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1.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725290

RESUMO

Objective: Differential flora and differential metabolites shared by the intestinal and respiratory tracts of rats were screened to analyze the possible role of changes in intestinal flora and metabolites in the progression of pneumoconiosis in rats. Methods: In April 2020, 18 SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (control group, coal mine dust group and silica group, 6 in each group) , rats in the coal mine dust group and silica group were perfused with 1 ml of 50 mg/ml coal mine well dust suspension and silica suspension by nontracheal exposure, respectively. While rats in the control group were perfused with an equal dose of sterilized normal saline. Twenty four weeks after dust staining, rat feces, throat swabs, and lung lavages were collected. 16SrDNA gene sequencing and UHPLC-QTOF-MS untargeted metabolomics were used to analyze the flora and metabolites in feces, throat swabs and lung lavage fluid of rats in each group, to screen for shared differential flora and shared differential metabolites in intestinal and respiratory tract, and the correlation analysis between the differential flora and metabolites was performed using Spearman's statistics. Results: Compared with the control group, a total of 9 species shared differential flora between intestinal and respiratory tract were screened at phylum level, and a total of 9 species shared differential genus between intestinal and respiratory tract were screened at genus level in the coal mine dust group, mainly Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, etc. Compared with the control group, a total of 9 shared differential flora were screened at the phylum level, and a total of 5 shared differential genus were screened at the genus level in the silica group, mainly Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Allobactera, Mucilaginibacter, etc. Compared with the control group, a total of 7 shared differential metabolites were screened for up-regulation of Stigmatellin, Linalool oxide and Isoleucine-leucine in both intestinal and respiratory tract in the coal mine dust group. Compared with the control group , a total of 19 shared differential metabolites werescreened in the silica group, of which Diethanolamine, 1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid, Isoleucine-leucine, Sphingosine, Palmitic acid, D-sphinganine, 1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine, and 1-Stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphocholine were up-regulated in both the intestinal and respiratory tract. Conclusion: There is a translocation of intestinal and respiratory flora in pneumoconiosis rats, and rats have an imbalance of lipid metabolism during the progression of pneumoconiosis.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Pneumoconiose , Ratos , Animais , Isoleucina , Leucina , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Poeira/análise , Dióxido de Silício , Carvão Mineral
2.
Med Pr ; 73(5): 427-433, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to analyze the epidemiological situation regarding the occurrence of occupational diseases in Poland in 2020 and to define possible directions for recommendations regarding preventive actions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cases of occupational diseases identified in accordance with the Polish judicial system and reported to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases in 2020 were analyzed. The analysis took into account disease entities, causal factors, gender, age of patients, exposure period, NACE section and territorial differentiation. Data are presented in absolute numbers and incidence rates per 100 000 employed and 100 000 employed persons. RESULTS: In 2020, 1850 cases of occupational diseases were diagnosed in Poland (11.5 cases per 100 000 employees). The disease entities with the highest incidence were infectious or parasitic diseases, pneumoconiosis, chronic diseases of the voice organ, diseases of the peripheral nervous system, diseases of the locomotor system and hearing loss. Over 90% of the statements concerned people >45 years of age. Most of the identified occupational diseases arose after at least 10 years of work in exposure to a harmful factor, and 73.9% of cases concerned people with over 20 years of work experience in exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological situation in the field of occupational diseases in our country indicates a disturbing phenomenon, which is the persistence of a high level of pneumoconiosis of hard coal miners. The reflection of the effects of the pandemic in the COVID-19 incidence statistics as an occupational disease in 2020 is small. It is expected that the number of these cases will increase sharply in the coming years. Med Pr. 2022;73(5):427-33.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ocupações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Incidência
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554689

