Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 18.338
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255485, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350312

RESUMO

Abstract The current focus is on the overall pattern of seed storage present in the fragments of the soil of piedmont and alluvial landscapes of the environment. The present study predicted the seed banks of both soils of alluvial and piedmont zones in different ecological conditions and evaluate the potential of seeds in the restoration of both environments. The composition of the seed bank of soil is mainly affected by the alluvial environment and the structure of cleared area shows that more species of germinating annual grasses and growable seeds with the higher total number. Extant vegetation structures have an important role in the diversity of soil seed reservoirs, whose composition corresponded with the openness of the site. When in situ soil seed bank is recruited, it helps to restore only some components of the plant community in an alluvial environment. In our current research, it was confirmed that seed richness was higher in number at lower elevation (alluvial) than that at high elevation (piedmont). Seed richness showed a significant negative correlation with anions, cations, while significantly positive with altitude that suggests the richness pattern of the overall seed bank of the area is influenced by various environmental factors.


Resumo O foco atual está no padrão geral de armazenamento de sementes presente nos fragmentos de solo do Piemonte e nas paisagens aluviais do meio ambiente. O presente estudo previu os bancos de sementes de ambos os solos das zonas aluvial e piemontesa em diferentes condições ecológicas e avaliou o potencial das sementes na restauração de ambos os ambientes. A composição do banco de sementes do solo é afetada principalmente pelo ambiente aluvial e a estrutura da área desmatada mostra que mais espécies de gramíneas anuais em germinação e sementes cultiváveis ​​apresentam o maior número total. As estruturas da vegetação existente têm um papel importante na diversidade dos reservatórios de sementes do solo, cuja composição correspondeu à abertura do local. Quando o banco de sementes do solo in situ é recrutado, o mesmo ajuda a restaurar apenas alguns componentes da comunidade de plantas em um ambiente aluvial. Em nossa pesquisa atual, foi confirmado que a riqueza de sementes era maior em número em altitudes mais baixas (aluviais) do que em altitudes elevadas (Piemonte). A riqueza de sementes mostrou uma correlação negativa significativa com ânions, cátions, enquanto significativamente positiva com a altitude, o que sugere que o padrão de riqueza do banco geral de sementes da área é influenciado por vários fatores ambientais.


Assuntos
Solo , Banco de Sementes , Paquistão , Plantas , Sementes , Ecossistema , Poaceae
2.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0280100, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724141

RESUMO

Eastern redcedar Juniperus virginiana is encroaching into new habitats, which will affect native ecosystems as this species competes with other plants for available resources, including water. We designed a greenhouse experiment to investigate changes in soil moisture content and rooting depths of two-year-old J. virginiana saplings growing with or without competition. We had four competition treatments: 1) none, 2) with a native tree (Quercus stellata), 3) with an invasive grass (Bromus inermis), and 4) with both Q. stellata and B. inermis. We measured soil moisture content over two years as well as root length, total biomass, relative water content, midday water potential, and mortality at the end of the experiment. When J. virginiana and B. inermis grew together, water depletion occurred at both 30-40 cm and 10-20 cm. Combined with root length results, we can infer that J. virginiana most likely took up water from the deeper layers whereas B. inermis used water from the top layers. We found a similar pattern of water depletion and uptake when J. virginiana grew with Q. stellata, indicating that J. virginiana took up water from the deeper layers and Q. stellata used water mostly from the top soil layers. When the three species grew together, we found root overlap between J. virginiana and Q. stellata. Despite the root overlap, our relative water content and water potential indicate that J. virginiana was not water stressed in any of the plant combinations. Regardless, J. virginiana saplings had less total biomass in treatments with B. inermis and we recorded a significantly higher mortality when J. virginiana grew with both competitors. Root overlap and partitioning can affect how J. virginiana perform and adapt to new competitors and can allow their co-existence with grasses and other woody species, which can facilitate J. virginiana encroachment into grasslands and woodlands. Our data also show that competition with both Q. stellata and B. inermis could limit establishment, regardless of water availability.


