Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.756
Filtrar
1.
Epidemiology ; 34(2): 167-174, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722798

RESUMO

Difference-in-differences (DID) analyses are used in a variety of research areas as a strategy for estimating the causal effect of a policy, program, intervention, or environmental hazard (hereafter, treatment). The approach offers a strategy for estimating the causal effect of a treatment using observational (i.e., nonrandomized) data in which outcomes on each study unit have been measured both before and after treatment. To identify a causal effect, a DID analysis relies on an assumption that confounding of the treatment effect in the pretreatment period is equivalent to confounding of the treatment effect in the post treatment period. We propose an alternative approach that can yield identification of causal effects under different identifying conditions than those usually required for DID. The proposed approach, which we refer to as generalized DID, has the potential to be used in routine policy evaluation across many disciplines, as it essentially combines two popular quasiexperimental designs, leveraging their strengths while relaxing their usual assumptions. We provide a formal description of the conditions for identification of causal effects, illustrate the method using simulations, and provide an empirical example based on Card and Krueger's landmark study of the impact of an increase in minimum wage in New Jersey on employment.


Assuntos
Emprego , Renda , Humanos , New Jersey , Políticas
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 104, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abortion-related complications contribute to preventable maternal mortality, accounting for 9.8% of maternal deaths globally, and 15.6% in sub-Saharan Africa. High-quality postabortion care (PAC) can mitigate the negative health outcomes associated with unsafe abortion. While the expanded Global Gag Rule policy did not prohibit the provision of PAC, other research has suggested that over-implementation of the policy has resulted in impacts on these services. The purpose of this study was to assess health facilities' capacity to provide PAC services in Uganda and PAC and safe abortion care (SAC) in Ethiopia during the time in which the policy was in effect. METHODS: We collected abortion care data between 2018 and 2020 from public health facilities in Ethiopia (N = 282) and Uganda (N = 223). We adapted a signal functions approach to create composite indicators of health facilities' capacity to provide basic and comprehensive PAC and SAC and present descriptive statistics documenting the state of service provision both before and after the GGR went into effect. We also investigate trends in caseloads over the time-period. RESULTS: In both countries, service coverage was high and improved over time, but facilities' capacity to provide basic PAC services was low in Uganda (17.8% in 2019) and Ethiopia (15.0% in 2020). The number of PAC cases increased by 15.5% over time in Uganda and decreased by 7% in Ethiopia. Basic SAC capacity increased substantially in Ethiopia from 66.7 to 82.8% overall, due in part to an increase in the provision of medication abortion, and the number of safe abortions increased in Ethiopia by 9.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this analysis suggest that public health systems in both Ethiopia and Uganda were able to maintain essential PAC/SAC services during the GGR period. In Ethiopia, there were improvements in the availability of safe abortion services and an overall improvement in the safety of abortion during this time-period. Despite loss of partnerships and potential disruptions in referral chains, lower-level facilities were able to expand their capacity to provide PAC services. However, PAC caseloads increased in Uganda which could indicate that, as hypothesized, abortion became more stigmatized, less accessible and less safe.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Assistência ao Convalescente , Estados Unidos , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Etiópia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Políticas
3.
Public Health ; 215: 124-130, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarise the evidence on the impacts of gambling-related advertising that could lead to gambling-related harm, including impacts on vulnerable individuals and inequalities in the distribution of harms. STUDY DESIGN: An umbrella review of studies investigating the impact of gambling advertising. METHODS: A review was undertaken of systematic reviews of qualitative, quantitative and mixed method studies reporting outcomes associated with gambling advertising and marketing. The search strategy included database searches (Web of Science, PsycInfo) and website searches. The quality of the included reviews was determined using A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews 2. RESULTS: 1024 papers were identified by database searches. Eight systematic reviews, including 74 unique studies, met inclusion criteria. Included studies, using quantitative and qualitative methods, consistently support the existence of a causal relationship between exposure to advertising of gambling products/brands and more positive attitudes to gambling, greater intentions to gamble and increased gambling activity at both individual and population level. There is evidence of a 'dose-response' effect; greater advertising exposure increases participation which leads to a greater risk of harm. There was more evidence for the impact on children and young people and for those already at risk from current gambling activity with those most vulnerable more likely to be influenced. CONCLUSION: Gambling advertising restrictions could reduce overall harm and mitigate the impact of advertising on gambling-related inequalities. Public health harm prevention strategies should include policies which limit exposure to advertising, particularly among children and vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Jogo de Azar , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Jogo de Azar/prevenção & controle , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Marketing , Políticas
4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 207(3): 244-254, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722719

