The results showed that the inferior rectus muscle, inferior oblique muscle, ocular suspensory ligament, and its arcuate expansion are under the eyeball. The medial and lateral parts of the ocular suspensory ligament end at the medial and lateral canthal ligament. The middle part, a hammock-like shape, is slightly lower. The ocular suspensory ligament holds up the inferior oblique muscle, inferior rectus muscle, and the eyeball. As the inferior oblique muscle passes through the sheath of the inferior rectus, the fascia is thickened, forming the ocular suspensory ligament. The ocular suspensory ligament connects to the intermuscular septum, the inferior tarsal muscle, and the medial and lateral check ligaments. Conclusion: This study observed the ocular suspensory ligament and arcuate expansion through P45 sheet plastination for the first time and identified the distribution of the lower eyelid ligaments, thus laying the foundation for further research.


Assuntos
Plastinação , Dissecação , Pálpebras , Ligamentos , Músculos Oculomotores
4.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(2): 759-761, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705029

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In this paper, the authors attempted to determine the extent of the superficial fascia of the cheek using P45 sheet plastination.Three head and neck specimens were sliced in horizontal (46 slices), coronal (30 slices), and sagittal (29 slices) sections using P45 sheet plastination (special polyester resin corrosion-resistant method designed to preserve biological sectional specimens in situ). Through slicing, bleaching, dehydration, casting, forced impregnation, curing, cutting, and sanding the molds, P45 plastination sheets provided good light transmission, allowing the internal structures within the sheet to reveal clearly in their intact form.P45 sheet plastination revealed that the superficial fascia in the cheek area is generally composed of 3 layers: a superficial fatty layer, a membranous layer, and a deep fatty layer. Anteriorly, the membranous layer of superficial fascia (MSF) extended to the posterior border of the zygomaticus major muscle, enveloping this muscle, and then to the lateral border of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Posteriorly, the MSF extended to the anterior border of the parotid gland, and then was continuous with the parotid fascia. Superiorly, the MSF extended to the line from the tragus to the alar base. Inferiorly, the MSF extended to the line from the mandibular angle to the mouth corner. Below this line, the SMAS continued to the upper border of the platysma muscle.Our results using P45 plastination concorded well with Mitz's original drawing. We suggest that the results of the present study may be helpful for practicing surgeons to apply in subcutaneous dissection or sub-SMAS dissection in facelift procedures.


Assuntos
Plastinação , Sistema Musculoaponeurótico Superficial , Bochecha , Fáscia , Humanos , Tela Subcutânea
5.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(2): 771-773, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705033

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between the nasolabial fold and superficial fascia on histology and P45 sheet plastination.Two centimeter width specimen of the nasolabial area were harvested from the skin to periosteum. Then, 10-µm sections were made, stained with Masson trichrome, and observed under a light microscope. Three head and neck specimens were sliced in horizontal sections (46 slices) using P45 sheet plastination (polyester resin corrosion-resistant method designed to preserve biological sectional specimens in situ). Through slicing, bleaching, dehydration, casting, forced impregnation, curing, cutting, and sanding the molds, P45 plastination provided good light transmission, allowing the internal structures within the sheet to be revealed clearly in their intact form.The observations on histology and P45 sheet plastination correlated well. The nasolabial fold consisted of the superficial fatty layer of superficial fascia (SFS). At the beginning of the alar groove level, the nasolabial groove was located on the point where the medial limit of SFS met the levator labii superioris. At the alar base level, the nasolabial groove was located where the medial limit of the SFS met levator labii superioris. At the mouth corner level, the nasolabial groove was located where the medial limit of the SFS met the modiolus, including the orbicularis oris. The superficial fascia became scanty near the nasolabial groove, and the SFS comprised the nasolabial fold.The results of the present study may be helpful for applying subcutaneous dissection or sub-superficial muscular aponeurotic system dissection in rejuvenation of the nasolabial area.