Assuntos
Juniperus , Quercus , Bromus , Ecossistema , Poaceae , Plantas , Solo
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 260, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609443

RESUMO

Public displays, such as liquid crystal displays (LCDs), are often used in urban green spaces. However, these display devices often tarnish the green landscape of urban green spaces due to their artificial materials. We previously proposed a green landscape-friendly grass animation display that dynamically controls the grass color pixel by pixel. The grass color is changed by moving a green grass length in yellow grass, and the grass animation display runs simple animations using grayscale images. In our previous study, the color scale is subjectively mapped to the green grass length. However, this method fails to display the grass colors corresponding to the color scale based on objective evaluations. Herein, we introduce a dynamic grass color scale display technique based on the grass length. We develop a grass color scale setting procedure to map the grass length to the five-level color scale through image processing. In the outdoor experiment of the grass color scale setting procedure, the color scale corresponds to the green grass length based on a viewpoint. Finally, we demonstrate a grass animation display to show the animations with the color scale using experimental results.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos , Poaceae , Cor , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 229: 943-951, 2023 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621735

RESUMO

Cymbopogon is an important aromatic and medicinal grass with several species of ethnopharmaceutical importance. The genus is extremely rich in secondary metabolites, monoterpenes like geraniol and citral being principal constituents, also used as biomarker for classification and identification of Cymbopogon chemotypes. In the light of this, present study involved RNA sequencing and comparison of expression profiles of four contrasting Cymbopogon species namely C. flexuosus var. Chirharit (citral rich and frost resistant), C. martinii var. PRC-1 (geraniol rich), C. pendulus var. Praman (the most stable and citral-rich genotype), and Jamrosa (a hybrid of C. nardus var. confertiflorus × C. jwarancusa (rich in geraniol and geranyl acetate). The transcriptome profiles revealed marked differences in gene expression patterns of 28 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of terpenoid metabolic pathways between the four Cymbopogon sp. The major DEGs were Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenases (CCD), Aspartate aminotransferase (ASP amino), Mevalonate E-4 hydroxy, AKR, GGPS, FDPS, and AAT. In addition, few TFs related to different regulatory pathways were also identified. The gene expression profiles of DEGs were correlated to the EO yield and their monoterpene compositions. Overall, the PRC-1 (C. martinii) shows distinguished gene expression profiles from all other genotypes. Thus, the transcriptome sequence database expanded our understanding of terpenoid metabolism and its molecular regulation in Cymbopogon species. Additionally, this data also serves as an important source of knowledge for enhancing oil yield and quality in Cymbopogon and closely related taxa. KEY MESSAGE: Unfolding the new secretes surrounding EO biosynthesis and regulation in four contrasting Cymbopogon species.


Assuntos
Cymbopogon , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Cymbopogon/genética , Cymbopogon/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617131

RESUMO

Grass cutting is necessary to prevent grass from diverting essential nutrients and water from crops. Usually, in hilly and mountainous areas, grass cutting is performed on steep slopes with an inclination angle of up to 60° (inclination gradient of 173%). However, such grass cutting tasks are dangerous owing to the unstable positioning of workers. For robots to perform these grass cutting tasks, slipping and falling must be prevented on inclined surfaces. In this study, a robot based on stable propeller control and four-wheel steering was developed to provide stable locomotion during grass cutting tasks. The robot was evaluated in terms of locomotion for different steering methods, straight motion on steep slopes, climbing ability, and coverage area. The results revealed that the robot was capable of navigating uneven terrains with steep slope angles. Moreover, no slipping actions that could have affected the grass cutting operations were observed. We confirmed that the proposed robot is able to cover 99.95% and 98.45% of an area on a rubber and grass slope, respectively. Finally, the robot was tested on different slopes with different angles in hilly and mountainous areas. The developed robot was able to perform the grass cutting task as expected.


Assuntos
Robótica , Humanos , Poaceae , Locomoção , Água , Movimento (Física)
6.
Anim Sci J ; 94(1): e13803, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617421

RESUMO

The aim was to evaluate the effect of different rates of weight gain during the backgrounding on animal performance and carcass and meat characteristics of steers finished in feedlots. Thirty-six Angus steers, 12 ± 2 months of age, were backgrounded during 91 days on Aruana grass pasture (Panicum maximum cv. Aruana) managed under different stocking rates to achieve three different weight gains: HIGH ADG (average daily gain)-no feed restriction (ADG = 0.846 kg); MEDIUM ADG-moderate feed restriction (ADG = 0.456 kg); and LOW ADG-high feed restriction (ADG = 0.154 kg). To ensure the difference in ADG, we offered 0.7% live weight of concentrate feed in the HIGH treatment and a better forage supply in the MEDIUM treatment. After the backgrounding, the animals were finished in feedlot. There was no effect of the previous performance on the animals' performance in the feedlot. The LOW presented higher weight (218.9 vs. 207.9 kg) and hot (54.0% vs. 51.3%) and cold (53.5% vs. 50.5%) carcass yield than the MEDIUM, besides presenting meat with less cooking losses (15.0% vs. 18.2%), marbling (7 vs. 4.0 points), palatability (7.1 vs. 6.3 points), juiciness (7.2 vs. 6.4 points), tenderness (7.1 vs. 6.3 points), and lower shear force (5.78 vs. 8.75 kg) than HIGH. LOW ADG steers stay longer in the finishing phase but presented in general better quality carcass and meat than those with MEDIUM or HIGH during the backgrounding.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Poaceae , Culinária , Carne/análise , Aumento de Peso , Composição Corporal
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613182