RESUMO

Long-term inhalation of welding fume at high exposure can cause welder's pneumoconiosis, and metals in welding dust are associated with respiratory dysfunction. This cross-sectional study, which contains 384 Chinese male workers who were or had been working in a container factory, aimed to assess the potential risk of haemal and urinary metal content in welder's pneumoconiosis. Further, we investigated their effects on lung function parameters. Metal content and lung function were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and spirometer, respectively. The concentration and metal content of respirable dust as well as total dust were collected at this container factory. Lung function of cases with welder's pneumoconiosis was significantly worse, as indicated by lower values of FVC, FVC% predicted, FEV1, FEV1% predicted, MEF25% predicted, and MMEF% predicted (p < 0.05). Results of logistic regression models showed that haemal Cr and Zn were risk factors of welder's pneumoconiosis (OR = 4.98, 95%CI: 1.73-21.20, p = 0.009 for Cr; OR = 5.23, 95%CI: 1.56-41.08, p = 0.033 for Zn) after adjusted with age, BMI, working years, welding dust exposure years, and smoking status. Multiple linear regression models showed that several metals (haemal Cd and Pb; urinary Cd and Fe) were significantly associated with different lung function indices in the welder's pneumoconiosis group. Compared to non-welders, welders were exposed to considerably higher levels of respirable dust, total dust, and six kinds of metals (p < 0.05). In conclusion, haemal Cr and Zn are positively related to welder's pneumoconiosis. Meanwhile, Cd and Pb might worsen lung function in welder's pneumoconiosis.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Soldagem , Masculino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Pulmão , Cádmio/análise , Chumbo/análise , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Poeira/análise , China , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
4.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 51(6): 898-903, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the occupational health risk level of pneumoconiosis caused by dust exposure in a given area of Hubei province. METHODS: From April 2021 to October 2021, 18 quarries were randomly selected in the areas where quarries were concentrated in Hubei Province to conduct on-site hygiene investigation and detection. A total of 384 workers were employed in the above quarries, and 293 workers were exposed to dust. The International Mining and Metals Commission's risk rating table method and occupational hazard risk index method were used to analyze the occupational health risk level from total and respirable dust views, respectively. Meanwhile, the square weighted Kappa test was performed to analyze the consistency between two risk assessment method. RESULTS: The median dust exposure rate of workers in the above18 enterprises was 73.22%, small, underground mining, and barite quarries had relatively higher dust exposure rates(all median were 100.00%). The medians of daily dust exposure time, personal protective equipment wearing rate, free silica content of dust, 8-hour time weighted average exposure concentration of total dust and respirable dust in each assessment indicator were 6-8 hours, 0%-24.00%, 1.69%-35.30%, 0.56-3.70 mg/m~3, and 0.33-1.20 mg/m~3, respectively. Occupational health risk assessment result showed the overall occupational health risk levels of quarries, as well as different production scales and mining method, were all low. Among different positions, wind driller and tunneling worker had high and medium occupational health risk, respectively, and the rest of the positions had low or very low risk. International Council on Mining and Mentals(ICMM) risk rating table method and the INDEX method consistency analyses showed that these two risk assessment method had strong consistency in terms of total dust(Kappa value was 0.65(95%CI 0.57-0.73)), and general consistency in term of respirable dust(Kappa value was 0.51(95%CI 0.39-0.62)). CONCLUSION: The overall occupational health risk level of pneumoconiosis caused by dust exposure in quarries was low, but risk levels were higher for wind driller and tunneling worker.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pneumoconiose/etiologia , Poeira/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to summarize the characteristics of diagnosed pneumoconiosis and pneumoconiosis death in the Hubei Province of China, between the years 1949 and 2019, and provide clues for the scientific prevention of pneumoconiosis. METHODS: We recruited 23,069 pneumoconiosis cases in Hubei Province, China, from 1949 to 2019. Basic information and occupational surveillance information were obtained from the Hubei Occupational Diseases and Health Risk Factors Information Surveillance System. RESULTS: The annually diagnosed pneumoconiosis cases showed an overall increasing trend from 1949 to 2019 in Hubei Province. The major types of pneumoconiosis were coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP, 49.91%) and silicosis (43.39%). Pneumoconiosis cases were mainly engaged in mining (75.32%) and manufacturing (12.72%), and were distributed in Huangshi (35.48%), Yichang (16.16%), and Jingzhou (7.97%). CWP (47.50%) and silicosis (44.65%) accounted for most of the deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The number of pneumoconiosis cases and deaths in Hubei increased in the period of 1949 to 2019. Silicosis and CWP contributed to the predominant types of pneumoconiosis. Prevention and control measures should continue to be taken to reduce the morbidity and mortality of pneumoconiosis.