Assuntos
Plastinação , Dissecação , Músculos Faciais , Humanos , Lábio , Sulco Nasogeniano
6.
Clin Anat ; 34(1): 108-114, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681805

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had enormous effects on anatomy education. During the pandemic, students have had no access to cadavers, which has been the principal way to learn anatomy since the 17th century. As it is difficult to predict future access to cadavers for students or in-person classes, anatomy educators are encouraged to revisit all possible teaching methods in order to develop innovations. Here, we review anatomy education methods to apply to current and future education.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , COVID-19 , Cadáver , Dissecação , Educação à Distância , Invenções , Impressão Tridimensional , Realidade Virtual , Educação Médica/métodos , Humanos , Plastinação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Mídias Sociais , Ensino , Materiais de Ensino , Gravação em Vídeo
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 389-391, abr. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056452

RESUMO

Plastination has revolutionized the study and research of anatomy, thanks to the biosecurity and indefinite preservation of human and animal bodies and organs. This paper presents the concept of Micro-Plastination, an ultra-thin sheet plastination technique, to obtain ultra-thin slices, of a thickness of less than 250 µm, for the identification and visualization of the microanatomy of any anatomical region in morphological and pathological experimental protocols.


La plastinación ha revolucionado el estudio y la investigación de la anatomía, gracias a la conservación biosegura y por tiempo indefinido de cadáveres y órganos humanos y animales. En este trabajo se presenta el concepto de Micro-Plastinación, técnica de plastinación de cortes ultrafinos para la obtención de cortes ultradelgados, de un grosor inferior a los 250 µm, para la identificación y visualización de la microanatomía de cualquier región anatómica en protocolos de morfología experimental.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plastinação/métodos , Anatomia/métodos , Microtomia/métodos
8.
Forensic Sci Int ; 309: 110199, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142992

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plastination allows anatomical samples to be preserved in excellent condition for an indefinite period, free of formalin, and in a format that allows biosafe manipulation by students, academics, and researchers. As with other tissue preservation techniques, it is important to establish the level of conservation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for use in future applications. The object of the present work was to extract and evaluate DNA from plastinated tissues. METHODS: We used samples of liver from Canis lupus familiaris and skeletal muscle from Rattus norvegicus, Sprague-Dawley strain, extracted from specimens plastinated with silicone at room temperature. The tissue samples were deplastinated by incubation in 5% sodium methoxide dissolved in methanol for 24 or 48 h. The samples were divided into two equal parts and DNA was extracted using two different protocols. After extraction, the DNA was quantified by fluorometry and its integrity was assessed by electrophoresis in a 1% agarose gel. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A high yield of DNA was obtained from the deplastinated samples and the DNA was intact. Plastinated tissues have proven to be stable and easily managed. They can also be used for examination under light and electron microscopes. The DNA extraction technique used here allowed us to obtain intact DNA from samples plastinated with silicone at room temperature, without previous fixing. This technique may allow tissue specimens to be preserved for retrospective studies of archived samples of normal and pathological anatomy in the fields of basic, clinical, forensic, and epidemiological sciences. CONCLUSIONS: The extracted DNA was intact and suitable for use in subsequent applications. Obtaining whole DNA from plastinated samples using tissue preservation protocols that preserve the tissue for use in subsequent applications, like real-time PCR, opens up many possibilities, with applications in the basic and clinical sciences, epidemiology, and forensic science.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Fígado/química , Músculo Esquelético/química , Plastinação , Preservação de Tecido , Animais , Ciências Forenses , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Silicones , Lobos
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1548, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The underlying anatomical mechanism of the ultrasound-guided fascia iliaca compartment (FIC) block for anaesthesia and analgesia in the lower limb has not been illuminated and numerous variations were attempted to achieve an optimal needle placement. This study aimed to define the fibrous configuration of the FIC. METHODS: A total of 46 adult cadavers were studied using dissection, latex injection, epoxy sheet plastination and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: (1) The fascia iliaca originated from the peripheral fascicular aponeurotic sheet of the iliopsoas. (2) The FIC was a funnel-shaped adipose space between the fascia iliaca and the epimysium of the iliopsoas, had a superior and an inferior opening and contained the femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves but not obturator nerve. (3) The estimated volume of the FIC in the cadavers was about 23 mls, of which about one third was below the level of the anterior superior iliac spine. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the fascia iliaca was aponeurotic and may be less permeable for the local anesthetics. CONCLUSIONS: The FIC contained only the femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves and communicated with the extraperitoneal space and femoral triangle adipose space via its superior and inferior opening, respectively.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Aponeurose/anatomia & histologia , Fáscia/anatomia & histologia , Ílio/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Peritoneal/anatomia & histologia , Plastinação/métodos , Músculos Psoas/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Compostos de Epóxi , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31979171

