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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159190, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195141

RESUMO

Benthic indices have been widely used across different coastal ecosystems to assess ecological quality and detect anthropic impacts, but very few studies investigated their effectiveness on sandy beaches. Here, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of 12 assemblage-based benthic indices in assessing ecological quality in beaches, across a gradient of anthropic pressure and natural variability in 90 sandy beach sites. Overall, when sandy beaches were considered collectively, benthic indices had a poor performance in identifying decreases in ecological quality with increasing urbanization. However, when each morphodynamic type was evaluated separately, a few indices, especially those that were calibrated by reference conditions (i.e., M-AMBI, BAT, and BEQI-2), showed promising results for dissipative, and to a lesser extent, intermediate beaches. For reflective beaches, indices performed poorly, likely a reflection of the stronger natural disturbance these beaches are subjected to. Among functional indices, richness was found to be lower in urbanized beaches, but only in dissipative ones. Overall, our results show that benthic indices have the potential to be incorporated in sandy beach management and monitoring programs, especially for dissipative and intermediate beaches. For reflective beaches, given the early stage of studies with benthic indices in beaches, more research is needed to corroborate the observed patterns.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Urbanização , Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159468, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257422

RESUMO

Storm-stranded debris (i.e., wrack) are important components for the functioning of beach ecosystems. With the current increase in extreme storm events, beached wrack is expected to change globally. However, little is known about how different types of wrack can affect beach biodiversity. Here, we hypothesized that natural debris (algae and land-plant debris) would optimize the short-term aggregation of benthic arthropods on the beach ecosystem, while anthropogenic debris (plastics) would not perform this function. We also expected that short-term aggregations of arthropods in the natural debris would create a transient prey hotspot (i.e., points of high prey concentration) for birds on the beach. Thus, we performed manipulative field experiments with debris addition and predator exclusion by cage on a short temporal scale (maximum 20 days). We found that natural debris aggregated higher community abundances than anthropic debris and treatments without debris, while community richness was not affected by wrack. No differences were noted when comparing the community aggregation on plastic debris and treatments without debris. The coleopterans were the group responsible for this aggregation, mainly represented by Phaleria testacea, which aggregated on natural debris with abundances five times greater than those on plastic debris. Nevertheless, we did not find any evidence of increased predation by birds on the coleopterans aggregated in the natural debris. We conclude that arthropod aggregation in the wrack is a phenomenon primarily associated with natural debris, not occurring in plastic debris, although the role of this faunal aggregation as a prey hotspot for birds was not evident in the short term. These results showed that the wrack type matters in terms of consequences for beach arthropods, creating concerns against beach cleaning methods that are adopted indiscriminately, also signaling the need for long-term studies to proceed with investigating the wrack functions for top predators on sandy beaches.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Praias , Animais , Ecossistema , Plásticos , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Resíduos/análise
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 177: 113495, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245764

RESUMO

Twenty beaches located around the island of Cyprus, in the eastern Mediterranean, were identified as monitoring sites. They were monitored over four monitoring sessions from January to September 2021 to assess marine litter amounts, categories, and spatiotemporal distribution. A total of 42,499 marine litter items were collected. The average marine litter density was 0.19 items/m2. Most of the collected items were plastics, with single-use plastics being ubiquitous. Plastic fragments >2.5 cm made a significant proportion of the plastic litter collected, particularly in the northern coasts of the island. Cigarette butts were abundant on touristic beaches, especially in the tourism period. The study identifies significant temporal and spatial variations in the abundance and distribution of marine litter, as well as variations related to waste management or lack thereof.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Chipre , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Estações do Ano , Resíduos/análise
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 4, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36266377