Assuntos
Antracose , Minas de Carvão , Doenças Profissionais , Pneumoconiose , Silicose , Humanos , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Antracose/epidemiologia , Silicose/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064596, 2022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To better understand the characteristics of migrant workers with pneumoconiosis in China, and the factors that contribute to their morbidity. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study was conducted in Shanghai, Nanning and Shenzhen, China, between December 2020 and December 2021. PARTICIPANTS: There were 601 questionnaires that were analysed involving 198 migrant workers with pneumoconiosis, 205 workers with pneumoconiosis in state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and 198 other migrant workers with non-pulmonary occupational diseases. OUTCOME MEASURES: Epidemiological characteristics of pneumoconiosis among migrant workers were determined. Using logistic regression, we examined the factors related to the morbidity of pneumoconiosis in migrant workers. RESULTS: The response rate was 93.27%. In comparison with pneumoconiosis among SOE workers, the number of migrant workers with pneumoconiosis who first encountered dust exposure between the ages of 30 and 44 years and had an accumulated dust exposure of 1-10 years was proportionately greater. Migrant workers who developed pneumoconiosis between 18 and 32 years and those who had stage III pneumoconiosis were proportionately greater (p<0.05). Compared with migrant workers with non-pulmonary occupational diseases, six factors were associated with the morbidity of pneumoconiosis in migrant workers. Risk factors were dust exposure (OR=499.25, 95% CI: 68.33 to 3647.59) and someone smoking in the workplace (OR=5.67, 95% CI: 2.18 to 14.78). Protective factors were regular sleeping hours per night, (OR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.60), excellent ventilation (OR=0.09, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.65), rules and regulations (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.66) and post-departure medical examinations (OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.63). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with SOE workers with pneumoconiosis, migrant workers are exposed to dust at an earlier age, but for shorter duration, display morbidity at an earlier age and have a higher proportion of tertiary pneumoconiosis. They are predominantly male and have inadequate employment stability and medical insurance. Occupational health check-ups and management systems are inadequate.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Migrantes , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , China/epidemiologia , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/complicações , Poeira , Morbidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
7.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 40(10): 737-741, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348553

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the change trend of underground dust concentration, the incidence and survival status of pneumoconiosis patients, and provide reference for improving the working environment of dust-exposed workers and the prevention and treatment of pneumoconiosis patients in the future. Methods: In February 2020, a retrospective investigation was conducted on the dust data of underground mining operations in a steel enterprise in Jiangsu Province from 1991 to 2019, and the case data of patients diagnosed with pneumoconiosis from 1956 to 2019 were collected. The time trends of the number of pneumoconiosis patients and dust concentration, the stage of pneumoconiosis and survival status of patients were analyzed. Results: From 1956 to 2019, a total of 241 patients with pneumoconiosis were diagnosed in the steel enterprise. From 1991 to 2019, the annual average dust concentration in the mine showed a downward trend as a whole. Compared with the transportation platform (14.28%, 1447/10132) , the average dust concentration exceeding rate of the mining platform (43.68%, 8415/19263) was significantly higher (χ(2)=2674.84, P<0.01) . The average age of pneumoconiosis patients was (73.54±10.42) years old, and the average working age of dust exposure was (21.41±8.68) years, of which 85 cases (35.27%) survived and 156 cases (64.73%) died. The main type of pneumoconiosis was silicosis (90.46%, 218/241) , and the main stage of pneumoconiosis was the stage I (96.68%, 233/241) ; The higher the stage of pneumoconiosis, the younger the diagnosis age (P<0.01) . The average survival time of patients was (27.264±1.982) years, and the median survival time was 28 years. The cumulative survival rates of patients with pneumoconiosis in different diagnosis time periods were significantly different (χ(2)=35.57, P<0.01) . Conclusion: The improved dust-proof measures have a significant effect on reducing the concentration of underground dust. We need to focus on the dust control of underground mining platforms and the treatment of patients with stage Ⅲ pneumoconiosis.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Incidência , Aço , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Pneumoconiose/diagnóstico , Poeira , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
8.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 40(10): 765-770, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348559