RESUMO

Natural fibers are gaining wide attention due to their much lower carbon footprint and economic factors compared to synthetic fibers. The moisture affinity of these lignocellulosic fibres, however, is still one of the main challenges when using them, e.g., for outdoor applications, leading to fast degradation rates. Plastination is a technique originally used for the preservation of human and animal body organs for many years, by replacing the water and fat present in the tissues with a polymer. This article investigates the feasibility of adapting such plastination to bamboo natural fibres using the S-10 room-temperature technique in order to hinder their moisture absorption ability. The effect of plastination on the mechanical properties and residual moisture content of the bamboo natural fibre samples was evaluated. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) were employed to characterize the chemical composition and 3-dimensional morphology of the plastinated specimens. The results clearly show that, as plastination lessens the hydrophilic tendency of the bamboo fibres, it also decreases the residual moisture content and increases the tensile strength and stiffness of the fibers.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão/análise , Poaceae/química , Plastinação , Espectrometria por Raios X , Microtomografia por Raio-X
11.
Clin Anat ; 33(1): 108-112, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576597

RESUMO

Deplastination is the process of reversing plastination such that a plastinated specimen can be reverted to its raw nature. This would enable its use in the field of histopathology. The present study aims to ascertain if deplastinates can be used for histopathological studies after a time period. Tissue samples were taken from patients undergoing maxillofacial surgeries for oral carcinomas after obtaining written informed consent. The 12 specimens obtained were divided into two groups. One set of tissues was processed for paraffin embedding after 10% formalin fixation. The other set was plastinated by S10 silicon plastination. After 3 months, the plastinates were deplastinated using sodium methoxide and processed for routine hematoxylin and eosin staining, similar to the formalin fixed specimens. The slides were quantitatively assessed on parameters like tissue architecture, staining property, and intracellular structure. In addition, the slides were qualitatively evaluated by a pathologist who was blinded to the mode of preservation to see if identification of pathological features was possible on a deplastinated slide. The formalin preserved specimens and deplastinated tissue slides compared closely in all three parameters tested with the need to identify the endpoint of deplastination. Qualitatively, deplastination did not hamper identification of tissue pathology. Deplastination increases the scope of a stored plastinate by allowing histological studies in the future without the need for any preservatives or special storage equipment. It preserves structure and maintains tissue pathology. An improved method of ensuring the endpoint of deplastination needs to be identified. Clin. Anat. 32:108-112, 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Técnicas Histológicas/métodos , Inclusão em Parafina , Inclusão em Plástico , Plastinação , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos , Formaldeído , Humanos
12.
Anat Sci Int ; 95(2): 297-303, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401788

RESUMO

Injection with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) is widely used to produce osteoarthritis (OA). Ultrathin sheet plastination has been used to study the morphology of structures, with strong application in anatomical education and research. Our aim was to carry out, for the first time, ultrathin sheet plastination of rat humeral joints to observe the neovascularization provoked by OA. We injected 0.1 mL of MIA into the left humeral joints of ten Sprague-Dawley rats. The right shoulders of the same rats were used as control. Sixteen weeks after the injection, the animals were euthanized and were given an immediate red epoxy resin injection through the thoracic aorta. The samples were fixed in 10% formalin, prior to the plastination process, without decalcification. Samples were dehydrated with acetone (100%) at - 25 °C, for 10 days. Later, for degreasing, samples were immersed in methylene chloride at room temperature during 1 week. Forced impregnation was performed inside a stove within a vacuum chamber. The plastinated blocks obtained were cut with a slow velocity diamond blade saw. Slices were placed in curing chambers to achieve curing and final tissue transparentation. 230 µm thickness slices were obtained. The slices were analyzed under magnifying glass and microscope, achieving visualization of OA neovascularization. The cartilage affected by OA loses its ability to remain avascular, and blood vessels invade it from the subchondral bone to the calcified and uncalcified cartilage. Ultra-thin sheet plastination is useful to observe articular cartilage neovascularization, caused by OA induced with MIA in humeral rat joint.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/irrigação sanguínea , Úmero , Articulações , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Plastinação/métodos , Animais , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Ácido Iodoacético , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1557-1563, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040169