RESUMO

The amount of human-origin litter in sea surface water, sediment, and beaches has been increasing for decades. Initially described in marine coastal systems in the 1960s, marine litter (ML) is nowadays commonly observed in all marine systems. There is even a gigantic island consisting of garbage in the gyre area of the Atlantic Ocean. In relation to this significant problem, ML was collected from seven stations on beaches along the Dardanelles for the first time in the period May 2017-May 2018 and was seasonally and regionally analyzed in terms of densities and weights. ML was categorized by material type (plastic, rubber, paper, etc.) and field of use (mixed packaging wastes, personal use products, fishing wastes, etc.). Total numbers and weights of ML during the study were 5751 items and 115.7 kg in an area of 15,980 m2, respectively. Density and weight of ML ranged from 0.050 to 1.182 items/m2 and from 0.446 to 78.46 g/m2, respectively. The main ML component was plastic items in terms of both density (90.95%) and weight (53.76%) according to material type. Additionally, mixed packaging wastes (MPW) were the most common ML items in terms of density (82.14%) and weight (49.38%) according to usage. According to the clean-coast index, while Kilya (St.2) and Kepez (St.5) beaches were dirty, Seddulbahir (St.1) beach was clean. The beaches in other stations were neither dirty nor clean (medium) according to the index. At the end of the study, suggestions for a regional strategy were made.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Humanos , Resíduos/análise , Borracha , Turquia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Água
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 4): e20211265, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228205

RESUMO

Sandy beaches are the main recreational ecosystems of the world, enabling high ecological impacts, especially on the benthic macrofauna, which inhabit the sandy matrix and have a low capacity of locomotion. Cassino Beach, located in southern Brazil, has intense vehicle traffic during the summer, so the purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of vehicles on the key species Amarilladesma mactroides and Donax hanleyanus. For this purpose, samplings were performed in three sectors of this beach (High Impact, Moderate Impact and Control) during six periods of the year. The results showed lower densities of both bivalves in the High Impact sector than in to the other sectors in all periods, except in first summer sampling, and a predominance of recruits throughout the study. Thus, it suggests that the two species were influenced by the intense vehicle traffic, especially in the most impacted sector. In this way, we conclude that these bivalves could be used as good indicators of pulse disturbance by vehicle traffic on this beach and the results can support in management plans regarding the use of Cassino Beach, considering ecological aspects of this ecosystem in addition to economic and cultural demands.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Ecossistema , Animais , Praias , Brasil , Biomarcadores Ambientais
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 184: 114167, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182785

RESUMO

In this study, based on data collected by citizen science, we studied the abundance, spatial and temporal distribution of marine litter in three beaches of the Moroccan Mediterranean. A total of 14,042 litter items were collected with an average abundance of 0.58 items/m2. The most of litter were composed of anthropic polymeric materials, representing 74 % of the total litter collected. Plastics account for the majority of the items collected and are mainly caps/lids, crisp/sweet packets, plastic/polystyrene, cigarette butts and small plastic bags. Litter abundance displayed significant seasonal differences, with the highest during summer. Tourism and poor waste management practices are the major sources of plastic on the beaches surveyed. The use of the Clean Coast Index (CCI) and the Plastics Abundance Index (PAI) permits the classification of the three beaches in the Moroccan Mediterranean as a "moderately clean" coastal area with a "very high abundance" of plastics. In addition, the Hazardous Items Index (HII) allows classification of the region as highly polluted by hazardous litter. Best management measures are needed to promote the environmental quality of the beaches of the Moroccan Mediterranean.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Plásticos , Praias , Resíduos/análise , Poliestirenos , Monitoramento Ambiental
7.
Water Res ; 226: 119235, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257159

RESUMO

Michigan's water-quality standards specify that E. coli concentrations at bathing beaches must not exceed 300 E. coli per 100 mL, as determined by the geometric mean of culture-based concentrations in three or more representative samples from a given beach on a given day. Culture-based analysis requires 18⁠-⁠24 h to complete, so results are not available on the day of sampling. This one-day delay is problematic because results cannot be used to prevent recreation at beaches that are unsafe on the sampling day, nor do they reliably indicate whether recreation should be prevented the next day, due to high between-day variability in E. coli concentrations demonstrated by previous studies. By contrast, qPCR-based E. coli concentrations can be obtained in 3-4 h, making same-day beach notification decisions possible. Michigan has proposed a qPCR threshold value (qTV) for E. coli of 1.863 log10 gene copies per reaction as a potential equivalent value to the state standard, based on statistical analysis of a set of state-wide training data from 2016 to 2018. The main purpose of the present study is to assess the validity of the proposed qTV by determining whether the implied qPCR-based beach notification decisions agree well with culture-based decisions on two sets of test data from 2016⁠-⁠2018 (6,564 samples) and 2019-2020 (3,205 samples), and whether performance of the proposed qTV is similar on the test and training data. The results show that performance of Michigan's proposed qTV on both sets of test data was consistently good (e.g., 95% agreement with culture-based beach notification decisions during 2019⁠-⁠2020) and was as good as or better than its performance on the training data set. The false-negative rate for the proposed qTV was 25-29%, meaning that beach notification decisions based on the qTV would be expected to permit recreation on the day of sampling in 25-29% of cases where the beach exceeds the state standard for FIB contamination. This false-negative rate is higher than one would hope to see but is well below the corresponding error rate for culture-based decisions, which permit recreation at beaches that exceed the state standard on the day of sampling in 100% of cases because of the one-day delay in obtaining results. The key advantage of qPCR-based analysis is that it permits a large percentage (71-75%) of unsafe beaches to be identified in time to prevent recreation on the day of sampling.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Água , Escherichia coli/genética , Microbiologia da Água , Michigan , Fezes , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Praias
8.
Environ Pollut ; 315: 120370, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216177