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the level and trend of occupational pneumoconiosis disease burden in Tianjin from 2010 to 2019, and to provide scientific basis for making prevention and control countermeasures and suggestions. Methods: In June 2021, the data of occupational pneumoconiosis cases in Tianjin from 2010 to 2019 were selected from Follow-up survey of occupational pneumoconiosis patients in Tianjin and occupational "Health Hazardous Surveillance Information System", the subsystem of China Disease Control and Prevention Information System. Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) , years of life lost (YLL) and years lost due to disability (YLD) were used to comprehensively measure the disease burden of occupational pneumoconiosis by region, year, disease type, industry, sex and age; Kruskal-wallis H test was used for univariate analysis of DALY loss in pneumdo-niosis occupational. Results: A total of 43089 person-years of DALY due to pneumoconiosis in Tianjin from 2010 to 2019, of which the YLD accounted for about 2/3 (28277 person-years) , the YLL accounted for about 1/3 (14812 person-years) , and the average DALY was 7.34 person-years. The industrial distribution of pneumoconiosis burden in Tianjin was mainly concentrated in the manufacturing industry accounting for 90.6% of the whole industry. The disease types were mainly concentrated in silicosis, foundry pneumoconiosis, asbestosis and cement pneumoconiosis accounting for 34.4%, 16.9%, 13.3% and 10.5%, and the age distribution was mainly concentrated in the 50~<85 years old age group, accouling for 83.6%. The median DALY of occupational pneumoconiosis patients with different pneumoconiosis stages, disability grades and years of service exposed to dust were statistically significant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The disease burden of occupational pneumoconiosis in Tianjin was still serious. It is necessary to take targeted intervention measures for key industries and population.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Pneumoconiose , Silicose , Humanos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Silicose/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , China/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2167, 2022 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore appropriate model for predicting the disease burden of pneumoconiosis in Tianjin by comparing the prediction effects of Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model, Deep Neural Networks (DNN) model and multivariate Long Short-Term Memory Neural Network (LSTM) models. METHODS: Disability adjusted life year (DALY) was used to evaluate the disease burden of occupational pneumoconiosis. ARIMA model, DNN model and multivariate LSTM model were used to establish prediction model. Three performance evaluation metrics including Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) were used to compare the prediction effects of the three models. RESULTS: From 1990 to 2021, there were 10,694 cases of pneumoconiosis patients in Tianjin, resulting in a total of 112,725.52 person-years of DALY. During this period, the annual DALY showed a fluctuating trend, but it had a strong correlation with the number of pneumoconiosis patients, the average age of onset, the average age of receiving dust and the gross industrial product, and had a significant nonlinear relationship with them. The comparison of prediction results showed that the performance of multivariate LSTM model and DNN model is much better than that of traditional ARIMA model. Compared with the DNN model, the multivariate LSTM model performed better in the training set, showing lower RMES (42.30 vs. 380.96), MAE (29.53 vs. 231.20) and MAPE (1.63% vs. 2.93%), but performed less stable than the DNN on the test set, showing slightly higher RMSE (1309.14 vs. 656.44), MAE (886.98 vs. 594.47) and MAPE (36.86% vs. 22.43%). CONCLUSION: The machine learning techniques of DNN and LSTM are an innovative method to accurately and efficiently predict the burden of pneumoconiosis with the simplest data. It has great application prospects in the monitoring and early warning system of occupational disease burden.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Pneumoconiose , Humanos , Previsões , Incidência , China/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to see if exfoliative pulmonary airway pathology in cancer-free coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) can be used as a biomarker for predicting pulmonary morbidity. METHODS: We investigated persistent metaplastic changes in bronchoscopic washing cytology and differential cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) in 97 miners with CWP and 80 miners without CWP as the control. Clinicopathological parameters were examined including pulmonary function tests and the presence of progressive massive fibrosis. RESULTS: When compared to the control group, severe alveolitis, severe goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH), severe hyperplastic epithelial change, and severe squamous metaplasia were the distinguishing biomarkers in CWP. Multivariate analysis revealed that severe alveolitis and severe GCH, along with miner duration and current smoker, were independent predictors of pulmonary mortality. The survival analysis revealed a significantly different survival rate between the three groups: no evidence of severe alveolitis and severe GCH, presence of severe alveolitis or severe GCH but not both, and both severe alveolitis and severe GCH. CONCLUSIONS: The severities of alveolitis and goblet cell hyperplasia in the bronchoscopic study are independent prognostic factors for CWP. A pathologic grading system based on these two parameters could be used in the stratification and clinical management of CWP patients.