RESUMO

La plastinación es una técnica anatómica de conservación cadavérica creada en 1977 por Gunther von Hagens, en Heidelberg, Alemania, y que sustituye los líquidos biológicos y/o de fijación por acetona, para luego impregar las muestras con distintas resinas, dependiendo de la técnica de plastinación desarrollada, para finalmente llevar a cabo la polimerización de los componentes incorporados a las muestras, para obtener muestras biológicas secas y totalmente duraderas. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en desarrollar un protocolo de plastinación de cortes con resina poliéster (Biodur® P40) en secciones de 3 mm de espesor de cerebro humano. La muestras fueron fijadas y conservadas con formalina al 10 %. Los cerebros luego fueron seccionados con una maquina cortadora de tejidos, obteniéndose láminas delgadas de 3 mm de espesor. Inmediatamente los cortes de cerebro fueron colocados en deshidratación en acetona al 100 %, a -25 ºC, durante 7 días el primer baño de acetona, y durante otros 3 días más, para el segundo baño de acetona. Una vez deshidratados los cortes, estos fueron colocados en resina poliéster Biodur® P40 y se llevó a cabo la impregnación forzada de los cortes, en cámara de vacío a temperatura ambiente (20 ºC). Una vez finalizada la impregnación forzada, se procedió a la etapa de curado, la cual en primer lugar consiste en el armado de las cámaras de curado dentro de las cuales se colocaran los cortes con resina poliéster. Las cámaras de curado fueron colocadas bajo luz UV para acelerar la polimerización del poliéster y finalizar el proceso de plastinación. Se logró desarrollar satisfactoriamente en el Laboratorio de Plastinación y Técnicas Anatómicas de la Universidad de La Frontera un protocolo de plastinación de cortes con resina poliéster, obteniendo una excelente conservación de cortes de cerebro, con diferenciación de sustancias gris y blanca, y conservación de todas las características morfológicas.


Plastination is an anatomical technique of cadaveric conservation created in 1977 by Gunther von Hagens, in Heidelberg, Germany, and that substitutes biological and / or fixation fluids with acetone, to then impregnate the samples with different resins, depending on the developed plastination technique, to finally carry out the polymerization of the components incorporated into the samples, to obtain dry and totally durable biological samples. The aim of this work was to develop a sheet plastination protocol with polyester resin (Biodur® P40) in 3 mm thick slices of human brain. The samples were fixed and preserved with 10 % formalin. The brains were sectioned with a slice cut machine, obtaining thin sheets of 3 mm thick. Immediately the slices of brain were placed in dehydration in 100 % acetone, at -25 °C, for 7 days the first acetone bath, and for another 3 more days, for the second acetone bath. Once the cuts were dehydrated, they were placed in Biodur® P40 polyester resin and the forced impregnation was carried out in a vacuum chamber at room temperature (20 °C). Once the forced impregnation was finished, the curing stage was carried out, which first consists in the assembly of the curing chambers within which the slices with polyester resin were placed. The curing chambers were placed under UV light to accelerate the polymerization of the polyester and finished the plastination process. A sheet plastination protocol with polyester resin was successfully developed in the Laboratory of Plastination and Anatomical Techniques of Universidad de La Frontera, obtaining excellent conservation of brain slices, with differentiation of gray and white substances, and conservation of all morphological characteristics.