RESUMO

Background: Positive airway pressure (PAP) is a highly effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but adherence limits its efficacy. In addition, coverage of PAP by CMS (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) and other insurers in the United States depends on adherence. This leaves many beneficiaries without PAP, disproportionally impacting non-white and low socioeconomic position patients with OSA and exacerbating sleep health disparities. Methods: An inter-professional, multidisciplinary, international committee with various stakeholders was formed. Three working groups (the historical policy origins, impact of current policy, and international PAP coverage models) met and performed literature reviews and discussions. Using surveys and an iterative discussion-based consensus process, the policy statement recommendations were created. Results: In this position paper, we advocate for policy change to CMS PAP coverage requirements to reduce inequities and align with patient-centered goals. We specifically call for eradicating repeat polysomnography, eliminating the 4-hour rule, and focusing on patient-oriented outcomes such as improved sleepiness and sleep quality. Conclusions: Modifications to the current policies for PAP insurance coverage could improve health disparities.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Idoso , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Medicare , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Sono , Políticas
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673676

RESUMO

This paper investigates how local governments coordinate the relationship between economic growth targets (EGT) and environmental protection targets (EPT) and the impact of such coordination on firm's environmental performance. Using the pollution emission data of China's industrial firms covering 2003 to 2013, we show that firms in the cities where officials are setting overweighted economic growth targets have more sulfur dioxide intensity, while the central government's hard constraints on EPT included in the official performance evaluation system could partially mitigate the environmental externality of the economic growth target. Further, we find that overweighted EGT significantly decreases firms' desulfurization facilities, capacity, and ratio, while the hard constraint of EPT helps mitigate this negative relationship. We also find that the positive relationship between overweight EGT and firm emissions is more pronounced in the dirty industry, while the hard constraint of EPT helps to mitigate this relationship. The above results help to identify an underlying mechanism of environmental regulation. Finally, we show that converting the hard constraints of environmental protection targets to self-constraint by local government officials could reverse the environmental externality of the economic growth target.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Poluição Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Políticas , China
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673700

RESUMO

The global outbreak of COVID-19 has been wreaking havoc on all aspects of human societies. In addition to pharmaceutical interventions, non-pharmaceutical intervention policies have been proven to be crucial in slowing down the spread of the virus and reducing the impact of the outbreak on economic development, daily life, and social stability. However, no studies have focused on which non-pharmaceutical intervention policies are more effective; this is the focus of our study. We used data samples from 102 countries and regions around the world and selected seven categories of related policies, including work and school suspensions, assembly restrictions, movement restrictions, home isolation, international population movement restrictions, income subsidies, and testing and screening as the condition variables. A susceptible-exposed-infected-quarantined-recovered (SEIQR) model considering non-pharmaceutical intervention policies and latency with infectiousness was constructed to calculate the epidemic transmission rate as the outcome variable, and a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) method was applied to explore the multiple concurrent causal relationships and multiple governance paths of non-pharmaceutical intervention policies for epidemics from the configuration perspective. We found a total of four non-pharmaceutical intervention policy pathways. Among them, L1 was highly suppressive, L2 was moderately suppressive, and L3 was externally suppressive. The results also showed that individual non-pharmaceutical intervention policy could not effectively suppress the spread of the pandemic. Moreover, three specific non-pharmaceutical intervention policies, including work stoppage and school closure, testing and screening, and economic subsidies, had a universal effect in the policies grouping for effective control of the pandemic transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Quarentena , Políticas
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673716

RESUMO

While information infrastructure has remarkably boosted global economic prosperity in the last several decades, how it propels low-carbon development has failed to draw enough attention. Based on panel data from 284 cities in China from 2006 to 2019, this study used the "Broadband China" pilot policy as an exogenous event to examine the impact of information infrastructure on carbon emission intensity. We found the following: (1) The "Broadband China" pilot policy significantly reduced carbon emission intensity, which held true in a series of robustness tests. (2) Promoting the development of the service sector, encouraging innovation activities, and fostering low-carbon lifestyles are the influential mechanisms by which information infrastructure reduced carbon emission intensity. (3) The population size, administration rank, marketization, industrialization, and informatization base significantly strengthened the reduction effect of information infrastructure on carbon emission intensity, while the disparity in human capital does not cause an evident difference. This paper's findings reveal a counting path through which improving information infrastructure advances low-carbon and sustainable growth.