Assuntos
Antracose , Minas de Carvão , Pneumoconiose , Humanos , Prognóstico , Hiperplasia , Carvão Mineral
11.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 60(6): 979-992, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202483

RESUMO

Occupational lung diseases (OLDs) encompass a broad group of entities related to the inhalation of a variety of agents in the workplace. OLDs may affect the lung parenchyma, pleura, and/or airways. OLDs can pose a diagnostic challenge for radiologists due to a lack of exposure history and overlap in imaging findings with nonoccupational-related entities. For this reason, it is important for the radiologist to be familiar with the high-resolution computed tomography patterns associated with OLDs and consider OLDs when formulating a differential.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumoconiose/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1006391, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36311604

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate risk factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with pneumoconiosis and propose strategies to improve the quality of life in these patients. Methods: The basic patient information was obtained from the pneumoconiosis report card. Disease types, regions, and industry distribution of pneumoconiosis were analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the Cox proportional risk regression model was used for survival analysis. Results: A total of 13,812 patients were diagnosed with pneumoconiosis in Zhejiang province from 1987 to 2019. The overall survival rate at the end of life table analysis was 83%. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that there were significant differences between survival curves depending on the stage of first diagnosis, age at first diagnosis, type of pneumoconiosis, industry, and duration of dust exposure (P < 0.05). The results of Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that pneumoconiosis stage of first diagnosis, age at first diagnosis, industry, and duration of dust exposure were risk factors affecting patient survival (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The patients with high stage of pneumoconiosis at first diagnosis, older age, and long duration of dust exposure should be followed up and monitored as key population, and the industries with high incidence of pneumoconiosis such as mining and construction should be supervised as key industries.


Assuntos
Pneumoconiose , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Poeira , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Pneumoconiose/diagnóstico , Indústrias , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229214

RESUMO

Artificial quartz dust exposure may cause associated pneumoconiosis. From November 2019 to July 2020, a total of 27 cases of silicosis associated with artificial quartz stone manufacturers were diagnosed and treated in the Occupational disease Department of Suzhou Fifth People's Hospital. The average age of onset was (46.8±6.6) years, and the average working age of dust exposure was (5.7±1.7) years.The main feature of high KV chest radiography is P/S shadow with strip shadow. CT imaging findings showed diffuse small nodules and ground glass shadows with band shadows. The lesions were mainly distributed in the upper lung, accompanied by pleural thickening, lymphadenopathy and calcification. The pulmonary function impairment was mainly mild restrictive ventilation disorder, and the bronchial mucosa longitudinal plica was the main manifestation under tracheoscopy. The age of silicosis of workers in artificial quartz stone production enterprises is younger, the working age of dust exposure is short, the lung function and bronchial mucosa have a certain degree of damage, and effective preventive measures should be taken in time.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Silicose , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poeira , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pneumoconiose/complicações , Quartzo/análise , Silicose/diagnóstico
14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052589