RESUMO

Organic carbon (OC) plays a leading role in the carbon cycle of lakes and is crucial to carbon balances at regional and even global scales. In eutrophic lakes, in addition to external river inputs, the decomposition of endogenous grass and algae is a major source of organic carbon. Outbreaks of algal blooms (algal eutrophication) and the rapid growth of aquatic grasses (grass eutrophication) can lead to the accumulation and decay of large amounts of algae and aquatic grass debris, which increases the intensity of the carbon cycle of lakes and greatly impacts aquatic environments and ecosystems. The structures, decomposition processes, and distribution characteristics of algae and higher aquatic plant debris in eutrophic lakes are different from mesotrophic and oligotrophic lakes. Studying their accumulation dynamics and driving mechanisms is key to further understanding lake carbon cycles and their many interdependent pathways. This paper focuses on the carbon sources, tracing technologies, migration and transformation processes, and environmental effects of OC in eutrophic lakes. Based on the existing knowledge, we further combed the literature to identify the most important knowledge gaps preventing an in-depth understanding of the processes and driving mechanisms of the organic carbon cycle in eutrophic lakes.


Assuntos
Lagos , Traqueófitas , Lagos/química , Carbono , Ecossistema , Rios , Eutrofização , Poaceae , China , Monitoramento Ambiental
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679457

RESUMO

Nature reserves are among the most bio-diverse regions worldwide, and rapid and accurate identification is a requisite for their management. Based on the multi-temporal Sentinel-2 dataset, this study presents three multi-temporal modified vegetation indices (the multi-temporal modified normalized difference Quercus wutaishanica index (MTM-NDQI), the multi-temporal modified difference scrub grass index (MTM-DSI), and the multi-temporal modified ratio shaw index (MTM-RSI)) to improve the classification accuracy of the remote sensing of vegetation in the Lingkong Mountain Nature Reserve of China (LMNR). These three indices integrate the advantages of both the typical vegetation indices and the multi-temporal remote sensing data. By using the proposed indices with a uni-temporal modified vegetation index (the uni-temporal modified difference pine-oak mixed forest index (UTM-DMI)) and typical vegetation indices (e.g., the ratio vegetation index (RVI), the difference vegetation index (DVI), and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)), an optimal feature set is obtained that includes the NDVI of December, the NDVI of April, and the UTM-DMI, MTM-NDQI, MTM-DSI, and MTM-RSI. The overall accuracy (OA) of the random forest classification (98.41%) and Kappa coefficient of the optimal feature set (0.98) were higher than those of the time series NDVI (OA = 96.03%, Kappa = 0.95), the time series RVI (OA = 95.56%, Kappa = 0.95), and the time series DVI (OA = 91.27%, Kappa = 0.90). The OAs of the rapid classification and the Kappa coefficient of the knowledge decision tree based on the optimal feature set were 95.56% and 0.95, respectively. Meanwhile, only three of the seven vegetation types were omitted or misclassified slightly. Overall, the proposed vegetation indices have advantages in identifying the vegetation types in protected areas.


Assuntos
Poaceae , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , China , Monitoramento Ambiental
9.
Theor Appl Genet ; 136(1): 1-15, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658294