Assuntos
Carbono , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Humanos , Carbono/análise , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Políticas , Dióxido de Carbono/análise
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673777

RESUMO

In recent years, patients with chronic diseases have shown a younger trend due to physical inactivity and irregular lifestyles. Accordingly, the Chinese government has implemented the "National Fitness Program", which aims to enhance people's health by popularizing exercise and a healthy lifestyle. However, women are less physically active than men, and how to appeal to women to devote themselves to fitness activities has become a social concern. Based on the expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study explores the impact of the perceived policy effectiveness and health awareness on physical activity among working women. This study adopted a repeated cross-sectional study method, and each respondent was asked to complete a two-stage survey. The structural model of the extended TPB was tested using sample data from 376 working women in Changsha, China. The results show that perceived policy effectiveness and health awareness positively affect actual behavioral control and implementation intention. Among them, perceived policy effectiveness has the most significant impact on implementation intention, followed by health awareness. Furthermore, actual behavioral control and implementation intention mediate the relationship between perceived policy effectiveness/health awareness and physical activity. The findings suggest that to promote physical activity among working women, the Chinese government should deepen the implementation of the "National Fitness Program" and raise the public's health awareness.


Assuntos
Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Intenção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Políticas
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673805

RESUMO

With the increase in global environmental pollution, it is important to understand the concentration characteristics and correlations with other pollutants of atmospheric particulate matter as affected by relevant policies. The data presented in this paper were obtained at monitoring stations in Xi'an, China, in the years from 2016 to 2020, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the mass and quantity concentrations of particulate matter in the atmosphere, as well as its correlation with other pollutants, were analyzed in depth. The results showed that the annual average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 decreased year by year from 2016 to 2020. The annual concentrations of PM2.5 decreased by 20.3 µg/m3, and the annual concentrations of PM10 decreased by 47.3 µg/m3. The days with concentrations of PM10 exceeding the standards decreased by 82 days, with a decrease of 66.7%. The days with concentrations of PM2.5 exceeding the standards decreased by 40 days, with a decrease of 35.4%. The concentration values of PM10 and PM2.5 were roughly consistent with the monthly and daily trends. The change in monthly concentrations was U-shaped, and the change in daily concentrations showed a double-peak behavior. The highest concentrations of particulate matter appeared at about 8:00~9:00 am and 11:00 pm, and they were greatly affected by human activity. The proportion of particles of 0~1.0 µm decreased by 1.94%, and the proportion of particles of 0~2.5 µm decreased by 2.00% from 2016 to 2020. A multivariate linear regression model to calculate the concentrations of the pollutants was established. This study provides a reference for the comprehensive analysis and control of air pollutants in Xi'an and even worldwide.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Políticas
10.
Am J Public Health ; 113(2): 202-212, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652652

RESUMO

Objectives. To longitudinally examine the legal landscape of laws requiring abortion patients be informed about the possibility of medication abortion (MAB) "reversal" (in quotes as it does not refer to an evidence-based medical procedure). Methods. We collected legal data on enacted state MAB-reversal laws across all 50 US states and Washington, DC, (collectively, states) from 2012 through 2021. We descriptively analyzed these laws to identify legal variation over time and geography, and conducted a content analysis to identify qualitative themes and patterns in MAB-reversal laws. Results. As of 2021, 14 states (27%)-mostly in the midwestern and southern United States-have enacted MAB-reversal laws. States largely use explicit language to describe reversal, require patients receive information during preabortion counseling, require physicians or physicians' agents to inform patients, instruct patients to contact a health care provider or visit "abortion pill reversal" resources for more information, and require reversal information be posted on state-managed Web sites. Conclusions. Reversal laws continue a dangerous precedent of using unsound science to justify laws regulating abortion access, intrude upon the patient‒provider relationship, and may negatively affect the emotional and physical health of patients seeking an MAB. (Am J Public Health. 2023;113(2):202-212. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307140).