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the post distribution of dust concentration in ferrous metal foundry enterprises and evaluate the occupational health risks, and provide basis for policies of the formulation of pneumoconiosis prevention and control. Methods: From August to September in 2020, the basic information, dust hazard information and occupational health management information of 59 ferrous metal casting enterprises were investigated, the dust concentration distribution was analyzed, and the risk assessment was carried out by using the quantitative assignment model. The dust concentration is tested by LSD method after logarithmic treatment. The 3 times time weighted average allowable exposure concentration of dust is taken as the peak concentration limit of dust; The time weighted average allowable exposure concentration of dust converted by exposure time is taken as the time weighted average exposure concentration limit of dust, and whether the time weighted average exposure concentration and peak concentration of dust at the same post exceed the limit is taken as the basis for exceeding the limit of dust post concentration to calculate the post exceeding the limit rate. Results: The dust hazards were mainly distributed in the posts of sand treatment, molding, sand falling, sand cleaning and cutting and grinding. Dust exposure time weighted average concentration was 0.44 (0.03, 5.11) mg/m(3), peak exposure concentration was 1.30 (0.18, 10.94) mg/m(3), and the over standard rate of Posts was 38.92% (79/203) . Weighted average exposure concentration of other dust (total dust) in the cutting and grinding post is 1.50 (0.15, 7.40) mg/m(3), peak exposure concentration is 0.90 (0.07, 12.48) mg/m(3), and the post exceedance rate is 4.88% (2/41) . Weighted average exposure concentration of silica dust (exhaling dust) in dust operation posts of investment casting enterprises is 0.43 (0.05, 6.35) mg/m(3), peak exposure concentration is 0.90 (0.12, 8.28) mg/m(3), and the post over standard rate is 35.77% (49/137) ; Weighted average exposure concentration of other dust (total dust) at the cutting and grinding post is 2.00 (11.00, 21.00) mg/m(3), and the post exceedance rate is 2.50% (2/80) . There was no significant difference in the concentration of respirable dust between sand casting and investment casting (P>0.05) . The concentration of respirable dust in sand casting was higher than that in sand treatment, molding and sand cleaning posts (P<0.05) . The concentration of silica dust in investment casting was higher than that in sand treatment and molding posts, and that in sand cleaning posts was higher than that in sand treatment posts (P<0.05) . 98.48% (454/461) of the dust operation posts have an occupational health risk value greater than or equal to 400, and 1.52% (7/461) of the dust operation posts have an occupational health risk value of 200~399. Conclusion: there is a high rate of exceeding the standard in the dust work posts in the ferrous metal foundry enterprises in Ningbo, and the workers have a high occupational health risk of pneumoconiosis or metal and its compound pneumoconiosis. Targeted measures should be taken to reduce the occupational health risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Areia , Dióxido de Silício/análise
15.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10: 23247096221127100, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36154322

RESUMO

Pneumoconiosis is associated with coal dust particles depositing within the lung causing nodules coalesce to form progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Cavitary lesions can develop in these PMF areas for concerns of tuberculosis and aspergillosis. We present a 59-year-old patient who had coal workers pneumoconiosis and PMF presenting with chronic dyspnea and hemoptysis with an upper cavitary lesion noted on chest imaging. He notes dyspnea with walking very short distances with associated productive cough. He admits to occasional wheezing, paroxysmal dyspnea, hemoptysis, and orthopnea but denies chest pain. He is an everyday smoker. His physical examination was only remarkable for bronchial breath sounds. On review of his prior imaging, he had a right upper lobe infiltrate as far back as 2012. As the years progressed, a new cavitary lesion developed in the PMF area which progressively got larger with a thick wall and no eccentric region noted inside the cavity. Tuberculosis test was negative. He underwent a transbronchial biopsy with methenamine silver stain which showed acute angle branching and septation suggestive of Aspergillus species. He was diagnosed with pulmonary aspergillosis and treated with voriconazole for 1 year. With pneumoconiosis and evidence confirming aspergillosis, the presence of a new lung infiltration with progression into a cavitary lesion leads to a diagnosis of chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA). With follow-up imaging showing extensive lung fibrosis, he had chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis (CFPA), a late-stage manifestation of CCPA.


Assuntos
Antracose , Aspergilose , Pneumoconiose , Aspergilose Pulmonar , Antracose/complicações , Antracose/diagnóstico , Aspergilose/complicações , Carvão Mineral , Poeira , Dispneia/etiologia , Fibrose , Hemoptise/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metenamina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumoconiose/complicações , Pneumoconiose/etiologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Voriconazol
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141457