RESUMO

The abundance of beach litter has been increasing globally during the last decades, and it is an issue of global concern. A new survey strategy, based on uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAV, aka drones), has been recently adopted to improve the monitoring of beach macro-litter items abundance and distribution. This work identified and analysed the 15 studies that used drone for beach litter surveys on an operational basis. The analysis of technical parameters for drone flight deployment revealed that flight altitude varied between 5 and 40 m. The analysis of final assessments showed that, through manual and/or automated items detection on images, most of studies provided litter bulk characteristics (type, material and size), along with litter distribution maps. The potential standardization of drone-based litter survey would allow a comparison among surveys, however it seems difficult to propose a standard set of flight parameters, given the wide variety of coastal environments, the different devices available, and the diverse objectives of drone-based litter surveys. On the other hand, in our view, a set of common outcomes can be proposed, based on the grid mapping process, which can be easily generated following the procedure indicated in the paper. This work sets the ground for the development of a standardized protocol for drone litter data collection, analysis and assessments. This would allow the provision of broad scale comparative studies to support coastal management at both national and international scales.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Resíduos/análise , Dispositivos Aéreos não Tripulados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Padrões de Referência , Plásticos/análise
9.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(21): e0104322, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36218359

RESUMO

Previous research has identified E. coli populations that persist in freshwater beach sand distinct from fecal pollution events. This work identifies factors that influence the survival of E. coli in sand using laboratory microcosms to replicate beach conditions. Microcosms were deployed to examine the effect of genetic background, competition with native microbial community, and increased nutrient concentrations on E. coli survival. Survival was comparable between the phylotypes B1 and B2, however, deficiency of stress response greatly reduced survival. In the absence of the native community under nutrient conditions comparable to those observed in sand, E. coli cell densities remained within an order of magnitude of initial concentrations after 5 weeks of incubation. Increased nitrogen was associated with decreased decay rates in the first 2 weeks, and increased carbon appeared to provide an advantage at later time points. However, the highest survival was found with the addition of both carbon and nitrogen. Native sand seeded with fresh Cladophora maintained higher concentrations of E. coli, compared to sand containing decayed Cladophora or no Cladophora. Our findings demonstrate persistent E. coli populations in sand can be affected by the availability of carbon and nitrogen, the ability to regulate stress, and the presence of algal mats (i.e., Cladophora). Further, this work suggests that the native microbial communities may modulate survival by outcompeting E. coli for nutrients. IMPORTANCE Current monitoring for fecal pollution does not account for persistent E. coli populations in freshwater sand, which can result in higher concentrations in water when no threat to human health is present. This work examined the drivers for persistent E. coli populations in sand to aid beach management techniques. We examined the influence of nutrients, including localized sources such as stranded Cladophora, on E. coli populations. We found the major determinant of E. coli survival in freshwater beach sand was the addition of nutrients, specifically carbon and nitrogen concentrations 10-fold higher than baseline concentrations on beaches. This work provides the framework for identifying pollution sources that can promote E. coli survival in sand through the characterization of carbon and nitrogen content, which can be incorporated into beach management techniques. Through this improved knowledge, we can begin to understand E. coli fluctuations in water due to resuspension from sand into water.