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A new functional Pm21 haplotype, Pm21(8#), was cloned from the new wheat-H. villosa translocation line T6VS(8#)·6DL, which confers the same strong resistance to powdery mildew through a different resistance mechanism. Broad-spectrum disease resistance genes are desirable in crop breeding for conferring stable, durable resistance in field production. Pm21(4#) is a gene introduced from wild Haynaldia villosa into wheat that confers broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew and has been widely used in wheat production for approximately 30 years. The discovery and transfer of new functional haplotypes of Pm21 into wheat will expand its genetic diversity in production and avoid the breakdown of resistance conferred by a single gene on a large scale. Pm21(4#) previously found from T6VS(4#)·6AL has been cloned. In this study, a new wheat-H. villosa translocation, T6VS(8#)·6DL, was identified. A new functional Pm21 haplotype, designated Pm21(8#), was cloned and characterized. The genomic structures and the splicing patterns of Pm21(4#) and Pm21(8#) were different, and widespread sequence diversity was observed in the gene coding region and the promoter region. In the field, Pm21(8#) conferred resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), similar to Pm21(4#), indicating that Pm21(8#) was also a resistance gene. However, Bgt development during the infection stage was obviously different between Pm21(4#)- and Pm21(8#)-containing materials under the microscopic observation. Pm21(4#) inhibited the formation of haustoria and the development of hyphae in the initial infection stage, while Pm21(8#) limited the growth of hyphae and inhibited the formation of conidiophores in the late infection stage. Therefore, Pm21(8#) is a new functional Pm21 haplotype that provides a new gene resource for wheat breeding.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Haplótipos , Poaceae/genética , Variação Genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280354, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689482

RESUMO

Phragmites australis (common reed) has a cosmopolitan distribution and has been suggested as a model organism for the study of invasive plant species. In North America, the non-native subspecies (ssp. australis) is widely distributed across the contiguous 48 states in the United States and large parts of Canada. Even though millions of dollars are spent annually on Phragmites management, insufficient knowledge of P. australis impeded the efficiency of management. To solve this problem, transcriptomic information generated from multiple types of tissue could be a valuable resource for future studies. Here, we constructed forty-nine P. australis transcriptomes assemblies via different assembly tools and multiple parameter settings. The optimal transcriptome assembly for functional annotation and downstream analyses was selected among these transcriptome assemblies by comprehensive assessments. For a total of 422,589 transcripts assembled in this transcriptome assembly, 319,046 transcripts (75.5%) have at least one functional annotation. Within the transcriptome assembly, we further identified 1,495 transcripts showing tissue-specific expression pattern, 10,828 putative transcription factors, and 72,165 candidates for simple sequence repeats markers. The identification and analyses of predicted transcripts related to herbicide- and salinity-resistant genes were shown as two applications of the transcriptomic information to facilitate further research on P. australis. Transcriptome assembly and selection would be important for the transcriptome annotation. With this optimal transcriptome assembly and all relative information from downstream analyses, we have helped to establish foundations for future studies on the mechanisms underlying the invasiveness of non-native P. australis subspecies.


Assuntos
Poaceae , Transcriptoma , Poaceae/genética , Plantas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , América do Norte
11.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278834, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689494

RESUMO

The essential oil (EO) of plants of the Poaceae family has diverse chemical constituents with several biological properties. But, data on the chemical constituents and toxicity are still unavailable for some species belonging to this family, such as Euclasta condylotricha Steud (Eu. condylotricha). In this study, the chemical composition of the EOs of Eu. condylotricha flowers was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EOs larvicidal property was assessed against third instar larvae of three Anopheles gambiae laboratory strains (Kisumu, Acerkis and Kiskdr) according to the WHO standard protocol. The percentage yields of the EOs obtained from hydro distillation of Eu. condylotricha flowers varied 0.070 to 0.097%. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) applied to the EOs revealed fifty-five (55) chemical constituents, representing 94.95% to 97.78% of the total essential oils. Although different chemical profiles of the dominant terpenes were observed for each sample, EOs were generally dominated by sesquiterpenoids with juvenile hormones as the major compounds. The primary compounds were juvenile hormone C16 (JH III) (35.97-48.72%), Methyl farnesoate 10,11-diol (18.56-28.73%), tau-Cadinol (18.54%), and ß-Eudesmene (12.75-13.46%). Eu. condylotricha EOs showed a strong larvicidal activity with LC50 values ranging from 35.21 to 52.34 ppm after 24 hours of exposition. This study showed that Eu. Condylotricha flowers essential oils are potent sources of juvenile hormones that could be a promising tool for developing an eco-friendly malaria vector control strategy.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Inseticidas , Malária , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/química , Hormônios Juvenis , Inseticidas/química , Mosquitos Vetores , Folhas de Planta/química , Larva , Flores , Poaceae
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674780