RESUMO

Pneumoconiosis is a group of occupational lung diseases induced by mineral dust inhalation and subsequent lung tissue reactions. It can eventually cause irreparable lung damage, as well as gradual and permanent physical impairments. It has affected millions of workers in hazardous industries throughout the world, and it is a leading cause of occupational death. It is difficult to diagnose early pneumoconiosis because of the low sensitivity of chest radiographs, the wide variation in interpretation between and among readers, and the scarcity of B-readers, which all add to the difficulty in diagnosing these occupational illnesses. In recent years, deep machine learning algorithms have been extremely successful at classifying and localising abnormality of medical images. In this study, we proposed an ensemble learning approach to improve pneumoconiosis detection in chest X-rays (CXRs) using nine machine learning classifiers and multi-dimensional deep features extracted using CheXNet-121 architecture. There were eight evaluation metrics utilised for each high-level feature set of the associated cross-validation datasets in order to compare the ensemble performance and state-of-the-art techniques from the literature that used the same cross-validation datasets. It is observed that integrated ensemble learning exhibits promising results (92.68% accuracy, 85.66% Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), and 0.9302 area under the precision-recall (PR) curve), compared to individual CheXNet-121 and other state-of-the-art techniques. Finally, Grad-CAM was used to visualise the learned behaviour of individual dense blocks within CheXNet-121 and their ensembles into three-color channels of CXRs. We compared the Grad-CAM-indicated ROI to the ground-truth ROI using the intersection of the union (IOU) and average-precision (AP) values for each classifier and their ensemble. Through the visualisation of the Grad-CAM within the blue channel, the average IOU passed more than 90% of the pneumoconiosis detection in chest radiographs.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Pneumoconiose , Algoritmos , Poeira , Humanos , Pneumoconiose/diagnóstico por imagem , Raios X
17.
Am J Ind Med ; 65(12): 953-958, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pneumoconiosis among working United States underground coal miners has been increasing for the past two decades, with the highest rates of disease observed among miners in the central Appalachian states of Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia. Surveillance for this disease in the United States focuses on working coal miners, who continue to be occupationally exposed to dust. This study examines the radiographic evidence for postexposure progression of pneumoconiosis in a population of former coal miners no longer occupationally exposed to coal mine dust who were seen at a community radiology clinic in eastern Kentucky. METHODS: Data were obtained and analyzed from clinical records of former coal miners who had a clinic encounter during January 1, 2017-August 1, 2019, a recorded final year of employment, and ≥2 postemployment digital chest radiographs. Radiographs were classified according to the International Labour Office guidelines by at least two B Readers. A final summary pneumoconiosis severity score (range, 0-13), accounting for both small and large opacities, was assigned to each chest radiograph. Progression was defined as an increase in severity score between a miner's radiographs over time. RESULTS: Data for 130 former coal miners were analyzed. All miners were male and most (n = 114, 88%) had worked primarily in Kentucky. Information on race/ethnicity was not available. The most common job types were roof bolters (n = 51, 39%) and continuous miner operators (n = 46, 35%). Forty-one (31.5%) miners had evidence of radiographic disease progression after leaving the workforce, with a median of 3.6 years between first and latest postretirement radiograph. A total of 80 (62%) miners had evidence of pneumoconiosis on their latest radiograph, and two-thirds (n = 53) of these were classified as progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), the most severe form of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Postexposure progression can occur in former coal miners, emphasizing the potential benefits of continued radiographic follow-up postemployment. In addition to participating in disease screening throughout their careers to detect pneumoconiosis early and facilitate intervention, radiographic follow-up of former coal miners can identify new or progressive radiographic findings even after workplace exposure to respirable coal mine dust ends. Identification of progressive pneumoconiosis in former miners has potential implications for clinical management and eligibility for disability compensation.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Pneumoconiose , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Pneumoconiose/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Pneumoconiose/etiologia , Poeira , Carvão Mineral
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the occupational health status of workers exposed to dust and the risk factors of lung function decline, to provide a basis for formulating corresponding occupational disease-prevention strategies. METHODS: Data on 2045 workers exposed to dust, including their age, gender, exposure time, chest X-ray test results, and pulmonary function test results, were obtained from a key occupational disease monitoring project in Chongqing, China, in 2021. Chi-square tests and multifactorial logistic regression, and other methods, were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of pneumoconiosis-like changes was 0.83% (17/2045), and the prevalence of abnormal forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC was 4.25% (87/2045), 12.81% (262/2045), and 1.47% (30/2045), respectively. With increasing worker's age, the prevalence of abnormal pneumoconiosis-like changes (p = 0.0065), FEV1 (p = 0.0002), FVC (p < 0.0001), and FEV1/FVC (p = 0.0055) all increased. Factors such as age, exposure duration, enterprise size, and dust exposure concentration were associated with abnormal lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Workers exposed to occupational dust have a high rate of abnormal lung function. The government, enterprises, and individuals should pay attention to occupational dust exposure, and various effective measures should be actively taken to protect the life and health of workers.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Estudos Transversais , Poeira/análise , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Pneumoconiose/etiologia , Capacidade Vital