Assuntos
Praias , Clorófitas , Humanos , Escherichia coli , Areia , Microbiologia da Água , Fezes , Água , Carbono , Nutrientes , Nitrogênio , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 183: 114072, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057152

RESUMO

Coastal plastic pollution is a global problem, it affects local ecosystems, and can have economic and social implications. Plastic pollution is pervasive at high latitudes but there is a lack of data on the spatial and temporal amount of marine litter entering coastal systems. In this study, a seasonal accumulation survey of anthropogenic debris and beach wrack was conducted for the first time in Iceland. One hundred data collections were performed on a coast in the Snæfellsnes peninsula throughout one year. Of all the debris retrieved, over 9000 items (0.2 to 50 cm), 78.5 % were plastics. Beach wrack correlated strongly with the quantities of plastic debris entering the coastal environment (R2 > 0.9; p < 10-11), with a different slope for each season. The presence of beach wrack informed important daily and spatial fluctuations in the quantities of plastic debris, while seasonal fluctuations demonstrated higher arrival rate of plastic in autumn and winter.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Islândia , Plásticos , Estações do Ano , Resíduos/análise
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 183: 114098, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087483

RESUMO

In this study, density plume visualizations and statistical comparisons were made of enterococci bacteria (the main marine recreational microbial water quality indicator) densities, both before and after the upgrade of the discharge from the South Bay Ocean Outfall (SBOO) to secondary treatment level, so that the effect of this upgrade on ocean microbial water quality could be assessed. During the dry weather (bathing) season, reduction in enterococci densities was rather limited with only 2 shore stations and one kelp station showing significant reductions, and none showing increased compliance frequency. During the wet weather season, although the signature of land-based sources of bacterial pollution were evident, a majority of both shore (7 of the 11 stations) and kelp (4 of the 7 stations) stations showed statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) reductions enterococci densities pointing to the role of the upgrade to secondary treatment in improving microbial water quality.


Assuntos
Baías , Qualidade da Água , Praias , Enterococcus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes/microbiologia , México , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Esgotos/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 183: 114091, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087485

RESUMO

Baseline marine litter abundance and distribution on Saint Martin Island, Bay of Bengal, were assessed. Seventy-two transects (100-150 m) along 12 km of coastline were surveyed for litter items every two weeks for two months. The most abundant items were polythene bags, food wrappers, plastic bottles/caps, straws, styrofoam, plastic cups, plastic fragments, fishing nets, clothes, and rubber buoys. Tourism, local markets, hotels, domestic waste, and fishing activities were primary sources of marine litter. According to the mean clean coast index (CCI), all transects were clean, of which 11.3 % and 14.1 % of sandy beaches and rocky shores with sandy beaches were reported dirty, respectively. Northern Saint Martin Island comprised sandy beaches (2.8 %) and was extremely dirty. In addition, plastic abundance index (PAI) analysis showed that 24 % of sites, out of 72 sites, were under "very high abundance", 33 % were "high abundance", 33 % showed "moderate abundance", and 4 % were classified as "low abundance". Establishing baseline results of marine litter abundance and distribution on Saint Martin Island may help improve island conservation and mitigation strategies (e.g., improved waste management, beach cleaning activities to raise public awareness, local government litter reduction policies, and increase local pro-environmental behavioral change).


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Bangladesh , Baías , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Polietileno , Borracha , Resíduos/análise , Índias Ocidentais
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 184: 114124, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126485

RESUMO

Coastal zones, which are strategic points of considerable importance to the tourism industry, are among the environments most affected by anthropogenic debris. Thus, it is crucial to monitor and implement management programs to provide immediate solutions. Here, we aimed to evaluate anthropogenic litter along 21 macrotidal sandy beaches in the Amazon region. Indices and multivariate statistical analyses were used to identify spatial patterns of pollution, as well as sources and lifetime of the items. A total of 20,286 items were collected, with an average density of 0.19 items/m2 and a predominance of plastics. Litter was associated with tourist and recreational activities. The lifetime of most items was <1 year. All beaches had intermediate levels of pollution. The analyses identified varying patterns of anthropogenic litter related to the cleaning frequency and waste item typologies. In conclusion, pollution of macrotidal beaches in the Amazon region is an emerging problem that requires measures to prevent and mitigate the impacts on this ecosystem and to reconsider the form of production and consumption of plastic waste.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Resíduos/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos/análise
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 184: 114126, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162291