RESUMO

Low temperature is an important limiting factor in the environment that affects the distribution, growth and development of warm-season grasses. Transcriptome sequencing has been widely used to mine candidate genes under low-temperature stress and other abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanism of centipedegrass in response to low-temperature stress was rarely reported. To understand the molecular mechanism of centipedegrass in response to low-temperature stress, we measured physiological indicators and sequenced the transcriptome of centipedegrass under different stress durations. Under cold stress, the SS content and APX activity of centipedegrass increased while the SOD activity decreased; the CAT activity, POD activity and flavonoid content first increased and then decreased; and the GSH-Px activity first decreased and then increased. Using full-length transcriptome and second-generation sequencing, we obtained 38.76 G subreads. These reads were integrated into 177,178 isoforms, and 885 differentially expressed transcripts were obtained. The expression of AUX_IAA and WRKY transcription factors and HSF transcription-influencing factors increased during cold stress. Through KEGG enrichment analysis, we determined that arginine and proline metabolism, plant circadian rhythm, plant hormone signal transduction and the flavonoid biosynthesis pathways played important roles in the cold stress resistance of centipedegrass. In addition, by using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), we determined that the turquoise module was significantly correlated with SS content and APX activity, while the blue module was significantly negatively correlated with POD and CAT activity. This paper is the first to report the response of centipedegrass to cold stress at the transcriptome level. Our results help to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the cold tolerance of warm-season grasses.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Temperatura Baixa
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675124

RESUMO

The halophytic wild relatives within Triticeae might provide valuable sources of salt tolerance for wheat breeding, and attempts to use these sources of tolerance have been made for improving salt tolerance in wheat by distant hybridization. A novel wheat substitution line of K17-1078-3 was developed using common wheat varieties of Chuannong16 (CN16), Zhengmai9023 (ZM9023), and partial amphidiploid Trititrigia8801 (8801) as parents, and identified as the 3E(3D) substitution line. The substitution line was compared with their parents for salt tolerance in hydroponic culture to assess their growth. The results showed that less Na+ accumulation and lower Na+/K+ ratio in both shoots and roots were achieved in K17-1078-3 under salinity compared to its wheat parents. The root growth and development of K17-1078-3 was less responsive to salinity. When exposed to high salt treatment, K17-1078-3 had a higher photosynthesis rate, more efficient water use efficiency, and greater antioxidant capacity and stronger osmotic adjustment ability than its wheat parents. In conclusion, a variety of physiological responses and root system adaptations were involved in enhancing salt tolerance in K17-1078-3, which indicated that chromosome 3E possessed the salt tolerance locus. It is possible to increase substantially the salt tolerance of wheat by the introduction of chromosome 3E into wheat genetic background.


Assuntos
Plântula , Triticum , Plântula/genética , Tetraploidia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Poaceae/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética
14.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 55, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36717785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tripsacum dactyloides (2n = 4x = 72) and Zea perennis (2n = 4x = 40) are tertiary gene pools of Zea mays L. and exhibit many abiotic adaptations absent in modern maize, especially salt tolerance. A previously reported allopolyploid (hereafter referred to as MTP, 2n = 74) synthesized using Zea mays, Tripsacum dactyloides, and Zea perennis has even stronger salt tolerance than Z. perennis and T. dactyloides. This allopolyploid will be a powerful genetic bridge for the genetic improvement of maize. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its salt tolerance, as well as the key genes involved in regulating its salt tolerance, remain unclear. RESULTS: Single-molecule real-time sequencing and RNA sequencing were used to identify the genes involved in salt tolerance and reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. Based on the SMRT-seq results, we obtained 227,375 reference unigenes with an average length of 2300 bp; most of the unigenes were annotated to Z. mays sequences (76.5%) in the NR database. Moreover, a total of 484 and 1053 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the leaves and roots, respectively. Functional enrichment analysis of DEGs revealed that multiple pathways responded to salt stress, including "Flavonoid biosynthesis," "Oxidoreductase activity," and "Plant hormone signal transduction" in the leaves and roots, and "Iron ion binding," "Acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity," and "Serine-type carboxypeptidase activity" in the roots. Transcription factors, such as those in the WRKY, B3-ARF, and bHLH families, and cytokinin negatively regulators negatively regulated the salt stress response. According to the results of the short time series-expression miner analysis, proteins involved in "Spliceosome" and "MAPK signal pathway" dynamically responded to salt stress as salinity changed. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that heat shock proteins play a role in the large interaction network regulating salt tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of MTP in the response to salt stress and abundant salt-tolerance-related unigenes. These findings will aid the retrieval of lost alleles in modern maize and provide a new approach for using T. dactyloides and Z. perennis to improve maize.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Sal , Zea mays , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Poaceae/genética , Poliploidia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Zea mays/metabolismo
15.
Animal ; 17(1): 100683, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610084