Assuntos
Humanos , Poliésteres/química , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Plastinação/métodos , Protocolos Clínicos
14.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(6): 552-556, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679158

RESUMO

In the early days of plastination, plastinate Color was the usual grey/brown familiar to formalin-fixed biological specimens. Initially, trials with Kaiserling's, Klotz, Jore's and McCormick's fixative solutions were disappointing. Vascular injections with Colored epoxy were a great breakthrough in the 1980s. Biodur AC10® stain was the first stain of note to be applied to gross specimens to be plastinated and was applied in the last acetone bath. As plastination became more popular, specimen Color became an important and necessary aspect. Reactivation of the normal Color of red blood cells within a formalin-fixed specimen was introduced as a mechanism to restore Color to plastinated specimens. Painting of plastinated vessels was tried with some success, and finally, a superior new proprietary type of silicone coloration was developed. More recently, a versatile red pigment stain was developed. All of these have added aesthetically to the plastination processes and will certainly be a reality in the years to come. The various methodologies to Color plastinates are presented. Time will tell how effective these may or may not be.


Assuntos
Corantes/história , Plastinação/métodos , Animais , Corantes/química , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Modelos Anatômicos , Silicones , Coloração e Rotulagem/história , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos
15.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(6): 539-546, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670410

RESUMO

For 20 years, the cold temperature/S10/von Hagens' plastination technique was used to preserve biological specimens without challenge. It became the "gold standard" for preservation of beautiful, dry biological specimens. Near the end of the 21st century, a group from the University of Michigan and environs and Dow Corning™, USA, combined silicone ingredients, similar to the von Hagens' plastination products, however in a different sequence. The new polymer (Cor-tech) was combined with the cross-linker to design the "impregnation mix" which would invade the cellular structure of the specimen and yet was stable at room temperature. Later, curing would be by application of the catalyst onto the impregnated specimen. This unique sequencing of products would become the "Room temperature/Dow Corning™/Corcoran-Silicone plastination technique." The results of this room temperature technique provided similar plastinates, beautiful and practical for demonstration, containing no toxic chemical residues and forever preserved. As the name implies, impregnation of this silicone mix could be done at room temperature, without having to be kept cold. Both processes (cold and room temperature) required the same four basic steps for plastination. As well, both processes used similar basic polymers and additives to produce plastinates. However, they were combined in a different sequence. Cold temperature combines polymer and catalyst/chain extender, which is not stable and therefore must be kept colder than -15°C, while room temperature combines polymer with cross-linker which is stable, and likely forever.


Assuntos
Plastinação/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Polímeros , Silicones , Temperatura
17.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(6): 526-531, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573113

RESUMO

Over the last four decades, plastination has been one of the best processes of preservation for organic tissue. In this process, water and lipids in biological tissues are replaced by polymers (silicone, epoxy, polyester) which are hardened, resulting in dry, odourless and durable specimens. Nowadays, after more than 40 years of its development, plastination is applied in more than 400 departments of anatomy, pathology, forensic sciences and biology all over the world. The most known polymers used in plastination are silicone (S10), epoxy (E12) and polyester (P40). The key element in plastination is the impregnation stage, and therefore depending on the polymer that is used, the optical quality of specimens differs. The S10 silicone technique is the most common technique used in plastination. Specimens can be used, especially in teaching, as they are easy to handle and display a realistic topography. Plastinated silicone specimens are used for displaying whole bodies, or body parts for exhibition. Transparent tissue sections, with a thickness between 1 and 4 mm, are usually produced by using epoxy (E12) or polyester (P40) polymer. These sections can be used to study both macroscopic and microscopic structures. Compared with the usual methods of dissection or corrosion, plastinated slices have the advantage of not destroying or altering the spatial relationships of structures. Plastination can be used as a teaching and research tool. Besides the teaching and scientific sector, plastination becomes a common resource for exhibitions, as worldwide more and more exhibitions use plastinated specimens.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Plastinação , Animais , Resinas Epóxi , Exposições como Assunto , Humanos , Modelos Anatômicos , Plastinação/métodos , Plastinação/tendências , Poliésteres , Polímeros , Silicones , Ensino
18.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(6): 557-563, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617253