19.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 66(9): 1162-1172, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: "Silicosis" is a leading cause of occupational morbidity globally. In Rajasthan, India silicosis has been recognized as an epidemic, resulting in the development of a new pneumoconiosis policy in 2019. This study was conducted to provide an overview of the policy implementation regarding the detection, prevention, and control of silicosis. METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out in the Jodhpur district of Western Rajasthan in which stakeholders were interviewed. Themes were identified regarding prevention, detection, diagnosis, and certification, and organized by stakeholder role. Data were retrieved from the Silicosis Grant Disbursement Portal of the Government of Rajasthan to present an overview of the existing system for detection, prevention, and control of silicosis and to determine the delays in various aspects. RESULTS: A total of 35 stakeholders were interviewed. There was low awareness regarding the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and rehabilitation of silicosis amongst multiple stakeholders. There is a need for robust enforcement in mining units regarding silicosis prevention and screening. Unregistered mining activities and migration of mineworkers are major challenges in the detection of silicosis cases. Misdiagnosis and low notification rates prevent workers from accessing resources. There are myriad reasons for delays in workers receiving diagnosis and benefits, which have systemic roots but can be uprooted through rigorous implementation of the legislative provisions. CONCLUSION: There are several well-established pieces of legislation to protect the rights of mineworkers; however, there are gaps in the effective implementation of various provisions that require immediate attention to address the challenges faced during the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and rehabilitation of workers with silicosis.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Silicose , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Silicose/epidemiologia , Políticas
20.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 19(1): 58, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most toxicological studies on titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles to date have concentrated on carcinogenicity and acute toxicity, with few studies focusing of pneumoconiosis, which is a variety of airspace and interstitial lung diseases caused by particle-laden macrophages. The present study examined rat pulmonary lesions associated with pneumoconiosis after inhalation exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). METHODS: Male and female F344 rats were exposed to 6.3, 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/m3 anatase type TiO2 NPs for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks using a whole-body inhalation exposure system. After the last exposure the rats were euthanized and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and all tissues including lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes were collected and subjected to biological and histopathological analyses. RESULTS: Numerous milky white spots were present in the lungs after exposure to 25 and 50 mg/m3 TiO2 NPs. Histopathological analysis revealed that the spots were alveolar lesions, characterized predominantly by the agglomeration of particle-laden macrophages and the presence of reactive alveolar epithelial type 2 cell (AEC2) hyperplasia. We defined this characteristic lesion as pulmonary dust foci (PDF). The PDF is an inflammatory niche, with decreased vascular endothelial cells in the interstitium, and proliferating AEC2 transformed into alveolar epithelial progenitor cells. In the present study, the AEC2 in the PDF had acquired DNA damage. Based on PDF induction, the lowest observed adverse effect concentration for pulmonary disorders in male and female rats was 12.5 mg/m3 and 6.3 mg/m3, respectively. The no observed adverse effect concentration for male rats was 6.3 mg/m3. There was a sex difference in lung lesion development, with females showing more pronounced lesion parameters than males. CONCLUSIONS: Inhalation exposure to TiO2 NPs caused PDF, an air-space lesion which is an alveolar inflammatory niche containing particle-laden macrophages and proliferating AEC2. These PDFs histopathologically resemble some pneumoconiosis lesions (pulmonary siderosis and hard metal pneumoconiosis) in workers and lung disease in smokers, suggesting that PDFs caused by exposure to TiO2 NPs in rats are an early pneumoconiosis lesion and may be a common alveolar reaction in mammals.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Nanopartículas , Pneumoconiose , Animais , Poeira , Células Endoteliais , Feminino , Pulmão , Pneumopatias/patologia , Masculino , Mamíferos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Pneumoconiose/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Titânio
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