RESUMO

The content, composition and variation of vitamin compounds in goat milk have been little studied. An experimental design was based on 28 commercial farms, selected considering the main feeding system (based on main forage and especially pasture access), goat breed (Alpine vs Saanen) and reproductive management (seasonal reproduction), in the main French goat milk production area. Each farm received two visits (spring and autumn) that included a survey on milk production conditions and bulk milk sampling. Milk vitamins (A, E, B2, B6, B9, B12) and carotenoid concentrations plus colour indices were evaluated. A stepwise approach determined the variables of milk production conditions that significantly altered milk indicators. The main forage in the diet was the major factor altering goat milk vitamin and carotenoid concentrations and colour indices. Bulk milk from goats eating fresh grass as forage was richer in α-tocopherol (+64%), pyridoxal (+35%) and total vitamin B6 (+31%), and b* index (characterising milk yellowness in the CIELAB colour space) was also higher (+12%) than in milk from goats eating conserved forages. In milk from goats eating fresh grass, concentrations of pyridoxamine, lutein and total carotenoids were higher than in milk of goats fed corn silage (+24, +118 and +101%, respectively), and retinol and α-tocopherol concentrations were higher than in milk of goats fed partially dehydrated grass (+45 and +55%). Vitamin B2 concentration was higher in milk of goats eating fresh grass than in milk of goats fed hay or corn silage as forage (+10%). However, bulk milk when goats had access to fresh grass was significantly poorer in vitamin B12 than when fed corn silage (-46%) and in γ-tocopherol (-31%) than when fed conserved forage. Alpine goats produced milk with higher vitamin B2 and folate concentrations than Saanen goats (+18 and +14%, respectively). Additionally, the milk colour index that discriminates milks based on their yellow pigment contents was 7% higher in milk from Alpine than Saanen herds, but milk from Saanen goats was richer in lutein (+46%). Goat milks were richer in vitamins B2 and B12 and folates, but poorer in vitamin B6 in autumn than in spring (+12, +133, +15 and -13%, respectively). This work highlights that goat milk vitamin and carotenoid concentrations and colour indices vary mainly according to the main forage of the diet and secondly according to the breed and season.


Assuntos
Leite , Vitaminas , Feminino , Animais , Leite/química , Luteína/análise , alfa-Tocoferol , Lactação , Cor , Melhoramento Vegetal , Carotenoides/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Vitamina A , Poaceae , Zea mays , Ácido Fólico , Cabras
16.
J Environ Manage ; 330: 117185, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603271

RESUMO

The Cerrado region comprises the world's most biodiverse savanna and the largest cultivated pastures for cattle in Brazil. Forty percent of these pastures are unproductive or degraded, with bare soil and native vegetation increasingly replacing exotic forage grasses. This study sought to investigate the regeneration of native vegetation in the pastures of the Cerrado and to evaluate the contribution of biophysical, land management, and landscape attributes to this process. Across the Cerrado, we analyzed pasture plant communities and the attributes of pasture management intensification, fire events, landscape native vegetation cover, and climate and soil types of 93 active pastures and 15 abandoned pastures. For the abandoned pastures, time since abandonment was an additional variable. On actively cultivated pastures, savanna regeneration varied from 0 to 70%, with a diversity of herbs and woody species. Pasture management was the main predictor of savanna regeneration on cultivated pastures. On abandoned pastures, time since abandonment was the main predictor. Exotic grass cover had a strong negative relationship with savanna regeneration and they were present even in pastures abandoned for 44 years. Our study reveals the potential of natural regeneration of the Cerrado and its particular predictors. The occurrence of pastures with high natural regeneration indicates that national policies can promote native vegetation restoration and silvopastoral systems with predictable, low cost implementation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Animais , Bovinos , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Solo , Poaceae , Brasil
17.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 19, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adaptations by arthropod pests to host plant defenses of crops determine their impacts on agricultural production. The larval host range of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is restricted to maize and a few grasses. Resistance of D. v. virgifera to crop rotation practices and multiple insecticides contributes to its status as the most damaging pest of cultivated maize in North America and Europe. The extent to which adaptations by this pest contributes to host plant specialization remains unknown. RESULTS: A 2.42 Gb draft D. v. virgifera genome, Dvir_v2.0, was assembled from short shotgun reads and scaffolded using long-insert mate-pair, transcriptome and linked read data. K-mer analysis predicted a repeat content of ≥ 61.5%. Ortholog assignments for Dvir_2.0 RefSeq models predict a greater number of species-specific gene duplications, including expansions in ATP binding cassette transporter and chemosensory gene families, than in other Coleoptera. A majority of annotated D. v. virgifera cytochrome P450s belong to CYP4, 6, and 9 clades. A total of 5,404 transcripts were differentially-expressed between D. v. virgifera larvae fed maize roots compared to alternative host (Miscanthus), a marginal host (Panicum virgatum), a poor host (Sorghum bicolor) and starvation treatments; Among differentially-expressed transcripts, 1,908 were shared across treatments and the least number were between Miscanthus compared to maize. Differentially-expressed transcripts were enriched for putative spliceosome, proteosome, and intracellular transport functions. General stress pathway functions were unique and enriched among up-regulated transcripts in marginal host, poor host, and starvation responses compared to responses on primary (maize) and alternate hosts. CONCLUSIONS: Manual annotation of D. v. virgifera Dvir_2.0 RefSeq models predicted expansion of paralogs with gene families putatively involved in insecticide resistance and chemosensory perception. Our study also suggests that adaptations of D. v. virgifera larvae to feeding on an alternate host plant invoke fewer transcriptional changes compared to marginal or poor hosts. The shared up-regulation of stress response pathways between marginal host and poor host, and starvation treatments may reflect nutrient deprivation. This study provides insight into transcriptomic responses of larval feeding on different host plants and resources for genomic research on this economically significant pest of maize.