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Legal , Gravidez , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Aconselhamento , Pessoal de Saúde , Políticas
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674286

RESUMO

(1) Background: Maxillofacial injury (MI) occurs universally, for it disregards preference for age, gender, and geographical region. The global incidence and prevalence of facial fractures rose by 39.45% and 54.39%, respectively, between the years 1990 to 2017. Projections indicate that the burden of injuries will persist in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in the next twenty years. This scoping review aims to map the literature on MI epidemiology and the economic burden on society in SSA. (2) Methods: The methodology presented by Arksey and O'Malley and extended by Levac and colleagues will be employed in the scoping review. The researcher will report the proposed review through the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR). The review will include studies encompassing MI in sub-Saharan African adults 18 years and above. (3) Results: This will be presented as a thematic analysis of the data extracted from the included studies, and the Nvivo version 12 will be employed. (4) Discussion: We anticipate searching for related literature on the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, mortality, and cost associated with MI in the adult population of SSA. The conclusion from the review will assist in ascertaining research gaps, informing policy, planning, authorizing upcoming research, and prioritizing funding for injury prevention and management.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Maxilofaciais , Adulto , Humanos , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Incidência , Políticas , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Traumatismos Maxilofaciais/economia , Traumatismos Maxilofaciais/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo
12.
Obstet Gynecol ; 141(1): 15-21, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701606

RESUMO

The U.S. Supreme Court's 2022 ruling in Dobbs v Jackson Women's Health Organization held that the U.S. Constitution does not confer the right to an abortion, which set into motion an overhaul of reproductive health care services in certain states. Health care professionals are now operating within a rapidly changing landscape of clinical practice in which they may experience conflict between personal and professional morals (eg, bodily autonomy, patient advocacy), uncertainty regarding allowable practices, and fear of prosecution (eg, loss of medical license) related to reproductive health care services. The ethical dilemmas stemming from Dobbs create a context for exposure to potentially morally injurious events, moral distress, and moral injury (ie, functional impairment stemming from exposure to moral violations) among health care professionals. Considerations related to clinical intervention and approaches to policy are reviewed. Early identification of health care professionals' potentially morally injurious event exposure related to restricted reproductive services is critical for preventing and intervening on moral injury, with implications for improving functioning and retention within the medical field.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Princípios Morais , Políticas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Saúde da Mulher
13.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 24(1): 307-312, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the expectations, requirements, and recommendations and identifies the socio-ecological determinants for the informed uptake of screening mammography amongst expatriate women residing in the UAE. METHODOLOGY: A qualitative research approach was adopted using five focus group discussions. The study comprised two populations- those who had undergone screening mammography and those who had not. Thematic analysis- the six-phase model was adopted and modified for data analysis. RESULTS: The factors that influence the rate of uptake of screening mammography by the participants were multifactorial and reciprocal. The community determinants identified are cultural beliefs, medical professionals, breast cancer survivors, community organizations, and media. The health policies in an expatriate's home country and adopted country were found to have a considerable influence on the health behaviors of the participants. A comprehensive approach to change in health behavior is required to increase the informed uptake of screening mammography by expatriate women residing in the UAE. CONCLUSION: The study identified the need of developing migrant health units with community navigators, international health collaboration, migrant health directory, risk assessment team, automatic invitation system for screening, referral system, migrant cancer registry, and psychological support team in UAE. However, further studies are expected to give a wider perspective.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mamografia , Humanos , Feminino , Mamografia/psicologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Políticas
15.
Obstet Gynecol ; 141(2): e427-e433, 2023 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657152

RESUMO

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the health and well-being of all who seek obstetric and gynecologic care and advocates to secure quality health care for all, without regard to immigration status. Policies that infringe on the health and rights of immigrants and limit access to health care, anti-immigrant rhetoric, and punitive immigration-enforcement activities all have detrimental effects on health. Depending on individual circumstances, immigrants may have unique health needs, such as injuries sustained in the process of immigrating or in the workplace, exposure to communicable diseases, exposure to toxins in the workplace, and advanced presentation of disease due to barriers to obtaining health care, among others.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Emigração e Imigração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Políticas
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673993

RESUMO

Urban innovation has always been a research topic of scholars, but research focusing on the relationship between innovative city pilot policy and regional innovation is still relatively rare. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of the pilot policy on urban innovation convergence based on panel data in China from 2003 to 2016. The difference-in-differences (DID) method was used. First, we find that the pilot policy not only improves the innovation level of cities (basic effect) but also promotes innovation convergence among pilot cities (convergence effect). The convergence of scientific and technological personnel and financial technology investment are potential impact mechanisms. Second, compared with the basic effect, the convergence effect of the pilot policy has a time lag of three to five years. Regarding spatial spillover, the policy convergence effect is slightly smaller than the basic effect radius (although not robust). Finally, while the spillover effect caused by policy increases the innovation growth rate of surrounding cities more significantly, the basic and convergence effects are not significant in the western region. The results reveal the positive impact of the pilot policy on narrowing urban innovation gaps and highlight the risk of further marginalization of some cities. These findings contribute to accurately evaluating the regional innovation differences and provide an important policy implication for development strategy.