RESUMO

Understanding the accumulation mechanism for beached plastics is important for marine debris research. Similar to the global accumulation pattern for beached plastics, we find that along the remote south coast of Western Australia (SCWA) white, hard, microplastics dominate the microplastic pollution accumulating on beaches. We estimate that along the SCWA, plastics are present at a density of 2.01 items·m-2, but also find that the density of plastic pollution is higher at the eastern end of bays. Significantly fewer plastics were found after easterly winds (austral summer-prevailing winds), and regional physical ocean process, including the Leeuwin Current, and the Ekman transport effect may be relevant to the rate of plastic accumulation on SCWA beaches.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise , Austrália Ocidental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Praias
15.
Can J Public Health ; 113(6): 940-943, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112242

RESUMO

Swimming and other recreational water activities at public beaches are popular outdoor leisure activities among Canadians. However, these activities can lead to increased risks of acquiring acute gastrointestinal illness and other illnesses among beachgoers. Young children have much higher rates of exposure and illness than other age groups. These illnesses have a significant health and economic burden on society. Climate change is expected to influence both the risk of exposure and illness. A warming climate in Canada, including more severe summer heatwave events, will likely lead to increased recreational water use. Warmer temperatures will also contribute to the growth and increased range of harmful algal blooms and other climate-sensitive pathogens. Increased precipitation and heavy rainfall events will contribute to fecal and nutrient contamination of beach waters, increasing risks of gastrointestinal illness and harmful algal bloom events. There is a need to enhance recreational water research and surveillance in Canada to prepare for and adapt to these changing risks. Key research and policy needs are suggested and discussed, including evaluating and monitoring risks of recreational water illness in Canadian contexts, improving timely reporting of recreational water quality conditions, and enhancing approaches for routine beach water surveillance.


RéSUMé: La natation et les autres activités nautiques récréatives sur les plages publiques sont des activités de loisirs en plein air populaires chez les Canadiens. Cependant, ces activités peuvent entraîner des risques accrus de contracter des maladies gastro-intestinales aiguës et d'autres maladies chez les baigneurs. Les jeunes enfants ont des taux d'exposition et d'infection beaucoup plus élevés que les autres groupes d'âge. Ces maladies représentent un lourd fardeau sanitaire et économique pour la société. On s'attend à ce que le changement climatique influence à la fois le risque d'exposition et d'infection. Un réchauffement climatique au Canada, y compris des vagues de chaleur estivales plus intenses, entraînera probablement une utilisation accrue de l'eau à des fins récréatives. Des températures plus chaudes contribueront également à la prolifération d'algues nuisibles à la santé et la croissance d'autres agents pathogènes sensibles au climat. L'augmentation des précipitations et des pluies abondantes contribueront à la contamination fécale et nutritive des eaux des plages, augmentant les risques de maladies gastro-intestinales et d'efflorescences algales nocives. Il est nécessaire d'améliorer la recherche et la surveillance des eaux récréatives au Canada pour se préparer et s'adapter à ces risques changeants. Les principaux besoins en matière de recherche et de politiques sont suggérés et discutés, y compris l'évaluation et la surveillance des risques de maladie des eaux récréatives dans les contextes canadiens, l'amélioration des rapports en temps opportun sur les conditions de qualité des eaux récréatives et l'amélioration des approches de surveillance de routine des eaux de plage.


Assuntos
Praias , Microbiologia da Água , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Mudança Climática , Canadá/epidemiologia , Fezes
16.
Mar Environ Res ; 180: 105733, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049433

RESUMO

The majority of government authorities initially responded to COVID-19 pandemic by declaring lockdown to facilitate social distancing and minimize virus spreading. This period termed "anthropause" provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the recovery of wildlife in the absence of stressors on urban ecosystems. We assessed whether the anthropause associated with beach closures during the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in repopulation of the Atlantic ghost crab Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787) on urban beaches. For this purpose, we compiled a historic dataset (2013-2019) of the ghost crab density and performed biweekly burrow measurements from June/2020 to May/2021. Recovery of ghost crab metapopulation during the lockdown occurred even in more human-modified beaches. Burrow abundance significantly increased in urban sectors, but not in control site along with the time of pandemic. The reduction in the mean burrow opening diameter during this period evidenced that young metapopulation have thrived on urban beaches when recreational activities ceased. Our results show that urban beaches should not be exclusively managed for recreational purposes. Initiatives with a focus on wildlife conservation including spatial-temporal controlled beach closures may increase the biodiversity resilience.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , COVID-19 , Animais , Praias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Ecossistema , Humanos , Pandemias
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 851(Pt 2): 158349, 2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041612