Assuntos
Besouros , Inseticidas , Animais , Zea mays/fisiologia , Besouros/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Endotoxinas
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 721, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639732

RESUMO

Increasing the use of cover crops (CCs) is a necessity in sustainable viticulture, although it might clash with possible excessive competition towards vines. Especially in a climate-change scenario, the latter feature should be minimized while maintaining ecosystem services. Aimed at identifying CCs for vineyard floor management, the trial characterized several species according to their evapotranspiration (ET) rates, root growth patterns, and soil aggregate stability potential. The study was performed in 2020 in Piacenza (Northern Italy) on 15 CC species grown in pots kept outdoor and classified as grasses (GR), legumes (LE) and creeping (CR). Together with bare soil (control), they were arranged in a complete randomized block design. CCs ET was assessed through a gravimetric method, starting before mowing and then repeated 2, 8, 17 and 25 days thereafter. Above-ground dry biomass (ADW), root length density (RLD), root dry weight (RDW) and root diameter class length (DCL) were measured, and mean weight diameter (MWD) was calculated within 0-20 cm depth. Before mowing, ET was the highest in LE (18.6 mm day-1) and the lowest in CR (8.1 mm day-1) the latter being even lower than the control (8.5 mm day-1). The high ET rates shown by LE were mainly related to very fast development after sowing, rather than to a higher transpiration per unit of leaf area. After mowing, the 15 species' ET reduction (%) plotted vs leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2) yielded a very close fit (R2 = 0.94), suggesting that (i) a linear decrease in water use is expected anytime starting with an initial LAI of 5-6, (ii) a saturation effect seems to be reached beyond this limit. Selection of cover crop species to be used in the vineyard was mainly based on diurnal and seasonal water use rates as well as dynamic and extent of root growth patterns. Among GR, Festuca ovina stood out as the one with the lowest ET due to its "dwarfing" characteristics, making it suitable for a permanent inter-row covering. CR species confirmed their potential for under-vine grassing, assuring rapid soil coverage, lowest ET rates, and shallow root colonization.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Água , Biomassa , Poaceae , Produtos Agrícolas , Verduras
19.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 771, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641496

RESUMO

The study aims to find the properties of three organic mulch varieties and their effects on soil moisture and crop growth. Three organic mulches: newspaper, grass, and bran were selected as the research objects, and were analyzed through double-ring infiltration and water loss tests so that water permeability and water-holding capacity of the three mulching materials could be figured out. The results showed the descending order of the three mulching treatments and non-treatment by the infiltration rate of the soil: newspaper > bare ground > grass > bran. In terms of the water-holding capacity, the three organic mulches can be ranked from high to low as newspaper, grass, and bran; by the cumulative water loss as newspaper, grass, and bran; and by water-retention capacity as bran, grass, and newspaper, respectively. By conducting regression analysis, it is found that the water-holding capacity of the mulches is related to water immersion time and the amount of water absorbed and that there is a significant logarithmic relationship between the amount of water loss and water losing time. The fitting results of the three mulches are good. Besides, a power-function relationship exists between water absorption rate and immersion time, and between water loss rate and water loss time. The water infiltration of the soil under the newspaper mulching treatment is the best, as the newspaper can help to improve soil moisture and weaken surface runoff under flood irrigation and heavy rain. Bran possesses the strongest capacity for water retention, which is beneficial to soil moisture retention in areas where sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation, and light to moderate rain prevail. The research results can provide a basis for improving the moisture-utilization efficiency in farmlands by using organic mulches.