Assuntos
Cidades , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Políticas
19.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 19: 17455057231151838, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36718116

RESUMO

In Canada, a Four-Part Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Prevention has been developed that describes a continuum of multi-sectoral efforts, including broad awareness campaigns, safe and respectful conversations around pregnancy and alcohol use, and holistic and wraparound support services for pregnant and postpartum women with alcohol, and other health and social concerns. Supportive alcohol policy is at the centre of the four mutually reinforcing levels of prevention. The purpose of this narrative review is to describe alcohol policies related to specific levels of FASD prevention, and to consider the implications of alcohol policies on FASD prevention and women's and fetal health. The majority of the evidence focused on alcohol in pregnancy guidelines, alcohol warning labels, and knowledge and uptake of national or regional alcohol and pregnancy guidelines. Several US studies described shifts in alcohol and pregnancy policy over the 7-year period, including moves to punitive approaches that criminalize women's substance use or prompt child apprehension. This review indicates that more attention could be paid to the role of alcohol policy in FASD prevention and in promoting women's and fetal health, and that policy actions and advocacy could be important catalysts for both FASD prevention and women's health promotion. Moving forward, it is essential that alcohol policies are rooted in evidence; attend to and promote women's health including health during pregnancy; and are collaborative in order to prompt a higher standard of care, and more holistically respond to the factors that contribute to women's alcohol use during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Etanol , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/prevenção & controle , Políticas , Saúde da Mulher
20.
Regen Med ; 18(2): 155-168, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601984

RESUMO

Researchers can now coax human pluripotent stem cells to imitate the structure and spontaneous self-organization of the developing human embryo. Although these stem cell-based embryo models present an advantageous alternative to embryo research, they also raise ethical and policy challenges. In 2021, the International Society for Stem Cell Research revised its Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation, providing contemporaneous best practices for ethical conduct in the field. The Guidelines complement national governance frameworks; however, they also contain contentious and aspirational norms that might catalyze change in research practice and in the enactment of national policies. Using a sample of 11 research-intensive countries, the authors compare research policy frameworks against the International Society for Stem Cell Research Guidelines to showcase how developments in global and national policies might affect stem cell-based embryo model research governance and illustrate fertile areas for ethical reflection and policy development.


Following scientific advances, researchers can induce stem cells to model the development of the human embryo with increasing accuracy. The International Society for Stem Cell Research Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation provide contemporary standards for research on so-called stem cell-based embryo models (SCB-EMs). However, because SCB-EMs are not mentioned in national policies and do not fit neatly into existing regulatory categories, it is unclear how countries intend to regulate them. In this article, the authors compare policy frameworks in 11 research-intensive countries to analyze how the influential Guidelines both complement and catalyze change in national policies. The Guidelines provide specific instructions for assessing and monitoring different kinds of SCB-EM research proposals, serving as a useful reference to bolster open-ended national policy requirements. However, in some areas the Guidelines appear to conflict with national policies governing stem cell and embryo research, reflecting divergent priorities and ethical assessments. Without policy review to address regulatory and ethical uncertainty, researchers may default to adherence to the Guidelines, a global standard that does not necessarily reflect local historic, legal and cultural influences. Evidence from France and Israel indicates that comprehensive legislative review is both useful and can proceed without eroding compromises designed to uphold plural beliefs regarding the moral status of the human embryo. As exemplified in countries such France and Israel, mandated legislative review processes are useful tools that can be deployed in manner that upholds pluralistic beliefs regarding the human embryo's moral status. They can serve as a pathway to re-engage the public and ensure diverse viewpoints are reflected in governance of SCB-EM research, ultimately facilitating public trust in science.


Assuntos
Pesquisas com Embriões , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , Humanos , Políticas , Pesquisa com Células-Tronco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...