RESUMO

Epoxy plastination techniques were developed to obtain thin transparent body slices with high anatomical detail. This is facilitated because the plastinated tissue is transparent and the topography of the anatomical structures well preserved. For this reason, thin epoxy slices are currently used for research purposes in both macroscopic and microscopic studies. The protocol for the conventional epoxy technique (E12) follows the main steps of plastination-specimen preparation, dehydration, impregnation and curing/casting. Preparation begins with selection of the specimen, followed by freezing and slicing. Either fresh or fixed (embalmed) tissue is suitable for epoxy plastination, while slice thickness is kept between 1.5 and 3 mm. Impregnation mixture is made of epoxy E12 resin plus E1 hardener (100 ppw; 28 ppw). This mixture is reactive and temperature sensitive, and for this reason, total impregnation time under vacuum at room laboratory temperature should not last for more than 20-24 hr. Casting of impregnated slices is done in either flat chambers or by the so-called sandwich method in either fresh mixture or the one used for impregnation. Curing is completed at 40°C to allow a complete polymerization of the epoxy-mixture. After curing, slices can be photographed, scanned or used for anatomical study under screen negatoscope, magnification glass or fluorescent microscope. Based on epoxy sheet plastination, many anatomical papers have recent observations of and/or clarification of anatomical concepts in different areas of medical expertice.


Assuntos
Anatomia/métodos , Resinas Epóxi , Plastinação/métodos , Animais , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Plastinação/história , Plastinação/instrumentação
19.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(6): 564-571, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487077

RESUMO

With classical sheet plastination techniques such as E12, the level and thickness of the freeze-cut sections decide on what is visible in the final sheet plastinated sections. However, there are other plastination techniques available where we can look for specific anatomical structures through the thickness of the tissue. These techniques include sectioning and grinding of plastinated tissue blocks or thick slices. The ultra-thin E12 technique, unlike the classic E12 technique, starts with the plastination of a large tissue block. High temperatures (30-60°C) facilitate the vacuum-forced impregnation by decreasing the viscosity of the E12 and increasing the vapour pressure of the intermediary solvent. By sectioning the cured tissue block with a diamond band saw plastinated sections with a thickness of <300 µm can be obtained. The thickness of plastinated sections can be further reduced by grinding. Resulting sections of <100 µm are suitable for histological staining and microscopic studies. Anatomical structures of interest in thick plastinate slices can be followed by variable manual grinding in a method referred to as Tissue Tracing Technique (TTT). In addition, the tissue thickness can be adapted to the transparency or darkness of tissue types in different regions of the same plastinated section. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of techniques based on sectioning and grinding of plastinated tissue (E12 ultra-thin and TTT) compared to conventional sheet-forming techniques (E12).


Assuntos
Anatomia/métodos , Microtomia/métodos , Plastinação/métodos , Animais , Resinas Epóxi , Humanos , Microtomia/instrumentação , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos
20.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(6): 572-576, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509268

RESUMO

The P40 technique produces high-quality brain and body slices and is the user-friendliest of the polyester techniques. The P40 polyester technique follows the same classical steps for plastination. That is, preparation of the specimen, fixation (optional), dehydration by freeze substitution, forced impregnation and curing. Two methods used to prepare two different types of specimens, that is, brain slices and body slices are described. Each method has its own characteristics depending on the specimen type used. Brain slices were used to illustrate the vertical small chamber method while the body slices were used to illustrate the horizontal large chamber method. The brain slices obtained using P40 are of very good quality presenting good contrast between grey and white matter. The body slices are also of very good quality. The physical appearance of these slices makes them an exceptional instrument for diagnostic imaging and anatomical correlation. Body slices prepared with P40 retain the natural colour of the tissue and preserve the anatomical relationships.


Assuntos
Plastinação/instrumentação , Plastinação/métodos , Anatomia/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Humanos , Poliésteres
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