Assuntos
Poaceae , Solo , Alimentos , Fazendas , Água , Agricultura/métodos
20.
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592745

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted over 2 yr to measure performance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of weaned calves from two cow-calf production systems. Crossbred steers and heifers (n = 270, initial body weight (BW) = 207 kg, SD = 35) were used in a randomized complete block design, with treatments applied to the cow-calf system. Treatments were: 1) a traditional system consisting of April to June calving with smooth bromegrass pasture and grazed corn residue as forage resources (TRAD); 2) an alternative system consisting of July to September calving utilizing partial-drylot feeding, summer-planted oats, and corn residue grazing (ALT). Calves from both production systems were weaned at the same age and grown (diet NEg = 1.05 Mcal kg-1) for approximately 117 d. The calves then transitioned to a high-grain finishing diet (year 1: NEg = 1.32 Mcal kg-1; year 2: NEg = 1.39 Mcal kg-1) and fed to a targeted 1.52 cm backfat. Growth performance in the grower phase resulted in greater (P < 0.01) average daily gain (1.39 vs. 1.22 ± 0.02 kg), greater gain:feed (P < 0.01; 0.157 vs. 0.137 ± 0.003) for ALT calves compared to TRAD calves, However, a lower initial BW (P < 0.01; 185 vs. 229 ± 4.9 kg) resulted in a lower ending BW (P < 0.01; 347 vs. 371 ± 2.9 kg) for ALT calves compared to TRAD calves in spite of improved growth performance. In the finisher phase, ALT calves gained less (1.52 vs. 1.81 ± 0.218 kg; P = 0.02), were less efficient (0.139 vs. 173 ± 0.0151; P = 0.01) but exhibited similar hot carcass weights (HCW) (388 vs. 381 ± 3.8 kg; P = 0.14) compared to TRAD calves. Each pen of calves was put into a large pen-scale chamber that continuously measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) for 5 d during the grower and finisher phases. The average CH4 and CO2 production per unit of feed intake was used to calculate total GHG emissions over the entire grower and finisher phase. Overall, there were no differences (P ≥ 0.17) between treatments for CH4 per day and per kilogram dry matter intake (DMI). However, ALT calves tended to produce less (P ≤ 0.10) CO2 per day and per kilogram DMI than TRAD calves. Overall, methane emissions were greater in ALT calves (110.7 vs. 92.2 ± 8.3 g CH4 kg-1 HCW; P = 0.04) than TRAD calves. The ALT calves required 27 additional days on feed to market, which resulted in more total CH4 per animal across the entire feeding period (P = 0.02) than TRAD calves. Production systems that reduce days to market to achieve similar HCW may reduce GHG emissions.


There are many reasons (i.e. drought, limited perennial forage, calving) for using intensive or partially intensive production practices (e.g. drylotting or confinement) in a cow-calf enterprise. These practices may impact subsequent calf growth and feedlot performance. In addition, limited data are available comparing the environmental impacts (i.e., greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions) from different cow-calf production systems. This experiment evaluated the effects of a partial-intensive cow-calf production system on post-weaning calf growth performance, carcass characteristics, and GHG emissions. Calves from the partial-intensive cow-calf system had improved growth compared to calves from the extensive cow-calf system during the grower phase. During finishing, calves from the partial-intensive cow-calf system had poorer growth performance resulting in calves from the partial-intensive cow-calf system requiring an additional 27 d on feed to reach finish as calves from the traditional cow-calf system. These differences are likely due to compensation from lower gain periods resulting in better gain in the subsequent growth period. Cow-calf production system did not alter methane and carbon dioxide emissions per kilogram of intake. However, because calves in the partial-intensive cow-calf system required additional days on feed, absolute methane and carbon dioxide emissions were greater per animal for the partial-intensive cow-calf system compared to the extensive cow-calf system suggesting that reducing days to market may reduce emissions from beef systems.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Metano , Bovinos , Animais , Feminino , Dióxido de Carbono , Poaceae , Ingestão de Alimentos , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...