RESUMO

Studies are limited that evaluate seaweed as a source of bacteria to beach waters. The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether seaweed, along with humans and other animals, could be the cause of beach advisories due to elevated levels of enterococci. The monitoring period occurred a year prior to and through the COVID-19 beach shutdown period, which provided a unique opportunity to evaluate bacteria levels during prolonged periods without recreational activity. Samples of water, sediment, and seaweed were measured for enterococci by culture and qPCR, in addition to microbial source tracking by qPCR of fecal bacteria markers from humans, dogs, and birds. During periods of elevated enterococci levels in water, these analyses were supplemented by chemical source tracking of human-associated excretion markers (caffeine, sucralose, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and naproxen). Results show that enterococci with elevated levels of human fecal markers persist in the seaweed and sediment and are the likely contributor to elevated levels of bacteria to the nearshore waters. During the shutdown period the elevated levels of enterococci in the sediment were isolated to the seaweed stranding areas. During periods when the beaches were open, enterococci were distributed more uniformly in sediment across the supratidal and intertidal zones. It is hypothesized from this study that human foot traffic may be responsible for the spread of enterococci throughout these areas. Overall, this study found high levels of enterococci in decomposing seaweed supporting the hypothesis that decomposing seaweed provides an additional substrate for enterococci to grow.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Alga Marinha , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Praias , Microbiologia da Água , Ibuprofeno , Cafeína , Naproxeno , Acetaminofen , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Bactérias , Enterococcus , Água
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 183: 114048, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998524

RESUMO

This study assessed the seasonal variation in the magnitude of marine litter along the Gulf of Guinea coastline, Araromi seaside, Nigeria with a survey of twenty sampling sites. The total number of litter items collected was 29,029 comprising 7358 and 21,671 items in the dry and rainy season respectively. The average number of items per square meter was higher in the rainy season (1.80 ± 0.35) than in the dry season (0.61 ± 0.19). Plastic materials dominated the litter composition with 86 % and 91.8 % in the dry and rainy season respectively. The beach cleanliness assessed as clean coast index (CCI) depicted the beach as dirty (12.26 ± 3.74) during the dry season and extremely dirty (36.13 ± 6.91) in the rainy season. The hazardous item index (HII) also showed the coastline was littered with hazardous items. These results provide baseline data for marine litter management along the Gulf of Guinea coastlines and other coastlines in Africa.


Assuntos
Praias , Resíduos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Guiné , Nigéria , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 182: 113997, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963223

RESUMO

Movement of marine debris is transboundary and complex, travelling vast distances and accumulating on shorelines. These marine debris wash ashore as stranded beach litter. The objective of this work is to identify release sources of marine debris accumulated along the Singapore coastlines collected by applying a time-backward adjoint marginal sensitivity method and citizen science data of stranded beach litter by a voluntary beach clean-up group. A popular tourist hotspot on the opposite shore was estimated as a possible release source contributing to the marine debris accumulation. This analytical result was validated by population density, industry types, rainfall, and inference from product packaging labels. The use of the citizen science data also illustrated potential as a data source for baseline monitoring and long-term cross-border research that influence policymaking. Future research can be conducted in an expanded domain, considering monsoon effects and instantaneous release events.


Assuntos
Praias , Plásticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Singapura , Resíduos/análise
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 182: 114028, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964430

RESUMO

Studies show that a driver of coastal debris is the rate between debris deposition and resuspension; however, the influence of beach zone topography on the distribution of debris remains poorly understood. Using five years of marine debris data collected by the COASST citizen science program, we explored the spatiotemporal trends in debris abundance within two regions of the United States Pacific Northwest and investigated whether higher debris loads are associated with beach zones that have a higher propensity to trap debris. We found that beaches with larger wood zones had higher debris loads, adding to the growing evidence that backshore areas of beaches act as sinks for debris. Higher debris loads were also associated with beaches that had larger wrack zones suggesting that onshore transport from the marine reservoir is a dominant source of debris. This study provides a long-term baseline of marine debris which managers could use to inform source reduction interventions.


Assuntos
Praias , Ciência do Cidadão , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
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